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ration for baptism, “ Why do you not hasten to receire baptism, that you may be able to sing with the faithful the canticle of the Seraphim?" And St. John Chrysostom asks the faithful how they can sing indecent songs with those mouths which have chaunted Holy, Holy, Holy to the Lord. It was formerly anitted on fast days, and in masses for the dead; but the second council of Vaison, in 529, at which St. Cesarius was present, ordered it to be said at all

even in Lent and for the dead." This custom soon became general. The hymn is found in the first place in the sixth chapter of the prophet Isaias, where we read the very words, as sung by the seraphim, Ho15, Holy, Holy, Lord God of Sabaoth, or of armies, or hosts; the heavens and the earth are full of his glory. For the reason which has been previously given, the church retains the original Hebrew word

Sabaoth, instead of taking its translation. St. Amthey brose says

, the triple chaunt is in honour of the Trinity ; * and this great Lord is called the God of anmes, or of hosts : for he is that Ancient of days described by Daniel,t from before whom a fiery stream issued, and thousands of thousands ministered sunto him, and ten thousand times hundreds of thousinds slood before him

Tertullian says, that the church causes us to repeat it here below, ļ that we may be associated with those, in whose company we bope to rest for eternity.

But now coming more directly to the specific object of the sacrifice, the church contemplates him who reconciled us to his father, and beholding his near approach, she puts into our mouths the Hosanhas to him who comes in the name of the Lord. The son of David, not now entering Jerusalem to be mangled upon the cross, but preparing to descend tpon our altar to immolate himself as the victim of 'Lib. Ils, c. 18, de Spir. Sanc. vii, 9, &c. De orat iii:

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his own love and our salvation. Hosanna is not only an ejaculation of praise, but also a prayer for mercy. It was the cry of the Jews at the feast of Tabernacles, and of the multitudes, who strewed their garments in his way, and accompanied Jesus into Jerusalem, bearing branches in their hands, and crying out, * Hosanna to the Son of David, blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord; Hosanna in the highest.

The various other additions to the preface on the occasion of special feasis, or observances, are sufficiently explanatory in themselves, such as the shedding of that ray of divine light upon us by the birth of the Saviour, which is alluded to in the preface, proper for christmas. His appearing manifest in our flesh, in that for Epiphany. The object of the fast in Lent; the effect of his crucifixion in the preface of the cross; bis sacrifice, by which he is our Pasch, and his resurrection at Easter; his conversation with his apostles and ascension ; the descent of the Holy Ghost at whitsuntide, and the effects of this descent; the favour conferred on the blessed Virgin Mary, and the power of the apostles, together with the unity of the church, and the source of spiritual jurisdiction. All those are separately and specially brought in review before our minds through the year, on various occasions, by the special or proper prefaces.

The assistant rings the bell at the sanctus, to rouse the attention of the congregation, and to ex: cite them to join in the hymn.

The next part is the Canon. This has its name from being a part which has always been an unchanging rule, by which the celebrant was to be directed; and which was not subject to the discretion of the priest or bishop, even in those early days when much was left to their prudence. The moan

*Matt. xxi, 9.

66

· For ever and

It is

his own love and our salvation. Hosanna is m* ng of the word canon, is “ a rule." It consists of hly an ejaculation of praise, but also a pratera that part of the Liturgy which commences with the mercy. It was the cry of the Jews at the ter words Te igitur clemen tissime pater, &c. ; “ we of Tabernacles, and of the multitudes,

therefore, humbly pray," &c. down to the words per strewed their garments in lois way, and urare

omnia Sæcula Sæculorum, Amen. nied Jesus into Jerusalem, bearing branches in the

ever, Amen." just before the Lord's prayer. But out, * the tid, blessed is he who comes in the name of the im Lord's prayer, and to extend to the prayers at takHosanna in the highest.

ing the Chalice and the ablutions inclusive. The various other additions to the preface ca 7

This is one of the most ancient parts of the lituroccasion of special feasts

, or observances, are ciently explanators in themselves, such as the

now in the Roman Missal, in the ancient Ordo Roding of that ray of divine light upon us by the best

inatus, which quotes it as of the oldest date. of the Saviour, which is alluded to in the pretzte

on all hands agreed that the last person who arendproper for christmas. His appearing manifest 19 feed and reduced it to its present form, was Pope St. flesh, in that for Ejiphany." The object of the

Gregory the great, in the year 595. Kemnitz and in Lent; the etle et of his crucifixion in the past

most others who have written against the Catholic of the cross; his sacritice, by which he is our per

doctrine on this point, say that in the year 590 it and his resurrection at Easter: his conversation

assumed its present form. In his 63d epistle, St. his apostles and ascension; the descent of the Hill

Gregory states that before bis time, but he does not Ghost at whitsuntide, and the effects of this de

state exactly when, it had been compiled by an ein scent: the favour conferred on the blessed line inent Scholastic; that is, by a person of considerable Marr, and the power of the apostles, together o

information. Pope Vigilius in the year 545, menthe units of the church, and the source of spin

tions it as the “ text of Canonical prayer." Pope

Leo 1 in the year 445, added the following words jurisdiction. All those are separately and so brought in review before our minds throngh

Sanctum Sacrificium et immaculatam hostiam, “a year, on various occasions, by the special or prono boly sacrifice and unspotted victim," just after the prefaces.

words tihi obtulit Sacerdos tuus Melchisedech " The assistant rings the hell at the sanctis ,

high priest Melcbisedech offered to thee,at the rouse the attention of the congregation, and we

conclusion of the second paragraph after the words cite them to join in the hyma.

of consecration : and Pope Innocent 1, calls the The next part is the Canon. This has its :

Canon, by excellence “ The prayer,in the year fron being a part which has alwars been an est

408, in his Epistle to Decentius, where he speaks

of the custom of repeating the names, or making the charging male, by which the celebrant was tox direcied; and

memento, * before the Priest makes the prayer.” ich was not subject to the N tion of the priest or bishop, eren in those early in

St. Augustin about the year 420, calls it by the same

name, where he says in his 149th Epistle that when much was left to their prudence. The list!

nearly the entire Church concludes all its petition

with the Lords prayer." St. Ambrose who was the *Matt. xxi, 9.

thy

teacher of St. Augustine in his 4th book on the Sacraments, has the two prayers which immediately precede the consecration, and the two which immediately follow it, almost letter for letter as they are now found in the Canon, and be quotes them as ta. ken from the Ancient rites. In the 4th Chapter of this 4th book, he distinctly mentions the substance of the first prayer of our Canon, as does Optatus of Milevi, in his second book against Parmenian, and St. Augustine in his 84th tract on St. John, mentions those prayers thereof, in which the Saints are named and invoked, and prayers offered for the dead. $t. Cyprian in the year 250, calls it the prayer which follows the preface. St. Cyril of Jerusalem, St. Basil, and Pope Vigilius testify that those customs and prayers were handed down from the Apostles; and this testimony was not contradicted, but was supported by their cotemporaries and immediate

It was also called Actio, Mysterium, &c. by many of the most ancient writers. St. Pelagius writes both phrases. In actione Sacri Mysterü is the name by which he calls it * " in the performance of the holy mystery.The second council. of Carthage in the year 390, calls it Ordo agendi “ the order of doing”--that is, of producing the sacraments or offering the Sacrifice--doing an act. They who are at all conversant with the history of the early ages of the Church, will not be astonished at not finding earlier written documents upon the subject, for they are well aware of the custom which prevailed during the first three centuries and a half, of not committing the forms of the Sacraments or the prayers of the mysteries to writing, they were taught to the Clergy, and not written; hence we could have no earlier documents. It must be then quite plain that no better evidence could be expected of the Antiquity of our Canone

* S Pelag. in Ep. Agobard. ad Ludov. imp.

successors.

teacher of St. Augustine in his 4th book on the But in addition to these we may add some consicraments, has the two prayers which immediately derations which have very great weight. First it is cede the consecration, and the two which is

usual in the dyptics of the churches to insert the diately follow it, almost letter for letter as these

names of the saints, to be repeated in the canon ; now found in the Canon, and he quotes them a

now in this canon there is not the name of any but ken from the Ancient rites. In the 4th Chapter i

of a martyr of a very early date.therefore all the this 4th book, he distinctly mentions the substas dyptics which have been introduced, must have been of the first prayer of our Canon, as does Optataid of a corresponding period, and not later than the Mileri, in his second book against Parmenian, a

third century. Secondly, we have the most accum St. Augustine in his 84th tract on St. John, so tions those prayers thereof, in which the Saist 2

rate statements of all the changes that have been

made in the canon by any of the Pontiffs, and they named and invoked, and prayers offered for the team

are very few, we have also the various additions to St. Cyprian in the year 250, calls it the prayer 1

that part of the office, which was left more to dis. follows the preface. St. Cyril of Jerusalem

cretion than the canon, hence we conclude that if Basil, and Pope Vigilius testify that those ciste and prayers were handed down from the Apostle

had some account of its author ; or if any serious and this testimony was not contradicted, bet

change had been made, we would have learned it supported by their cotemporaries and immedu successors. It was also called Adio, Mysterius

equally well as we did that made by Pope Leo, and

that other by Pope Gregory, when in his revision &c. by many of the most ancient writers

. Study

thereof he added the words Diesque nostros in tua lagius writes both

phrases. In actione Sacerile terii is the name by which he calls it * « in the rol

peace," as at the end of the prayer said by the cele

“ And dispose our days in thy formance of the holy mystery." The second cash

brant with his hands spread over the offering and cil of Carthage in the year 390, calls it Orde grund

again in the enumeration of the apostles, the order is < the order of doing--that is, of producing the one

Very different from any other which we find ; and craments or offering the Sacrificem doing

can be best accounted for, as also can the introducThey who are at all conversant with the histani

tion of their names and of those of saints who lived the early ages of the Church, will not be astante

nearly two centuries after the apostles, in a work at not finding earlier written documents upendo subject, for they are well aware of the camera

what the dyptics were as shall be given.

attributed to the apostolic age, by the account of which prevailed during the first three centuries o

and find that as the council of Trent declares,* it

We shall now examine the prayers of the canon, a half, of not committing the forms of the song ments or the prayers of the mysteries to write

contains nothing but what is calculated to list the

soul to God, and that it consists of the compositions hence we could have no carlier documents

of our Lord himself, of the apostles, and the most must be then quite plain that no better evidst could be expected of the Antiquity of our Care

The celebrant begins by lifting his hands and eyes S Pelag. in Ep. Agobard. ad Ludov. imp.

* Sess, xxii. c. 4.

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