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The people honour Christ.


A. D. 33. Christ "entereth Jerusalem in triumph; curseth the barren figtree; cxhorteth to stedfastness, and defendeth his own conduct by the testimony of John.


AND when they drew near to Jerusalem, to Bethphage and Bethany, at the mount of Olives, 2 he sendeth two of his disciples, And saith to them, "Go into the village over against you: and as soon as ye enter into it, ye shall find a colt tied, whereon never man sat; loose it, and 3 bring it to me. And if any man say to you, Why do ye this? say, the Master hath need of it; and immediately he will send it hither." 4 And they went, and found the colt tied by the door without, in a place where two ways met; 5 and they loose it. And some of those who stood there said to them, "What do ye, loosing the 6 colt?" And they said to them even as Jesus had commanded; and they suffered them to take it. 17.And they brought the colt to Jesus, and cast 8 their mantles on it; and he sat upon it. And And many spread their mantles in the way; and ...others cut down branches of the trees, and 9 strewed them in the way. And those who went before, and those who followed, cried, "Hosanna; Blessed is he that cometh in the name of 10 the Lord: Blessed is the approaching kingdom of our father David: Hosanna in the highest."

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The barren fig-tree.

And Jesus entered into Jerusalem, and into the 11
temple, and when he had looked round about
upon all things, and now the evening was come,
he went out to Bethany with the twelve.

And on the morrow, as they were coming 12
from Bethany, he was hungry: And seeing a 13
fig-tree at a distance having leaves, he came, if
haply he might find any thing thereon; for the
season of ripe figs was not yet; but when he
came to it, he found nothing but leaves. And 14
Jesus spoke and said to it, "Let no man eat
fruit of thee hereafter for ever."
ciples heard it.


And his dis


die, and give his life a ransom for many. Hence none of the things which he foresaw moved him. The pride and ignorance of the sons of Zebedee, only led him to reflect on his approaching sufferings, and to teach all his disciples, what they must be, to attain pre-eminence in

give me my sight. The ellipsis is easily supplied, and shows the eager desire of the speaker.

CHAP. XI. To Bethphage, &c. Comp. Matt. xxi. 1. and note.

2. A coll tied. Matthew mentions both an ass and a colt; but as Jesus rode on the colt, Mark only mentions it.

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3-6. And if any man, &c. Mark relates the circumstances more particularly than his predecessor had done.

Matt. xxi. 3-7.

6. They suffered them. &c. Pearce is singular in referring the prououn them, not to the persons whom our Lord had sent, but to the ass and colt as noticed by Matthew. With Campbell I consider the construction to be «¿ñжяv âutoõs Asfai âuts≈, and have supplied accordingly. Pearce's view is untenable.

10. Kingdom of our father, &c. The clause, in the name of the Lord, is rejected by Griesbach on the best authority. It has crept into this from the close of the former verse. The kingdom of our father David, means the kingdom promised to David, the kingdom of Messiah. The people justly thought this was approaching. 13. For the season of ripe, &c. This is clearly a reason why figs


71 3

And they come to Jerusalem: and Jesus went 15 into the temple, and began to cast out those who sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the money-changers, and the seats of those who sold doves; And would 16 not suffer any to carry vessels through the temple. And he taught, saying to them, "Is it 17 not written, 'My house shall be called a house of prayer for all nations?' but ye have made it a den of thieves." And the scribes and the 18 chief priests heard this, and sought how they might destroy him; for they were afraid of him, because all the multitude was astonished at his And when the evening was come, he 19 doctrine. went out of the city.

10. that cometh in the name of the Lord. Griesbach.

his kingdom. They must be conformed to him; be servants, not lords; slaves for his sake and the Gospel's, and not tyrants over one another; they must suffer and then reign. What humility did Jesus exercise! Let us aspire in this to be like him.

might be expected; at least some not fully ripe, which might be eaten. According to the law, Deuter. xxiii. 24, &c. the Jews considered that every traveller had a right to eat of any fruits, though not to pluck and carry any away. I have restored the natural order of the text, with Campbell and others. Similar trajections often occur. Comp. Ch. xii. 12.; xvi. 4. Acts xxviii. 2. Now as the figs had not been gathered, if the tree had produced any, as it was full of leaves, our Lord might expect to find some; but as there were none, it was clearly a barren one, and hence he cursed it, or devoted it to destruction. Pearce has proved that the time of any kind of fruit or graiu, means the season when it is ripe and may be gathered. See Ch. xii. 2. Matt. xxi. 34. This removes the inconsistencies of the common version. Comp. 8. Matt. xxi. 18-21.

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.15-19. And they come, &c. From Matt. xxi. 12. and Luke xix. 45. the things Mark here related were done before our Lord devoted the fig-tree. None of the Evangelists have followed the exact order of events in their narratives. See notes, Matt. qu

17. As it is written, &c. See Is. Ixvi. 7, where the version is as I have

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Prayer will be accepted.


20. And in the morning, as they passed by, they saw the fig-tree withered away from the roots. 21 And Peter remembering, saith to him, "Rabbi, behold, the fig-tree which thou didst devote is 22 withered away. And Jesus answering saith to 23 them, “Have faith in God. For verily I say to you, That whosoever shall say to this mountain, Be thou removed, and be thou cast into the sea; and shall not doubt in his heart, but shall believe that those things which he saith will come to pass; he shall have whatsoever he 24 saith. For this reason, I say to you, All things whatsoever ye ask when ye pray, believe that believe that ye will receive them, and ye shall have them, have 25 And when ye stand praying, forgive, if ye aught against any; that your Father also who is 26 in heaven may forgive you your trespasses. But : if ye do not forgive, neither will your Father who is in heaven forgive your trespasses." 27 And they come again to Jerusalem, and as he was walking in the temple, there come to him the chief priests, and the scribes, and the elders, 28 And say to him, "By what authority doest thou these things?, and who gave thee this authority


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REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER XI, 1. We learn from what we have read that our Lord knew the dispositions of men, as well as the circumstances of other objects. He knew that in the village there was a colt, the foal of an ass, on which no man had ever sat, He knew that the owner would not refuse the loan of this colt, when he was informed who it was that wanted it. Hence when the disciples went, they found every thing as he had said. This proves that he possessed a knowledge superior to man; and when we connect this with what Peter says, 66 Lord thou knowest all things," we may fairly infer his divine nature. He is said. to search the hearts and the reins; and his office as the future judge of men renders this necessary. Let us then fear him, who knows what passeth in our minds, and from whom nothing can be concealed. Let us also love him, and serve him, being assured that no emotion of the heart, nor action of the life will be forgotten in the great day. Let us honour him as the Son and Lord

rendered, and which our translators here have unwarrantably altered. The words, shall be called, mean shall be.

22. Have faith in God. Pearce would render, "have a strong faith ;" and considers the text as a Hebraism. Campbell has assigned two reasons in support of the common version, which appear to me sufficient to justify it. 1. When Bo signifies great or mighty it is joined with the names of real substances, or with those of outward and visible effects, as prince, mountain, wind, cedar, city; trembling, wrestling, sleep, but no where with any abstract quality, such as faith, hope, love, justice, &c. When any of these are construed with the term God, he is either the subject or the object of the affection mentioned.

•Chief priests answered, to do these things?" And Jesus answered and 29 said to them, "I also will ask you one question; and answer me, and I will tell you by what authority I do these things. The baptism of John, 30 was it from heaven or from men? answer me." And they reasoned within themselves saying, "If 31 we say, From heaven; he will say, Why then did ye not believe him? But if we say, From 32 men; we fear the people: for all account, that John was indeed a Prophet. And they answered 33 and said to Jesus, "We cannot tell." And Jesus answering saith unto them, "Neither do I tell you by what authority I do these things,"

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A. D. 33. The parable of the vineyard let out to wicked husbandmen ;« on paying tribute to Cæsar; the Sadducees refuted; what is the first com mand; the poor widow commended.


AND he began to speak to them in parables. I "A certain man planted a vineyard, and set a hedge about it, and digged a wine-vat, and built a tower, and let it out to husbandmen, and went into another country. And at the season he 2 sent to the husbandmen a servant, that he might


of David, and join with those who showed every token of respect, and sang Hosannas.

2. The withering of the barren fig-tree showed the state of the Jewish Church and the judgments that would soon fall upon it. Like this tree, the people has the appearance of prosperity and fruitfulness, but when examined they were found to be altogether barren. Their religion consisted in the leaves of a showy profession. They made long prayers, fasted, and kept the traditions of their elders, but were without sincerity and the love of God. Their distinguished privileges were abused and they were filling up the measure of their sins, especially by their persecution of our Lord. Soon did wrath come upon them to the uttermost; they were eut off as if by lightning from heaven. O let their sin and punishment be a warning to us. Let us cultivate sincerity, and in every religious duty aim to approve ourselves to him, whom we profess to serve and to honour.

2. The word as is construed with the genitive of the object. Acts iii. 16. Rom. iii. 22, 26. Gal. ii. 16, 20.; iii. 22. Phil. iii. 9. In the same manner λ is construed 1 Thes. i. 3.

23, 24. Be removed, &c. Comp. Matt. xxi. 21, 22. and note. In working miracles a full confidence in the power and faithfulness of God was necessary; for without this they could not be so weak as to make the attempt. And they must also be assured in some manner that God would effect what they declared. Acts. iii. 6.; ix. 34, 40.

25, 26. Stand praying, &c. Comp. Matt. vi. 14, 15.

27-33. In the temple, &c. Comp. Matt. xxi. 23-27. and note, verse 25.

Parable of the vineyard.


Sadducees refuted.


saith to them, "Whose is this image and super-
scription?" And they said to him, "Cæsar's."
And Jesus answering said to them, "Render to 17
Cæsar the things that are Cæsar's, and to God
the things that are God's." And they wondered
at him.


Then come to him the Sadducees, who say 18 there is to be no future life; and they asked him, saying, "Teacher, Moses prescribed to us, that 19 if a man's brother die, and leave his wife behind

bandmen said amongst themselves, This is the heir; come let us kill him, and the inheritance 8 shall be ours.' And they took him, and killed him, and cast him out of the vineyard. What 9 shall therefore the owner of the vineyard do?' 'He will come, said they, and destroy the husbandmen, and will give the vineyard 10 unto others.' And have ye not read this scripture, 'The stone which the builders rejected, is 11 become the chief corner-stone. This is the Lord's doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes." 12 And they sought to lay hold on him, but feared the people; for they knew that he had spoken the parable against them: and they left him and departed.

- receive from the husbandmen of the fruit of the 3 vineyard. And they took him, and beat him, 4 and sent him away empty. And again he sent to them another servant; and at him they cast stones, and wounded him in the head, and sent 5 him away shamefully treated. And again he sent another; and him they killed; and many others he sent, some of whom they beat, and 6 some they killed. Having an only son, his well beloved, he sent him also last to them, saying 7 They will reverence my son.' But those hus-him, and leave no children, his brother should take his wife and raise up seed to his brother. Now there were seven brethren; and the first 20 took a wife, and dying left no seed. And the 21 second took her, and died, neither left he any seed: and the third likewise. And the seven had 22 her, and left no seed; last of all the woman died also. In the resurrection therefore, when they 23 shall rise, whose wife of them shall she be? for the seven had her to wife." And Jesus answer- 24 ing said to them, "Do ye not therefore err, because ye know not the scriptures nor the power of God? For when persons rise from the dead 25 they neither marry, nor are given in marriage, but are as the angels who are in heaven. But 26 concerning the dead, that they rise: have ye not read in the book of Moses, how in the bush God spoke to him, saying, 'I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob?" He is not the God of the dead but 27 of the living. Ye therefore do greatly err." And one of the scribes came near, and having 28 heard them reasoning together, and perceiving that he had answered them well, asked him, "Which is the first commandment of all?" And Jesus answered him, "The first command- 29 ment of all is, 'Hear O Israel; the Lord is our


And they send unto him certain of the Pharisees and of the Herodians, to catch him in his 14 discourse. And when they had come, they say unto him, "Teacher, we know that thou art true and carest for no man; for thou regardest not the person of men, but teachest the way of God in truth: Is it lawful to give tribute to Cæsar 15 or not? Shall we give, or shall we not give?"

But he knowing their hypocrisy, said to them, "Why tempt ye me? bring me a denarius, that 16 I may see it." And they brought it. And he



CHAP. XII. 1-12. To speak to them, &c. Comp. Matt. xxi. 33-46. 2. And at the season, &c. That is, when the grapes were ripe, and fit for gathering. See note, Ch. xi. 13.

4. Stoned him, &c. Some mss. with the Vulg. omit the participle, but the connexion and sense seem to me to require it.

5. Many others he sent. I consider the full reading to be woλkovs ähous ANOTHλ. By supplying the verb the sense is obvious.

7. The inheritance, &c. Not by right, but by seizing on it as it is. Matt. xxi. 38.

8. And killed him, &c. The order of the two verbs is different. Matt.

27. the God. Griesb.


and some mss. so read here. Luke also agrees with Matthew in stating that they slew him after having cast him out of the vineyard. Campbell renders, "having thrust him out of the vineyard, killed him."

9. Give the vineyard, &c. That is, 'let it out' to other husbandmen, as verse 1.

13-17. Certain of the Pharisees, &c. Comp. Matt. xxii. 15–22. and


14. Teacher we know, &c. The order of the words in the parallel place Pearce considers more natural, and most probably the true one. 18-27. No future life. See notes, Matt. axii. 23–33.

The great command.


30 God, the Lord is one. And thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy mind, and with all thy 31 strength:' this is the first commandment. And the second is like to it, 'Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. There is none other com32 mandment greater than these." And the scribe said to him, "In truth, Teacher, thou hast said well; for there is one God; and there is none 33 other but he: And to love him with all the heart, and with all the understanding, and with all the soul, and with all the strength, and to love his neighbour as himself, is more than all 34 whole burnt-offerings, and sacrifices." And when Jesus saw that he answered discreetly, he said to him, "Thou art not far from the kingdom of God." And no man after that durst ask him any further question.


And Jesus spoke and said, while he taught in the temple, "How say the scribes that 36 Christ is the son of David? For David himself said by the Holy Spirit, The Lord said to my Lord, 'Sit thou on my right hand, till I make


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The widow's mite. thine enemies thy footstool.' David therefore 37 himself calleth him Lord; and how is he then his son ?" And the common people heard him gladly.

Then he said to them in his teaching, "Be- 38 ware of the scribes, who love to walk in robes, and love salutations in the market places, And 39 the chief seats in the synagogues, and the uppermost places at feasts; Who devour wi- 40 dow's houses, and for a disguise make long prayers; these shall receive a heavier punishment."

And Jesus sat over against the treasury, and 41 beheld how the people cast money into the treasury; and many that were rich cast in much. And 42 there came a certain poor widow, and she threw > in two mites which make a farthing. And he 43 called to him his disciples, and saith to them, "Verily I say to you, That this poor widow hath cast in more than all they who have cast into the treasury. For all they did cast in from 44 their abundance; but she from what she wanted cast in all that she had, even all her substance."

REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER XII. 1. How strongly does 2. While we admire the wisdom of our Lord's answers to the our Lord describe the opposition, and growing wickedness of the ensnaring questions of the Pharisees and Sadducees, we are taught Jews, in the parable read! They proceeded from sin to sin until they most clearly what are the fundamental principles of all genuine piety. filled up the measure of their crimes, and brought on themselves the As there is but one Jehovah, one God over all and rich to all who call heaviest calamities and judgments. The inference our Lord draws upon him, so he only is to be supremely loved. Every faculty should shows that as in the case of David, so in reference to himself and be employed, every energy of the soul rouzed, in the feeling and exkingdom, the stone which the builders rejected would become the chief pression of love to him. This is the first commandment; and how corner-stone. No opposition of theirs could prevent the accomplish-strongly is the duty enforced by the love of God towards sinners, in ment of the divine purpose. They rejected and crucified the Lord the gift, and work, and sufferings of his own son. With the love of Jesus, that they might secure the vineyard; but the owner came and God is connected that of our neighbour. His reputation, honour, destroyed those wicked husbandmen, and let it out to others. They property and safety, should be as dear to us as our own. While these esteemed Jesus as a stone unfit for the foundation of hope, joy and principles are maintained in the law, they form also the great princisafety; yet has God fulfilled in him his promise: "Behold I lay in ples of the gospel; we are still to love God and one another out of Zion for a foundation, a stone, a tried stone; a precious corner-stone, pure hearts fervently. What can excite and maintain this holy love, a foundation the most firm and sure: he that believeth in him shall but the love of God shed abroad in the heart. not be ashamed."

29. The Lord is our God, &c. Comp. Deut. vi. 4. and note, Mark quotes Moses at length, giving the reason why the Lord should be supremely regarded.

41. Cast money into, &c. By treasury is meant a chest, into which the people put what they pleased. It was placed in one of the rooms of the tem

33. Is more than all whole, &c. From this it appears that some of the Jewish teachers held that the command concerning sacrifices was the greatest; but this scribe more properly gave the preference to that which re-ple, (1 John viij. 20.); and what the people gave was not designed for the quired supreme love to God. poor, but for the repairs of the temple and the service of God. Comp. 2 King, xii. 19.

34. Thou art not far, &c. This just and well-grounded sentiment agreed with what Christ taught; and holding this, he considered the man as ready to believe on him as the Messiah, and to enter into his kingdom.

35-37. That Christ is the, &c. Comp. Matt. xxii, 42–46. and note.

44. From what she wanted. Even for her own use. She thus showed her love to God, by depriving herself of some little temporal comfort for his sake.


38-40. Beware of the scribes, &c. Mark gives us a very abridged account of what Jesus said respecting the scribes and Pharisees. Matthew has recorded this discourse at length, Ch. 23.

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Destruction of the temple.

A. D. 33. The destruction of the temple foretold; persecutions for the gospel stated; great calamities to come on the Jews; Christ's coming to judyment; the hour of it uncertain.


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"But when ye shall see the desolating abomi- 14 nation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, standing where it ought not, (let him that readeth attend,) then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains: And let not him who is on the 15 housetop, go down into the house, nor enter therein, to take any thing out of his house: And let not him who is in the field, turn back -16 to take up his mantle. But alas for those who 17 are with child, and for those who give suck in those days! And pray ye that your flight be 18


AND as he went out of the temple, one of his disciples saith to him, "Teacher, see what kind of stones and what kind of buildings are here!" 2 And Jesus answering said to him, "Seest thou these great buildings? there shall not be left one stone upon another that shall not be thrown down." 3 "And as he sat upon the mount of Olives over against the temple, Peter and James and John 14 and Andrew asked him privately, saying, "Tell us when will these things be? and what will be the sign when all these things shall be ful-not in the winter. For in those days will be 19 5 filled." And Jesus answering them said, "Take affliction, such as hath not been from the begin6 heed lest any man deceive you: For many ning of the world which God created unto this will come assuming my name, each saying, I am time, nor shall be hereafter. And unless the 20 7 the Christ, and will deceive many. And when Lord should shorten those days, no flesh could ye shall hear of wars and rumours of wars, be be saved; but for the elect's sake whom he hath not troubled for such things must needs be; chosen, he hath shortened those days. And then 21 8 but the end will not be yet. For nation will rise if any man shall say to you, Lo, here is the Christ, up against nation, and kingdom against king- or, lo, he is there; believe him not: For false 22 dom; and there will be earthquakes in many Christs and false prophets will rise, and will ... places, and there will be famines and tumults: propose signs and wonders, so as to seduce, if it These are the beginnings of sorrows. were possible, even the elect. But take ye 23 heed; Behold I have foretold to you all these things.



"But take heed to yourselves; for they will deliver you up to councils; and in the synagogues ye will be beaten; and ye will be brought wod before rulers and kings for my sake, for a testi10 mony to them. And the gospel must first be 1 published among all nations. But when they bring you and deliver you up, take no anxious thought beforehand what ye shall speak, nor do ye premeditate: but whatsoever shall be given you in that hour, that speak, for it is not so 12 much ye that speak, but the Holy Spirit. Now the brother will deliver up the brother to death, and the father the son; and children will rise up against their parents, and will cause them to be




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CHAP. XIII. 1-3. Went out of the temple, &c. Comp. Matt. xxiv.
1-3, and notes.

See notes, Matt. xxiv. 4-8.

4.4 f

5-8. Take heed lest, &c. 9. Will deliver you up, &c. Comp. Matt. x. 17, 18. and xxiv. 9., That this and what follows was fulfilled we learn from the Acts and Epistles. See Acts iv. 7.; v. 27, 40.; vi. 12.; xvi. 23.; xxiii. 1, 2.; xxv. 23.; and 2 Cor. xi. 24.



L 17 1

False Christs will come.

put to death. And ye will be hated of all men 18

for my name's sake; but he that shall endure to
the end, shall be saved.



10-13, The gospel must, &c. Comp. Rom. x. 18. and Colos. i. 6, 23.

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"But in those days, after that affliction, the 24 sun shall be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light. And the stars of heaven shall 25 fall, and the powers which are in heaven shall be shaken. And then they shall see the Son of 26 man coming in the clouds with great power and glory. And he will then send his messengers, 27 and gather together his elect from the four winds, from the end of the earth, to the end of heaven. Now learn a parable of the fig-tree; 28 When its branch is yet tender, and putteth forth leaves, ye know that summer is near;

From which passages we learn the fulfilment of what our Lord said. Comp. also Matt. xxiv. 9-14.


14-22. Desolating abomination, &c. Comp. Matt. xxiv. 15-22. and notes there.

24. In those days, &c. Matthew says, "Immediately after the tribulation of those days, &c." For the scuse of this and following, verse, see note, Matt. xxiv, 29.

26, 27. Son of man coming, &c. See note, Matt. xxiv. 27-31.


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