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ing of certain persons, to whom he gives the titles of watchmen and shepherds, ý 10. 11. titles which characterise the Jewilh teachers, or rulers, or both.
III. When the extraordinary person spoken of in the 55th chapter is called by the name of David, that title, especially when joined with other predictions, to be considered afterwards, affords a probable argument that that person was to descend of the house of David ; though the expression may also import, that David was an eminent type of him : and, as was observed before, though it were supposed possible, without divine inspiration, to foretell such an enlightening of the Gentiles as is known to have been the effect of the gospel ; and even to foretell, that that event would be owing in a peculiar manner to one particular person; yet it would be evidently impossible to foretell, without inspiration, that that person would have any concern in the family of David more than any other.
* IV. As to doctrinal characters, this chapter, as well as those formerly considered, teaches us, that that eminent person would be in a peculiar manner the author of the mercies contained in God's everlasting covenant; that he would not only be the universal priest and prophet, (as was proved from former predictions), but also the leader and commander; (which implies, his being the king and ruLer of the people of God, not only among the Jews, but also among the nations of the Gentiles); that God's thoughts and ways of mercy in the everlasting covenant would be far above ours, as the heavens are above the earth ; and as to the efficacy and success of God's word, that it would be like that of the rain that comes down from heaven to fructify the earth.
V. As, in the former prophecies, the enlightening of the Gentiles, in order to their partaking of the blessings of God's covenant, is expressed by deliverance from prison and darkness; so here, after
mentioning mentioning the efficacy of God's word, it is added, ✓ 12. “ For ye shall go out with joy, and be led “ forth with peace;" which, together with the words immediately following, “the mountains and " the hills shall break forth before you into fing“ ing, and all the trees of the field shall clap their " hands," thew how great a harmony there is between this and the above-cited productions, not only as to the facts and doctrines contained in them, but also as to the peculiar triumphant style in which the things foretold are commended as grounds of extraordinary joy and singing.
Though this cliapter does not contain such a variety of facts as some of the chapters formerly confidered, yet as it foretells very plainly the enlightening of the Gentile nations, that “ the earth “ would be full of the knowledge of the Lord, as " the waters cover the sea,” ŕ 9.; so it is very clear and express in determining, that the particular person by whom that event was to be accomplished was to descend of the family of Jesse, seeing immediately after the words now cited, it is added, that “in
that day there would be a root of Jesse, which " would stand for an enlign of the people;" and that “ to it the Gentiles would seek,” and that " his rest would be glorious.” y 10.
If it be objected, that no argument can be drawn from this prophecy, as not being fulfilled, till the whole earth, or all nations, be filled with the knowledge of the true God; it is sufficient to answer, that as it is not said here, that all nations would be enlightened or converted at once; and as the conversion of all nations, necessarily implies the conversion of many nations; the prophecy may be justly considered as fulfilled, though not wholly, yet in such important branches of it as afford a
strong strong argument for the conclusion in view ; seeing it is an uncontested fact, that many nations have been filled with the knowledge of God long ago in the manner here foretold, viz. by the doctrine of one particular person descended of the house of Jesse: and therefore we must apply to this prophecy the general remark in the introduction, about things foretold but not yet fulfilled, viz. that such things cannot invalidate the proofs taken from things that are fulfilled, provided these things be applicable to Christ truly and peculiarly, and at the same time are of that nature that they could not be foretold by mere sagacity, or by chance; which is evidently the case when a prophet foretells that one of the family of Jesse would convert many nations of the Gentiles,
II. This general observation, about prophecies that are as yet only fulfilled in part, serves to give light to a remarkable prediction in the latter part of this chapter, beginning at y 11.; where, immediately after mentioning the enlightening of the Gentiles by a root of Jesse, it is added, that in that day, which in the prophetic style signifies in those times, there would be a second recovery of the Jews from a general dispersion; which necessarily supposes, that there would be a second dispersion of that people; a dispersion after their returning from Babylon; a dispersion that would exist in the times of the Gentiles ; seeing, according to the prediction, it would be in those times that their restoration would happen : so that though this prophecy does not speak so clearly as some others of the unbelief of the Jews, yet it contains such a prediction of their dispersion, as is applicable truly and only to what happened after their rejecting the gospel.
III. As to facts relating to the life of the eminent person in view ; besides his being twice mentioned as descended of Jesse, the expressions about his being“ a branch that would come forth out of the
66 stein, « stem, and out of the roots, of Jesse,” I. contain a remarkable intimation, that at the time of his coining into the world that family would be in a low condition, and, as it were, reduced to its primitive obfcurity : which explication of these expressions is confirmed by the parallel expressions in if. liii. 2. “ He shall grow up before him as a ten“ der plant, and as a root out of a dry ground.”
IV. As, in the prophecies formerly cited it is said, of him who was to be the light of the Gentiles, that God would put his spirit upon him, and make his mouth like a sharp fword; fo here it is said of the root of Jesse, to whom the Gentiles would seek, y 2. 4. “ that the spirit of the Lord would “ rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and under“ standing, the spirit of counsel and might, the « spirit of knowledge, and of the fear of the Lord;' and that he would " smite the earth with the rod of « his mouth, and that with the breath of his lips he " would say the wicked.” And as in chap. 55. he is said to be a leader and commander to God's people, not only among the Jews, but also among the Gentiles; so the expressions in this chapter which represent him as a judge, contain farther confirmations of his kingly office. Nor are the instructions relating to the consolation of God's people, which are so strongly inculcated in the above-cited pro- ! phecies, omitted in this : He of whom it is said, chap. 42. that he would not break the bruised reed, nor quench the smoking flax, is said here, v 4. with righteousness to judge the poor, and to reprove with equity, for the meek of the earth; the word rendered the meek, signifying also the humble, or the afflicted.
V. The figures in y 6. 7. 8. about transforming the natures of the fiercest and most noxious animals, are justly applied by Christian interpreters to the transforming efficacy of the gospel on multitudes of finners in the most barbarous nations; who, how
ever fierce and intractable formerly, liaving received the love of the truth, learned of Christ to be meek and lowly. And though there are too many proofs from experience, that the predictions in this chapter, about the transforming and uniting efficacy of the gospel, have not yet had their full accomplishment; yet, as was obferved before on another head, this cannot nullify the evidence arising from the partial accomplishment of those predictions on as many as have received the gospel in sincerity. Nor can it be denied, that the gospel has had considerable effects, in producing the most friendly dispositions, between multitudes belonging to different nations that were formerly the objects of one another's general antipathy.
DANIEL ii. vii.
Both the 2d and 7th chapters of Daniel treat of the four great temporal monarchies, and also of a divine kingdom to be established on earth, which is distinguished from all other kingdoms by various characters, and particularly by two that are evidently of a singular nature, viz. that it would be a kingdom of universal extent, and of everlasting continuance ; which characters sufficiently demonstrate, that these two prophecies are synchronous, and parallel to one another; or that they relate to the fame times, and to the same series of events. That they are also parallel to the above-mentioned prophecies concerning the light of the Gentiles, will be evident, if we consider the principal contents of these two chapters.
In the ad chapter, after mentioning the four monarchies, represented in the prophetic vision by the four parts of a great image, the kingdom that was to excell them all is represented by a stone cut out without hands, which afterwards becomes a great mountain, and fills the whole earth : which