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VIII. It was by David that God first gave his people Israel the possession of the whole promised land. I have before shown, how God's giving the possession of the promised land belonged to the covenant of grace. This was done in a great measure by Joshua, but not fully. Joshua did not wholly subdue that part of the promised land that was strictly called tho land of Canaan, and that was divided by lot to the several tribes; but there were great numbers of the old inhabitants left unsubdued, as we read in the books of Joshua and Judges; and there were many left to prove Israel, and to be thorns in their sides, and pricks in their eyes. There were the Jebusites in Jerusalem, and many of the Canaanites, and the whole nation of the Philistines, who all dwelt in that part of the land that was divided by lot, and chiefly in that part of the land that belonged to the tribes of Judah and Ephraim.
And thus these remains of the old inhabitants of Canaan continued unsubdued till David's time ; but he wholly subdued them all. Which is agreeable to what St. Stephen obe serves, Acts vii. 45.“ Which also our fathers brought in with Jesus (i. e. Joshua) into the possession of the Gentiles, whom God drove out before the face of our fathers, unto the days of David." They were till the days of David in driving them out, before they had wholly subdued them. But David entirely brought them under. He subdued the Jebusites, and he subdued the whole nation of the Philistines, and all the rest of the remains of the seven nations of Canaan : 1 Chron. xviü. 1. “ Now after this it came to pass, that David smote the Philistines, and subdued them, and took Gath and her towns out of the hands of the Philistines.”
After this, all the remains of the former inhabitants of Ca. naan were made bond servants to the Israelites. The poster ity of the Gibeonites became servants before, hewers of wood, and drawers of water, for the house of God. But Solomon, David's, son and successor, put all the other remains of the seven nations of Canaan to bond service, at least made them pay a tribute of bond service, as you may see, 1 Kings ix. 20, 21, 22. And hence we read of the children of Solomon's servants, after the return from the Babylonish capa
tivity, Ezra ii. 55, and Neh. xi. 3. They were the children or posterity of the seven nations of Canaan, that Solomon had subjected to bond service.
Thus David subdued the whole land of Canaan, strictly so called. But then that was not one half, nor quarter, of the land God had promised to their fathers. The land that God had often promised to their fathers, included all the countries from the river of Egypt to the river Euphrates. These were the bounds of the land promised to Abraham, Gen. xv. 18. “ In that same day the Lord made a covenant with Abram, saying, Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt, unto the great river, the river Euphrates." So again God promised at Mount Sinai, Exod. xxiii. 31. “And I will set thy bounds from the Red Sea even unto the sea of the Phi. listines, and from the desert unto the river ; for I will deliver the inhabitants of the land into your hand; and thou shalt drive them out before thee.” So again, Deut. xi. 24. Every place whereon the soles of your feet shall tread, shall be yours ; from the wilderness, and Lebanon from the river, the river Euphrates, even unto the uttermost sea, shall your coast be." Again, the same promise is made to Joshua : Josh. i. 3, 4. “ Every place that the sole of your feet shall tread upon, have I given unto you, as I said unto Moses ; from the wilderness and this Lebanon, even unto the great river, the river Euphrates, all the land of the Hittites, and unto the great sea, towards the going down of the sun, shall be your coast.” But the land that Joshua gave the people the possession of, was but a little part of this land. And the people never had had the possession of it, till now when God gave it them by David.
This large country did not only include that Canaan that was divided by lot to those who came in with Joshua, but the land of the Moabites and Ammonites, the land of the Amalekites, and the rest of the Edomites, and the country of Zobah. All these nations were subdued and brought under the children of Israel by David. And he put garrisons in the several countries, and they became David's servants, as we have a particular account in the 8th chapter of 2d Samuel ; and David extended their border to the river Euphrates, as was pro
mised ; see the 3d verse : “ And David smote also Hadadezer the son of Rehob, king of Zobah, as he went to recover his border at the river Euphrates." And accordingly we read, that Solomon his son reigned over all the region on this side the river, 1 Kings iv. 24. For he had dominion over all the region on this side the river, from Tiphsah even unto Azzah, over all the kings on this side the river.This Artaxerxes king of Persia takes notice of long after : Ezra iv. 20. “ There have been mighty kings also over Jerusalem, which bave ruled over all countries beyond the river ; and toll, tribute, and custom was paid unto them.”
So that Joshua, that type of Christ, did but begin the work of giving Israel the possession of the promised land; but left it to be finished by that much greater type and ancestor of Christ, even David, who subdued far more of that land than ever Joshua had done. And in this extent of his and Solomon's dominion was some resemblance of the great extent of Christ's kingdom ; and therefore the extent of Christ's king, dom is set forth by this very thing, of its being over all lands from the Red Sea, to the sea of the Philistines, and over all lands from thence to the river Euphrates ; as Psal. lxxii. 8. “ He shall have dominion also from sea to sea, and from the river unto the ends of the earth.” See also 1 Kings viii. 56.
IX. God by David perfected the Jewish worship, and added to it several new institutions. The law was given by Moses, but yet all the institutions of the Jewish worship were not given by Moses ; some were added by divine direction. So this greatest of all personal types of Christ did not only perfect Joshua's work, in giving Israel the possession of the promised land, but he also finished Moses's work, in perfecting the instituted worship of Israel. Thus there must be a number of typical prophets, priests, and princes, to complete one figure or shadow of Christ, the antitype, he being the substance of all the types and shadows. Of so much more glory was Christ accounted worthy, than Moses, Joshua, David, and Solomon, and all the great prophets, priests, princes, judges, and saviours of the Old Testament put together,
The ordinances of David are mentioned as of parallel validity with those of Moses, 2 Chron. xxiii. 18. “ Also Jehoiada appointed the offices of the house of the Lord by the hand of the priests the Levites, whom David had distributed in the house of the Lord, to offer the burnt offerings of the Lord, as it is written in the law of Moses, with rejoicing and with sing. ing, as it was ordained by David.” The worship of Israel was perfected by David, by the addition that he made to the ceremonial law, which we have an account of in the 23d, 24th, 25th, and 26th chapters of the first book of Chronicles, con, sisting in the several orders and courses into which David divided the Levites, and the work and business to which he appointed them, different from what Moses had appointed them to; and also in the divisions of the priests the sons of Aaron into four and twenty courses, assigning to every course their business in the house of the Lord, and their particular stated times of attendance there ; and appointing some of the Levites to a new office, that had not been appointed before ; and that was the office of singers, and particularly ordering and regulating of them in that office, as you may see in the 25th chapter of i Chronicles; and appointing others of the Levites by law to the several services of porters, treasurers, officers, and judges : And these ordinances of David were kept up henceforth in the church of Israel, as long as the Jewish church lasted. Thus we find the several orders of priests, and the Levites, the porters, and singers, after the captivity. So we find the courses of the priests appointed by David still continuing in the New Testament; so Zacharias the father of John the Baptist was a priest of the course of Abia ; which is the samo with the course of Abijah, appointed by David, that we read of 1 Chron. xxiv. 10.
Thus David as well as Moses was made like to Christ the son of David, in this respect, that by him God gave a new ecclesiastical establishment, and new institutions of worship. David did not only add to the institutions of Moses, but by those additions he abolished some of the old institutions of Moses that had been in force till that time ; particularly those laws of Moses that appointed the business of the Levites,
which we have in the Sd and 4th chapters of Numbers, which very much consisted in their charge of the several parts and utensils of the tabernacle there assigned to them, and in carrying those several parts of the tabernacle. But those laws were now abolished by David ; and they were no more to carry those things, as they had been used to do till David's time. But David appointed them to other work instead of it ; see i Chron. xxiii. 26. “ And also unto the Levites, they shall no more carry the tabernacle, nor any vessels of it for the service thereof:” A sure evidence that the ceremonial law given by Moses is not perpetual, as the Jews suppose ; but might be wholly abolished by Christ: For if David, a type of the Mesa siah, might abolish the law of Moses in part, much more might the Messiah himself abolish the whole.
David, by God's appointment, abolished all use of the tabernacle, that was built by Moses, and of which he had the pat, tern from God : For God now revealed it to David to be his will, that a temple should be built, that should be instead of the tabernacle : A great presage of what Christ, the son of David, would do, when he should come, viz. abolish the whole Jews ish ecclesiastical constitution, which was but as a moveable tabernacle to set up the spiritual gospel temple, which was to be far more glorious, and of greater extent, and was to last forever. David had the pattern of all things pertaining to the temple showed him, even in like manner as Moses had the pattern of the tabernacle : And Solomon built the temple ac, cording to that pattern which he had from his father David, which he received from God. 1 Chron. xxviii. 11, 12.“ Then David gave to Solomon his son the pattern of the porch, and of the houses thereof, and of the treasuries thereof, and of the upper chambers thereof, and of the inner parlors thereof, and of the place of the mercy seat, and the pattern of all that he had by the spirit, of the courts of the house of the Lord, and of all the chambers round about, of the treasuries of the house of God, and of the treasuries of the dedicate things.” And ver. 19. « All this, said David, the Lord made me understand in writing by his hand upon me, even all the works of this pattern."