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The offerings were at first indiscriminately made of whatever the people thought proper to give, either for the sacrifice, or for the support of the clergy; but the Apostolic canons 4 and 5, regulate that only corn, grapes, oil for lights, and incense should be offered at the altar; all other offerings were to be taken to the bishop's house, to be divided by him and the priests, with the deacons and other minor clergy;

harping on their harps, and they sung as it were a new canticle before the throne, &c. xv. 2. And I saw as it were a sea of glass mingled with fire, and them that had overcome the beast, and his image and the number of his name, standing on the sea of glass, having the harps of God; and singing the canticle of Moses the servant of God, and the canticle of the Lamb, &c. Ep. of St. James v. 13. Is any man cheerful in mind? let him sing. We may therefore well conceive the sublime British poet fully justified in attributing to Angels,

adoration by music.

Of echoing hill or thicket have we heard
-How often from the steep
Celestial voices to the midnight air,
Sole, or responsive to each others notes,
Singing their great Creator? Oft his bands
While they keep watch, or nightly rounding walk,
With heavenly touch of instrumental sounds
In full harmonic number join'd, their songs
Divide the night and lift our thoughts to Heaven.

Paradise lost. Book 4.

The following extract from Mr. Ketts' essay on Music

shall close this note.

"As the notes used to express any sensations may be equally in unison with those of a simlar nature, Music requires the aid of language, to characterize any individual passion. If correspondent words are the associates of sound, they become by this alliance specific indications of the manners and passions; and the pleasure conveyed to the ear, is attended by the more refined gratification of the understanding. Mysterious as the mode of operation by sound may be, it is clear that nature has connected certain emotions with them,

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and the first Council of Orleans held in 511, at the time of king Clovis, in its 14th canon regulates the proportion in which the division was to be made in Gaul. The second Council of Mascon, held in the year 585, at the time of king Gortran, and of Pope Pelagius II, ordered offerings to be made in the Gallic churches by every individual who attended. The 4th Council of Carthage, held in the year 398, forbad the offerings of those who were at open enmity, of those who oppressed the poor, and of several others to be received-canons 93 and 94. The deacon and subdeacon generally received the offerings; during which time the choir performed the offertory, but the custom of receiving these contributions has long since gradually ceased. Where there is no choir the celebrant reads it in a loud voice.

After the offertory, at a solemn Mass, or indeed during its performance, the deacon and subdeacon go up to the altar, both at the Epistle side; should the chalice not be on the altar, but placed on the credence-table, below, the subdeacon carries it up. If a bishop celebrates in pontificals, he remains in his seat or throne during the mass of the catechumens, and he now takes off his gloves and washes his hands to prepare for the sacrifice, and goes to the altar to offer it. Should he be attended by an assist

and their effect is sufficiently ascertained, and deeply felt; for they are the keys which unlock all the pas sions of the soul. Sounds variously modified, and ju diciously combined with words, can melt with pity, sink in sorrow, transport with joy, rouse to courage, and elevate with devotion. They have a peculiar effect in cherishing the tender passions, and calling up the long forgotten images of the past, with all their attendant train of associated ideas. While the ear is delighted with the strains of harmony, the fancy is buried in the contemplation of the most attracting images, and the whole soul is exalted to the bright regions of joy and happiness."

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ant priest in a cope, that priest does what would
otherwise be done by the deacon during this offering,
and the canon, and the deacon performs whatever
else may be necessary.
given on the supposition of no assistant priest being
This explanation shall be
in attendance and in plain masses the celebrant
does every thing himself.

The deacon being on the right hand of the celebrant, uncovers the chalice, which has on its mouth a linen cloth called a purificatory, for wiping the chalice and patten; the patten is a small plate on which the bread for consecration is placed, this is laid on the chalice. If the deacon have not spread the corporal upon the altar during the creed, he now takes it from the burse or case in which it is kept, and spreads it on the altar. The corporal is a linen cloth neatly folded, except when spread upon the altar during the sacrifice, and the bread which afterwards becomes the body (corpus) and the chalice are placed upon it. Taking the patten with the bread on it from the chalice, the deacon gives it to the celebrant, who lifting it up offers it, repeating the pray. er. Accept &c. as in the ordinary of the Mass. After which, having made therewith the sign of the cross, he lays it on the altar. Meantime the deacon cleanses the chalice, and having put wine into it, the subdeacon places the water before the celebrant, which he blesses with the sign of the cross, and the prayer, O God, who in creating, &c.-The subdeacon then puts a small quantity of water into the chalice, and the deacon having wiped it carefully, gives it to the celebrant, who being assisted by the deacon, also repeating the prayer, offers it, saying, We offer unto thee, &c.-then having made the sign of the cross therewith, he lays it on the altar, and the deacon covers it with the pall, which is a piece of linen, sometimes ornamented, but always made so stiff, by

the sewing it on

steadily on the chalice and preserve its contents from

pasteboard or otherwise, as to rest

any thing which might defile them: formerly the corporal was larger and a portion of it was turned over the chalice, but this was found very inconvenient. The celebrant then bowing down, says the prayer, Accept us, O Lord, &c-after which, rising he says, Come, O Almighty, &c.-and at the word bless, he makes the sign of the cross over the host and chalice-then blesses the incense by the sign of the cross, and the prayer, May the Lord, &c.-and perfumes the bread and wine, and the altar, repeating the prayers which follow. After which he washes his hands, saying the prayer, I will wash, &c.— and then returns to the middle of the altar, where bowing down he repeats his request of sacrifice, saying, Receive, O holy Trinity, &c.--then kissing the altar, he turns round, and expanding his hands, says, Orate Fratres, &c.-during this and the secret pray. er, and the preface, until just before the Sanctus, the deacon and sub-deacon stand in their proper places behind the celebrant, but go up to the altar, the deacon on the right and the sub-deacon on the left, to join in the words Holy, Holy, Holy, &c.—after which the sub-deacon having made his reverence to the altar, descends to his former place, and the deacon comes to the left hand side, to assist in turning the leaves of the book, during the canon which imme diately follows.

In some places, an ancient cuctom is retained by the subdeacon of having a large veil placed on his shoulders when he is about to take the chalice from the credence to the altar; and then after the offertory, folding the patten in the end of this veil, and so holding it in his place, until the celebrant wants the patten after the Lord's prayer.

Another ancient custom of some places is, that when the deacon has incensed the celebrant, after the offer. tory, he proceeds to incense the clergy, according to their rank, and is himself then incensed by the incense bearer, who afterwards, bowing to the several por

tions of the congregation, pays them the like res


Should the Bishop be present, in his place, and the celebrant be a priest, the water and incense are taken to the Bishop to be blessed, and he is incensed before the celebrant by the deacon.

In the sacrifice we are now to look for three distinct oblations, all united in the same act of religion. The oblation of the bread and wine for the purpose of their substance being destroyed, and their appearances covering the body and blood of Jesus Christ The oblation of the body and blood of Jesus Christ under the appearances of bread and wine, and the oblation of himself and of the faithful in union with Jesus Christ, by the celebrant. The three are performed by the one continued act of the sacrifice of the mass; and it is only by keeping the distinction clearly in view, we shall be enabled fully to comprehend the meaning of the prayers.

The bread which is offered is unleavened; such was the kind which the Saviour used at the institution, for it took place at the time of the unleavened bread; and some water is mingled with wine in the chalice, because as the councils of Trent says, it has been received as an uninterrupted apostolical custom, and believed to be founded upon the authority of Christ himself, who is stated to have done so at the institution; and this assertion is supported by the entire host of ancient witnesses. The council of Constantinople, called that of Trulla, from the hall in which it was held, in the year 692, quotes the following passage, from the Liturgy of St. James the Apostle, and first Bishop of Jerusalem: "In like manner, taking the chalice after he had supped, and miring water with wine, and blessing," &c. St. Clement, a cotemporary of the apostles, states in chap. 17, book 8, of the Apostolic Constitution, that

*Mark xiv, 12. ↑ Can. xxxii.

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