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“As we have received mercy we faint not, but have RENOUNCED
the hidden things of dishonesty, not walking in craftiness, nor hand-
ling the word of God deceitfully; but by manifestation of the truth,
commending ourselves untó every man's conscience in the sight
of God."

II. Corinthians iv. 1, 2.

PUBLISHED BY O. SPAFFORD,

ERIE, PA.
PRINTED BY JOSEPH M. STERRETT."

1884.

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IESTERN DISTRICT OF PENNSYLVANIA, to uit :

BE IT REMEMBERED, that on the thirtieth day of January, Anno Domini, 1834, OLIVER SPAFFORD, of the said District, bath deposited in this Office the title of a Book, the title of which is in the words following, to wit:

"A Defence, containing 1st. The author's renunciation of Universalism, explained and enlarged; 2d. The notices and aspersions of Universalist Editors, answered and repelled ; 3d. The fundamental arguments and principles of Universalists, examined, and exploded, and 4th. Religion and revelation vindicated, against skepticism and infidelity. By Lewis C. Todd. As we have received mercy we faint not, but have renounced the hidden things of dishonesty, not walking in craftiness, nor handling the word of God deceitfully; but by manifestation of the truth, commending ourselves to every man's conscience in the sight of God.”.-I. Cor. iv. 1-2.

The right whereof he claims as Proprietor, in conformity with an act of Congress, entitled "An act to amend the several acts respecting copy-rights."

E.J. ROBERTS, Clerk of the ilestern District of Pennsylvania.

Harik, 1877.

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yim , "At turiy, man suspects himself a fool,, ,

* .- Kijows it at forty, and reforms his plan." --Young,

Good reader, in Chapter 1. of this book, you will find a * Renunciation of Universalism," made in the spring of 1933, with some notes now appeniled, in consequence of the attacks of universalists. Upon reflection and observation, I became convinced that there we some people so good that they need no penal restraints ; but that there'are inany others so bad that nothing but fear of penal sufferings will restrain them; and indeed some too bad to be restrained by any thing. Such I learned to be the melancholy but true picture of human' dature. And as such I became satisfied, that universalism possessed not cnough of terrour to restrain the corrupt part of mankind from crime.

True, the terrours of hell, or gehenna, have not restrained 'all the wicked; but they have co-operateri inuch with human laws to secure the peace of society. With these views, I 'reviewed the question in the light of 'scripture ; and became convinced, that universalisın is not the doctrine of Christ and the apostles.' llence I'conceived it my duty 10 rencunce that doctrine. But baving strong feelings of aflection toward many universalists, I concluded to do it in linguage of kindness. And as I was heartily tired of thcological controversy, I tried to avoid any appearance of hosțile intentions toward them; and admitted much in fivyour of their morality, while I said not a word or syllable, in the Renunciation, against the inorality of any of them.' Yet I suggested, that the doctrine did not operate as a'restraint on the vicious so as to reform them. This I had fondly hoped would render any personal attack from them unnecessary. But very soon universalist papers began their attacks upon me and my motives, from the banks of the Mississippi to the coasts of Maine! But these men had always represented themselves, as distinguished from all other' sects in the world, as a non-persecuting, charitable, benevolent, peaceable people ; of course they must have an excuse for lisregarding the solemn truths of the Reniunciation; and waging a personal war with its author.. They therefore accused me of persecutiog thein-of slandering them of calling them all immoral, &c.! llad they attacked only the positions of the Renuaciation, instead of sne, this book would never have boen written. I intended to bave nothing farther to do with universalism ; bur found

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