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of the universality of existence ; and if put in the scales with it, has no greater proportion to it than a single person.
However, it may not be amiss more particularly to consider the reasons why private affections, or good will limited to a particular circle of Beings, falling infinitely short of the whole existence, and not dependent upon it, nor subordinate to general benevolence, cannot be of the nature of true virtue.
1. Such a private affection, detached from general benevolence and independent on it, as the case may be, will be against general benevolence, or of a contrary tendency; and will set a person against general existence, and make him an enemy
to it.---As it is with selfishness, or when a man is governed v by a regard to his own private interest, independent of regard
to the public good, such a temper exposes a man to act the part of an enemy to the public. As, in every case wherein his private interest seems to clash with the public ; or in alt those cases wherein such things are presented to his view, that suit his personal appetites or private inclinations, but are inconsistent with the good of the public. On which account a selfish, contracted, narrow spirit is generally abhorred, and is esteemed base and sordid.. But if a man's affection takes in half a dozen more, and his regards extend so far beyond his own single person as to take in his children and family ; or if it reaches further still, to a larger circle, but falls infinitely short of the universal system, and is exclusive of being in general; his private affection exposes him to the same thing, viz. to pursue the interest of its particular object in ofiposition to general existence; which is certainly contrary to the tendency of true virtue ; yea, directly contrary to the main and most essential thing in its nature, the thing on ac
count of which chiefly its nature and tendency is good. For ✓ the chief and most essential good that is in virtue, is its favor| ing Being in general. Now certainly, if private affection to a
limited system had in itself the essential nature of virtue, ite would be impossible, that it should in any circumstance whatsoever have a tendency and inclination directly contrary to that wherein the essence of virtue chiefly consists.
2. Private affection, if not subordinate to general affection, is
not only liable, as the case may be, to issue in enmity to Being in general, but has a tendency to it as the case certainly is, and must necessarily be. For he that is influenced by private affection, not subordinate to regard to Being in general, sets up its particular or limited object above Being in general ; and this most naturally tends to enmity against the latter, which is by right the great supreme, ruling, and absolutely sovereign object of our regard. Even as the setting up another prince as supreme in any kingdom, distinct from the lawful sovereign, naturally tends to enmity against the lawful sovereign. Wherever it is sufficiently published, that the supreme, infinite, and all comprehending Being requires a supreme regard to himself; and insists upon it, that our respect to him should universally rule in our hearts, and every other affection be subordinate to it, and this under the pain of his displeasure (as we must suppose it is in the world of intelligent creatures, if God maintains a moral kingdom in the world) then a consciousness of our having chosen and set up another prince to rule over us, and subjected our hearts to him, and continuing in such an act, must unavoidably excite énmity, and fix us in a stated opposition to the Supreme Being. This demonstrates, that affection to a private society or ki system, independent on general benevolence, cannot be of the nature of true virtue. For this would be absurd, that it has the nature and essence of true virtue, and yet at the same time has a tendency opposite to true virtue.
3. Not only would affection to a private system, unsubordinate to regard to Being in general, have a tendency to opposition to the supreme object of virtuous affection, as its effect and consequence, but would become itself an opposition to that object. Considered by itself in its nature, detached from its effects, it is an instance of great opposition to the rightful supreme object of our respect. For it exalts its private object above the other great and infinite object; and sets that up as supreme, in opposition to this. It puts down Being in general, which is infinitely superior in itself and infinitely more important, in an inferior place ; yea, subjects the suVol. II.
preme general object to this private infinitely inferior object; which is to treat it with great contempt, and truly to act in opposition to it, and to act in opposition to the true order of things, and in opposition to that which is infinitely the su. preme interest ; making this supreme and infinitely important interest, as far as in us lies, to be subject to, and dependent on, an interest infinitely inferior. This is to act against it, and to act the part of an enemy to it. He that takes a subject, and exalts him above his prince, sets him as supreme instead of the prince, and treats his prince wholly as a subject, therein acts the part of an enemy to his prince.
From these things, I think, it is manifest, that no affection limited to any private system, not dependent on, nor subordinate to Being in general, can be of the nature of true virtue ; and this, whatever the private system be, let it be more or less extensive, consisting of a greater or smaller number of individuals, so long as it contains an infinitely little part of universal existence, and so bears no proportion to the great all comprehending system......And consequently, that no affection whatsoever to any creature, or any system of created Beings, which is not dependent on, nor subordinate to a propensity or union of the heart to God, the supreme and infinite Being can be of the nature of true virtue.
From hence also it is evident, that the divine virtue, or the virtue of the divine mind, must consist primarily in love to himself, or in the mutual love and friendship which subsists eternally and necessarily between the several persons in the Godhead, or that infinitely strong propensity there is in these divine persons one to another. There is no need of multiplying words, to prove that it must be thus, on a supposition that virtue in its most essential nature, consists in benevolent affection or propensity of heart towards Being in general ; and so flowing out to particular Beings, in a greater or less degree, according to the measure of existence and beauty which they are possessed of........ It will also follow from the foregoing things, that God's goodness and love to created Beings, is derived from, and subordinate to his love to himself. [In what manner it is so, I have endeavored in some
measure to explain in the preceding discourse of God's end in creating the world.]
With respect to the manner in which a virtuous love in created Beings, one to another, is dependent on, and derived from love to God, this will appear by a proper consideration of what has been said ; that it is sufficient to render love to any created Being virtuous, if it arise from the temper of mind wherein consists a disposition to love God supremely. Be. cause it appears from what has been already observed, all that love to particular Beings, which is the fruit of a benevolent propensity of heart to Being in general, is virtuous love. But, as has been remarked, a benevolent propensity of heart to Being in general, and a temper or disposition to love God supremely, are in effect the same thing. Therefore, if love to a created Being comes from that temper or propensity of the heart, it is virtuous........However, every particular exercise of love to a creature may not sensibly arise from any exercise of love to God, or an explicit consideration of any similitude, conformity, union or relation to God, in the creature beloved.
The most proper evidence of love to a created Being, its arising from that temper of mind wherein consists a supreme propensity of heart to God, seems to be the agreeableness of the kind and degree of our love to God's end in our creation and in the creation of all things, and the coincidence of the exercises of our love, in their manner, order, and measure, with the manner, in which God himself exercises love to the creature, in the creation and government of the world, and the way
in which God, as the first cause and supreme disposer of all things, has respect to the creature's happiness, in subordination to himself as his own supreme end. For the true virtue of created Beings is doubtless their highest excel. lency, and their true goodness, and that by which they are especially agreeable to the mind of their Creator........But the true goodness of a thing (as was observed before) must be its agreeableness to its end, or its fitness to answer the design for which it was made. Or, at least, this must be its goodness in the eyes of the workman..... Therefore they are good moral agents whose temper of mind or propensity of heart is agree.
able to the end for which God made moral agents. But, as has been shewn, the last end for which God has made moral agents, must be the last end for which God has made all things; it being evident, that the moral world is the end of the rest of the world ; the inanimate and unintelligent world being made for the rational and moral world, as much as a house is prepared for the inhabitants.
By these things it appears, that a truly virtuous mind, be. ing, as it were, under the sovereign dominion of love to God, does above all things seek the glory of God, and makes this his supreme, governing, and ultimate end ; consisting in the expression of God's perfections in their proper effects, and in the manifestation of God's glory to created understandings, and the communications of the infinite fulness of God to the creature ; in the creatures highest esteem of God, love to God, and joy in God, and in the proper exercises and expres, sions of these......And so far as a virtuous mind exercises true, virtue in benevolence to created Beings, it chiefly seeks the good of the creature, consisting in its knowledge or view of God's glory and beauty, its union with God, and conformity to him, love to him, and joy in him......And that temper or disposition of heart, that consent, union, or propensity of mind to Being in general, which appears chiefly in such exercises, is virtue, truly so called ; or in other words, true grace and real holiness. And no other disposition or affection but this is of the nature of true virtue.
COROLLARY. Hence it appears, that those schemes of religion or moral philosophy, which, however well in some res. pects, they may treat of benevolence to mankind, and other. virtues depending on it, yet have not a supreme regard to God, and love to him, laid in the foundation, and all other vir, tues handled in a connexion with this, and in a subordination to this, are not true schemes of philosophy, but are fundamentally and essentially defective. And whatever other benevo: lence or generosity towards mankind, and other virtues, or moral qualifications which go by that name, any are possessed of, that are not attended with a love to God which is altogether above them, and to which they are subordinate, and on which