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types ; and the redemption out of Egypt was the greatest of the providential types; and David the greatest of the person
Hence Christ is often called David in the prophecies of scripture; as Ezek. xxxiv. 23, 24. 6 And I will set up one shepherd over them, and he shall feed them, even my servant David :.....My servant David a prince among them;" and so in many other places : And he is very often spoken of as the seed of David, and the son of David.
David being the ancestor and great type of Christ, his being solemnly anointed by God to be king over his people, that the kingdom of his church might be continued in his family forever, may in some respects be looked on as an anointing of Christ himself. Christ was as it were anointed in him ; and therefore Christ's anointing, and David's anointing are spoken of under one in scripture, as Psal. Ixxxix. 20. “I have found David my servant; with my holy oil have I anointed him.” And David's throne and Christ's are spoken of as one ; Luke i. 32. “ And the Lord shall give him the throne of his father David.” Acts ii. 30. « David....knowing that God had sworn with an oath to him, that of the fruit of his loins, according to the flesh, he would raise up Christ to sit on his throne."
Thus God's beginning of the kingdom of his church in the house of David, was, as it were, a new establishing of the kingdom of Christ ; the beginning of it in a state of such visibility as it thenceforward continued in. It was as it were God's planting the root, whence that branch of righteousness was afterwards to spring up, that was to be the everlasting king of his church ; and therefore this everlasting king is called the branch from the stem of Jesse. Isa. xi. 1.“ And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a branch shall grow out of his roots.” Jer. xxiii. 5. “ Behold the days come, saith the Lord, that I will raise up unto David a righteous branch, and a king shall reign and prosper." So chap. xxxiii. 15. “ In those days and at that time, I will cause the branch of righteousness to grow up unto David, and he shall execute judgment and righteousness in the land.” So Christ in the New Testament, is called the root and offspring of Da. vid. Rey. xxii. 16.
It is observable, that God anointed David after Saul to reign in his room. He took away the crown from him and his family, who was higher in stature than any of his people, and was in their eyes fittest to bear rule, to give it to David, who was low of stature, and in comparison, of despicable appearance : So God was pleased to show how Christ, who appeared despicable, without form or comeliness, and was despised and rejected of men, should take the kingdom from the great ones of the earth. And also it is observable, that David was the youngest of Jesse's sons, as Jacob the
brother supplanted Esau, and got the birthright and blessing from him : And as Pharez, another of Christ's ancestors, supplanted Zarah in the birth ; and as Isaac, another of the ancestors of Christ, cast out his elder brother Ishmael ; thus was that frequent saying of Christ fulfilled, “ The last shall be first and the first last.”
II. The next thing I would observe, is God's so preserving David's life, by a series of wonderful providences, till Saul's death. I before took notice of the wonderful preservation of other particular persons that were the ancestors of Christ; as Noah, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob ; and have observed how, in that Christ the great Redeemer was to proceed from them, that in their preservation the work of redemption itself may be looked upon as preserved from being defeated, and the whole church, which is redeemed through him, from being overthrown. But the preservation of David was no less remarkable than that of any others that have been already taken notice of. How often was it so, that there was but a step between him and death. The first instance of it we have in his encountering a lion and a bear, when they had caught a lamb out of his flock, which, without miraculous assistance, could at once have rent this young stripling in pieces, as they could the lamb that he delivered from them ; so afterwards the root and offspring of David was preserved from the roaring lion that goes about seeking whom he may devour, and conquered him and rescued the poor souls of men, that were as lambs in the mouth of this lion. Another remarkable instance was, in preserving him from that mighty giant Goliath, who was
strong enough to have taken him, and picked him to pieces with his fingers, and given his flesh to the beasts of the field, and to the fowls of the air, as he threatened him : But God preserved him from him, and gave him the victory over him, so that he cut off his head with his own sword, and made him therein the deliverer of his people ; as Christ slew the spiritual Goliath with his own weapon, the cross, and so delivered his people. And how remarkably did God preserve him from being slain by Saul, when he first sought his life, by giving him his daughter to be a snare to him, that the hand of the Philistines might be upon him, requiring him to pay for her by an hundred foreskins of the Philistines, that so his life might be exposed to them ; and in preserving him afterwards, when Saul spake to Jonathan, and to all his servants, to kill David ; and in inclining Jonathan, instead of killing him, as his father bade him, to love him as his own soul, and to be a great instrument of his preservation, even so as to expose his own life to preserve David ; though one would have thought that none would have been more willing to have David killed than Jonathan, seeing that he was competitor with him for his father's crown ; and again saving him, when Saul threw a javelin at him to smite him even to the wall ; and again preserving him when he sent messengers to his house, to watch him, and to kill him when Michal, Saul's daughter let him down through a window ; and when he afterwards sent messengers, once and again, to Naioth in Ramah, to take him, and they were remarkably prevented time after time, by being seized with miraculous impressions of the spirit of God; and afterwards, when Saul being resolute in the affair, went himself, he also was among the prophets : And after this, how wonderfully was David's life preserved at Gath among the Philistines, when he went to Achish the king of Gath, and was there in the hands of the Philistines, who, one would have thought, would have despatched him at once, he having so much provoked them by his exploits against them : And he was again wonderfully preserved at Keilah, when he had en. tered into a fenced town, where Saul thought he was sure of him, And how wonderfully was he preserved from Saul,
when he pursued and hunted him in the mountains ? How remarkably did God deliver him in the wilderness of Maon, when Saul and his army were compassing David about ? How was he delivered in the cave of Engedi, when, instead of Saul's killing David, God delivered Saul into his hands in the cave, and he cut off his skirt, and might as easily have cut off his head; and afterwards delivering him in like manner in the wilderness of Ziph ; and afterwards again preserving him in the land of the Philistines, though David had fought against the Philistines, and conquered them at Keilah, since he was last
among them ; which one would think, would have been sufficient warning to them not to trust him, or let him escape a second time, if ever they had him in their hands again ; but yet now, when they had a second opportunity, God wonderfully turned their hearts to him to befriend and protect hiin, instead of destroying him.
Thus was the precious seed that virtually contained the Redeemer and all the blessings of his redemption, wonderfully preserved, when hell and earth were conspired against it to destroy it. How often does David himself take notice of this, with praise and admiration in the book of Psalms ?
III. About this time, the written word of God, or the canon of scripture, was added to by Samuel. I have before observ. ed, how that the canon of the scripture was begun, and the first written word of God, the first written rule of faith and manners that ever was, was given to the church about Moses's time : And many, and I know not but most divines, think it was added to by Joshua, and that he wrote the last chapter of Deuteronomy, and most of the book of Joshua. Others think that Joshua, Judges, Ruth, and part of the first book of Samuel, were written by Samuel. However that was, this we have good evidence of, that Samuel made an addition to the canon of scripture ; for Samuel is manifestly mentioned in the New Testament, as one of the prophets whose writings we have in the scriptures, in that forementioned Acts iii. 24. “ Yea and all the prophets from Samuel, and those that follow after, as many as have spoken, have likewise foretold of these days." By that expression, “ as many as have spoken,"
cannot be meant, as many as have spoken by word of mouth;' for never was any prophet but what did that : But the meaning must be, as many as have spoken by writing, so that what they have spoken has come down to us, that we may see what it is.
And the way that Samuel spoke of these times of Christ and the gospel, was by giving the history of those things that typified them, and pointed to them, particularly the things concerning David that he wrote. The Spirit of God moved him to commit those things to writing, chiefly for that reason, because they pointed to Christ, and the times of the gospel ; and, as was said before, this was the main business of all that succession of prophets, that began in Samuel, to foreshow those times.
That Samuel added to the canon of the scriptures, seems further to appear from 1 Chron. xxix. 29. « Now the acts of David the king, first and last, behold, they are written in the book of Samuel the seer."
Whether the book of Joshua was written by Samuel or not; yet it is the generat opinion of divines, that the books of Judges, and Ruth, and part of the first book of Samuel, were penned by him. The book of Ruth was penned for that reason, because, though it seemed to treat of private affairs, yet the persons.chiefly spoken of in that book were of the family whence David and Christ proceeded, and so pointed to what the apostle Peter observed of Samuel and the other prophets, in the 3d chapter of Acts. The thus adding to the canon of the scriptures, the great and main instrument of the applica. tion of redemption, is to be looked upon as a further carrying on of that work, and an addition made to that great building.'
IV. Another thing God did towards this work, at that time, was his inspiring David to show forth Christ and hiş re: demption, in divine songs, which should be for the use of the church, in public worship, throughout all ages. David was himself endued with the spirit of prophecy. He is called a prophet, Acts ii. 29, 30. “Let me freely speak to you of the patriarch David, that he is both dead and buried, and his sepulchre is with us unto this day : Therefore being a prophet,