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Christ is baptized.


His fast and temptation. me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not wor- from the heavens, saying, « This is


beloved thy to carry; he shall baptize you with the Holy Son, in whom I am well pleased.” 12 Spirit and with fire: Whose winnowing-shovel

CHAPTER IV. is in his hand, and he will thoroughly cleanse his floor, and gather the wheat into the granary; but A. D. 30, 31. Christ fasteth and is tempted; angels minister unto him ; the chaff he will burn

he dwelleth in Capernaum; beginning to preach; he calls Peter, Andren, with unquenchable fire.” up

James and John, and healeth all the diseased. 13 Then cometh Jesus from Galilee unto the Jor14 dan to Jobu, to be baptized by him. But John Then was Jesus led up by the Spirit into the i

forbad bim, saying, “I have need to be baptized desert to be tempted by the devil. And when 2 15 by thee, and comest thou to me?” And Jesus he had fasted forty days and forty nights, he af

answering said to him, “Suffer it now; for thus terward was hungry. And when the tempter 3

it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness.” Then came to bim, he said, “If thou be the Son of 16 he suffered him. And when Jesus had been bap- God, command that these stones become loaves.”

tized, he went up immediately out of the water, But he answered and said, “ It is written; Man 4 and lo, the heavens were opened to him, and he shall not live by bread only, but by whatsoever

saw the Spirit of God descending as a dove, God appointeth.” Then the devil taketh Jesus 5 17 and coming upon him : And, lo, a voice with him to the holy city, and setteth him on a

REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER IU. 1. In the character of 3. How awful is infidelity. In the Saducees we have an exam. the Baptist, we see the spirit and the power of Elijah. What bold-ple of its fatal influence.--Rejecting the clear discoveries of revelation, ness, zeal and fidelity did he exercise in the holy ministry he had re- they became brutish in their knowledge, and equally so in their pracceived! He sought not the praise of men but the praise of God. tice. “O my soul, come not thou into their secret; mine honour, lo Mortified to this world, he laboured to arouse a stupid, and to reform their assembly, be not united!” a profligate race. He, by his ministry and example, was a burning 4. Jesus eame to lay the ax to the root of every bad tree, and to and a shining light! Happy the man, who, when his Lord cometh, separate the chaff from the wheat. By his doctrine and preaching, he is found equally impartial, faithful and humble !

in some degree accomplished this design; but at the great day he will 2. How dangerous are mistaken notions in religion. The Pha- more fully complete ii. O let us dread his vengeance, and fly to his risees placed their religion in external and ceremonial performances.

Who can endure the unquenchable fire ! Let this Their doetrinal creed was in many things excellent; but pride, self- impending wrath urge us to flee to him who is able to save. confidence and hypocrisy were their prevailing vices. They consider- 5. How glorious is the person of the Messiah! John is sent to ed their descent from Abraham as a ground of hope ; and though prepare the way before lim; like the morning star, 10 usher in the sun wholly destitute of the spirit and faith of that Patriarch, they conti- of righteousness. How richly furnished was Jesus with the gifts of the dently expected to share with him the joys of paradise. Vain expecta- Holy Spirit, for his great and glorious work! The Father gave not tions! May we ever remember that external privileges will not be the Spirit by measure unto him; but poured it out upon him in the admitted as a substitute for personal piety ;—that they are only means, most abundant degree; thus giving testimony to his beloved son, in and if not improved, instead of securing our happiness, will aggravate whom he was well pleased. Let us honour him as such ; that confiding our condemnation.

grace for relief.

in him for salvation, the Father may accept us in the beloved !


the hypocrisy of the one, and the infidelity of the other, of these sects.

9. From these stones, &c. Jesus probably pointed to some which lay before him. See Chap. iv. 3.; vi. 29, &c. Our Lord alludes to the calling of the Gentiles; and that God should regard the Gentiles as the children of Abraham, appeared to the Jews like a natural impossibility.

12. Winnowing-shovel. See Introd. p. 56. It could not be a van, as it was carried in the hand.

15. Fulfil all righteousness. To perform fully and in the most exact manner, all positive as well as moral righteousness: Rom. xiii. 10.

16. Descending as a Doce Luke says, “in a bodily shape,' but it is uncertain, whether or not this appearance was in the form of a dove. Grotius and Dr. Owen thought this appearance was a bright Mame; and it descended in the manner of a dove, hovering and then resting on Jesus. It is probable, that not only Jesus, but John and all present saw this sigu from heaven, and heard the voice: John i. 32.; and 1 John. v. 6, 8.

17. This is my beloved, &c. Some mss. read here as Mark and Luke, “Thou art my beloved Son, &c.' The sense is the same whether reading be adopted.

CHAP. IV. 1. If the temptation soon followed our Lord's baptism, it is probable the desert might be the great desert where the law was given. This was a fit scene for the temptation, whether it be considered as a real occurrence, as only what passed in our Lord's mind. Pearce thinks it was real, and that our Lord alludes to it: chap. vi. 13. Deliver us from the evil one, as he renders. On the other hand, Farmer and many excellent commentators, contend that it was visionary, that after a miraculous fast of forty days, the tempter seemed to his mind to come and say; If thou be, &c. Indeed what is related ver. 8, could not literally happen.

3. Loaves. So Pearce and Campbell; and the former explains, “let eack stone become a loaf.' We do not read, that our Lord, during his whole mi nistry, wrought one miracle to support himself.

Jesus conquers the templer.

MATTHEW IV. Peter, Andrew and others called, 6 wing of the temple, And saith to him, “If Gentiles; The people who sat in darkness 16

thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down; for have seen a great light; and to them who sat it is written, He shall give his angels charge in the region of the shadow of death light hath concerning thee; and on their hands they shall sprung up.”

bear thee up, lest thou dash thy foot against a From that time Jesus began to preach, and 17 7 stone." Jesus said to him, “ It is also writ

to say, “ Repent ye: for the kingdom of heaven ten, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God.” draweth near.” 8 Again, the devil taketh Jesus with him up to a Now as he walked by the lake of Galilee, he 18 very high mountain, and showeth him all the

saw two brethren, Simon called Peter, and Ankingdoms of the world, and the glory of them ; drew his brother, casting a net into the lake; 9 And saith to him, “ All these things I will give for they were fishers. And he saith to them, 19

to thee, if thou wilt fall down and worship me.” “ Follow me, and I will make you fishers of 10 Then saith Jesus to him, “Get thee hence, Sa- men.” And immediately they left their nets 20

tan; for it is written, Thou shalt worship the and followed him. And going on thence, he 21

Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve.” sa'w other two brethren, James, the son of Zebe11 Then the devil leaveth him; and, behold, angels dee, and Jolin his brother, in a ship with Zebedee came and ministered to him.

their father, mending their nets; and he called 12 Now when Jesus had heard that John was de- them. And they immediately left the ship and 22

livered up to prison, he withdrew into Galilee. their father, and followed him. 13 And having left Nazareth, he came and dwelt And Jesus went about all Galilee, teaching in 23

in Capernaum, which is on the side of the lake, their synagogues, and preaching the glad tidings 14 in the borders of Zebulon and Naphtali: So of his kingdom, and curing every disease, and

that it was fulfilled which was spoken by Isaiah every malady among the people. 15 the prophet, saying, “ The land of Zebulon, And his fame went through all Syria ; and 24

and the land of Naphtali, toward the way of the they brought to him all their sick who were lake, by the side of the Jordan, Galilee of the seized with various diseases and torments, and

4.' In the quotation from Deut. viii. 3, I have given the sense in preference to the literal version. See Note there.

7. Tempt the Lord thy God. Hammond has observed that this language does not mean to confide too much in the divine.goodness, but to distrust the divine goodness and power, after sufficient proof had been given. In short to tempt God, is to call in question the proofs he has given of his goodness and power, and unreasonably to request new proofs. Comp. Exod. xvij. 2, 3. Deut. vi, 6. Heb. iii. 12. and Isa. lxxviii. 18, 20.

9. Our Lord was here tempted by power, honour, and ambition ; but the tempter found nothing in him, on which these objects could operate. The tempter was resisted, and he fled.

12. John was imprisoned in the castle of Machærus in Peræa; and the reason of it is given Chap. xiv. 3. Mark vii. 17. and Luke iii. 19.

13. Capernaum. Wetstein conjectures, that this town, which was situate at the north point, on the outer side of the Lake of Galilee, was under the Tetrarch of Galilee, and not under Herod. Compared with this Herod, Philip was a quiet and peaceable Prince.

15. The lake. It is called the lake or sea of Galilee, of Tiberias and of Genesereth. It received, from a small district called Genesereth, the last name; the second from a town built by Herod the Great, which became the ehief city, and continued to be celebrated as the seat of Jewish literature, long after Jerusalem was destroyed. The Jerusalem Talmud was written there. The first name is taken from the Province of Galilee; this province contained the northern part of the Holy land; and, as it was contiguous to the Tyrians and Syrians, in the upper part of it many of these dwelt. Hence it was called Galilee of the Gentiles. No part of the Holy land was more populous than this.

16. Who sat in darkness. The tribes of Zebulon and Naphtali, were the first that suffered by the invasion of Tiglath Pilesar : 2 Kings xv 29. and 1 Chron. 5. 26. and the prophet when properly translated, evidently predicts a future period, when God would make this district glorious. Our Lord first preached to these tribes, and wrought many miracles among them, so that the Evangelist applies with the strictest propriety this prophecy to this circumstance,

18-22. Simon called Peter. These apostles knew Jesus before this solenın call. Some of them had heard the testimony of John the baptist to him : John i. 35, 41. and it is probable that our Lord's divine knowledge and power were known to them.

23. In their synuyogues. These are not mentioned in the Old Testament. They were erected in towns both in Judea, and where ever a sufficient number of Jews resided, and religious service was performed in them three times a day, morning, afternoon, and evening. They were like modern chapels, with a desk, where the law and prophets were read, seats for the men below, and galleries for the women. The synagogue was governed by a council of a few persons and a president, who is called in the Gospels, ruler of the syna. gogues. The glad tidings. I give here the acknowledged sense of the text. “The gospel of the kingdom,' conveys no clear sense, our Lord did not as yet distinctly and publicly declare himself to be the Messiah; but preached on the prophecies respecting him, and on the blessings to be enjoyed under his reign. He wrought many miracles to awaken attention and to establish his claims to be the person that should come.

24. Those who had demons. Some coutend that demoniacs were per. sons who laboured under bodily diseases : particularly those of the maniacal, lunatic, and epilectic kind, which were by the common people attributed to the agency of demons and evil spirits. But most suppose that God permitted

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Who are happy.

MATTHEW V. Excellence of Christ's disciples. those who had demons, and those who were are the merciful; for they shall obtain mercy. lunatic, and those who had the palsy; and he Happy are the pure in heart; for they shall 8 healed them.

see God. Happy are the peacemakers; for they 9

shall be called the sons of God. Happy are 10 CHAPTER V.

they who are persecuted for righteousness' sake; A. D. 31. Christ preacheth from a mountain, declaring who are happy; the for their's is the kingdom of heaven. Happy 11 excellence of his disciples, and the design of his coming; he explains the

are ye, when men shall reproach and persecute law, und inculcates love to enemies.

you, and speak all kind of evil against you 25 And great multitudes followed Jesus from Gali- | falsely, for my sake. Rejoice, and be exceed- 12 lee, and from Decapolis, and from Jerusalem, and ingly

em, and ingly glad ; for great shall be your reward in 1 from Judea, and from beyond the Jordan. And heaven; for so men persecuted the prophets

seeing the multitudes, he went up a mountain; and who were before you.

he sat down, and his disciples came near to him: “Ye are the salt of the earth : but if the salt 13 2 And he opened his mouth, and taught them, have lost its savour, with what shall its saltness 3 saying, “ Happy are the poor in spirit; for their's be restored? It is no longer good for any thing 4 is the kingdom of heaven. Happy are they that but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot 3 mourn; for they shall be comforted.

Happy! by men. Ye are the light of the world. A city 14 are the meek; for they shall inherit the land. that is set on a hill cannot be hid. Nor do men 15 6 Happy are they who hunger and thirst after light a lamp, and put it under a measure, but 7 righteousness; for they shall be filled. Happy on a stand; and it shineth to all who are in the

REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER IV. 1. Let us admire the con- portions of the divine word, he put to silence the adversary. Thus let us descension of our Lord, who, when he came to save us, came to suffer endeavour to understand the genuine sense of the scriptures, that we for us. It could not but be painful to his pure and holy mind to be subject may put to fight, with this sword of the spirit, every temptation that to such temptations as are here recorded; but in this conflict he was more

may assail us. than a conqueror. The second Adam overcame the serpent who seduced 3. When John was shut up in prison, Jesus began to preach the first. Paul tells us why he was tempted: “For in that he himself hath more publicly. He called some of his Apostles and laboured indesatisuffered being tempted, he is able to succour them that are tempted." gably in his office. Those who had sal in darkness saw his light;

2. Our Lord has set us an example of holy wisdom and courage. and those who were afflicted enjoyed the benefit of his healing power. When the tempter assailed him, with portions of scripture misapplied, May we ever rejoice in his light-and live and walk as the children his wisdom detected the misapplication, and by a reference to other of light; and enjoy health of soul !

6. Hunger and thirst, &c. This phrase is expressive of a holy ardour of sonl after the most eminent attainments in universal goodness, which will end in complete satisfaction in a future state.

7. The merciful. Newcome, the compassionate ;' but mercy includes compassion, and they who exercise it shall find the like mercy from God and


evil spirits to exercise a power over human bodies at the time of Christ's appearance, for the purpose of displaying his superiority over them. Comp. Chap. xvii. 15, 18. and John X. 20. See Farmer and others.

25. Decapolis. A part of Syria, and so called because it contained ten cities.

CHAP. V. 1. And his disciples, $c. Jesus addressed this discourse to his disciples in the hearing of the multitude.

2. Opened his mouth, &c. This idiom occurs elsewhere for speaking : Chap. xjii. 35. Acts viii. 35, &c.

3. Happy. So Doddridge and others. This word comprehends the natural as well as the judicial consequences of the disposition and temper described : whereas the term, blessed, seems confined to the favour of God :The poor in spirit. Campbell renders, the poor who repine not! Newcome explains, the lowly and unambitious; one easily satisfied. A man may be poor in circumstances, who is not poor in spirit; and the following words suggest that a religious disposition is intended.

4. That mourn. This must apply to mourning under a sense of sin, as well as under afflictions; for there is a sorrow which is unto death : 2 Corin. viii. 10.

5. The meek. Comp. Ps. xxxvii. 10, 11. Those who duly govern their anger and exercise lenity and forgiveness, find friends; they enjoy health and tranquillity, and escape injuries or find support under them.

8. Pure in heart. Morally and spiritually pure, which far exceeds all ceremonial purity; who are without deceit, guile, evil thoughts, and designs.

9. Peace-makers. The friends of concord, amity, and benevolence.

-Sons of God. To be called signifies to be really sons of God by adoption. John i. 12. and 1 John iii. 1.

10.–12. Persecuted, yc. Our Lord here prepares his disciples for what he knew would be their lot; and glances at the future condition of the Jews by referring to that of their fathers.

13. If the sult, $c. In hot countries meat cannot be preserved sweet, even for a moderate time, without salt.—Lost its savour, &c. From Maundrel we learn that some rock salt, by exposure to the sun, air, and rain, becomes insipid or loses its savour; and this was used in some cases as sand to repair the roads. This shows the foundation of our Lord's remark; and as applied to teachers signifies, that if they lose their relish for spiritual things, and become insipid and foolish, what good can there be expected from them? 14. Set on a hill. Like Samaria, Bethulia, or Nazareth.

The law explained.


of the sin of adultery. 16 house. Thus let your light shine before men, thy brother, and then come and offer thy gift.

that they may see your good works, and glorify | Agree with thine adversary quickly, while thou 25 your father who is in heaven.

art in the way with him; lest the adversary de17 “ Think not that I am come to destroy the law, | liver thee to the judge, and the judge deliver

or the prophets; I am not come to destroy, but thee to the officer, and thou be cast into prison. 18 to fulfil them. For verily I say to you, Till Verily I say to thee, Thou shalt by no means 2e!

heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle come out thence, till thou hast paid the utter

shall by no means pass away from the law, till all most farthing 19 be accomplished. Whosoever therefore shall “ Ye have heard that it was said to the ancients, 27

violate one of the least of these commandments, Thou shalt not commit adultery. But I say 28 or shall teach men so, shall be of no esteem in to you, That whosoever looketh on the wife the kingdom of heaven; but whosoever shall of another in order to desire her hath committed

do and teach them, shall be highly esteemed in adultery with her already in his heart. Now 29 20 the kingdom of heaven. For I say to you, That if thy right eye cause thee to offend, pluck it

unless your righteousness shall excel the right out, and cast it from thee; for it is better for eousness of the Scribes and Pharisees, ye shall thee that one of thy members perish, than that

by no means enter into the kingdom of heaven. thy whole body should be cast into hell. And if 30 21 “ Ye have heard that it was said to the ancients, thy right band cause thee to offend, cut it off,

Thou shalt not commit murder; and whosoever and cast it from thee; for it is better for thee

shall commit murder shall be liable to the judg- that one of thy members perish, than that thy 22 ment. But I say to you, That whosoever is whole body should be cast into hell. It hath 31

angry with his brother without a cause shall be been said, Whosoever shall put away his wife, liable to the judgment; and whosoever shall let him give her a bill of divorce. But I say 32 say to bis brother, Raca, [VILE MAN) shall be to you, That whosoever shall divorce his wife, liable to the council; but whosoever shall say, except on account of whoredom, causeth her to

Moreh, [MISCREANT) shall be liable to hell-fire. commit adultery; and whosoever shail marry 23 Therefore if thou bring thy gift to the altar, and her that is divorced committeth adultery,

there remember that thy brother hath matter of Again, ye have heard that it hath been said 33 21 complaint against thee; Leave there thy gift to the ancients, Thou shalt not forswear thy

before the altar, and go ; first be reconciled to self, but shalt perform to the Lord thine oaths.

To destroy, &c. Campbell renders, 'to subvert,' others, disannul. The sense is, abolish or set aside. Jesus came not to do this, but to fulfil them, to answer the types, accomplish the predictions, and enforce the precepis of the old covenant.

19. One of the least , $c. I construe with Campbell and as our translators have done, Chap. xxv. 40, 45.

20. Righteousness of the scribes, &c. The Jews had a proverb that if but two were admitted into the kingdom of heaven, the one would be a pharisee, and the other a scribe. How awfully were they mistaken: From what our Lord here and in other places asserts, it appears they taught, that the precepts of the law extended ouly to outward actions, and that a zeal for ceremonies would atone for moral defects.

22. Liable to the judgment. There is a reference to the Jewish Court of twenty-three, and to the sanhedrim, or great council of seventy-two; but our Lord, I conceive refers to the different degrees of punishment God will inflict on causeless sneer, reproach and reviling. I have retained the Hebrew word Moreh, as our translators had done Raca; and the sense given is more agrecable to the context, than fool. See Campbell's preface to Gospel of Mark.

23—26. Bring thy gift, &c. Thy free-will-offering: Levit. vii. 16.

-Thy brother, $c. No gift will be accepted, while he who presents it is injuring his neighbour; and if it be prudent when we have done an injury to que; to make it up with him rather than go to law and suffer all the rigours of

justice, it must be more so to repen: lest our case should be infinitely more deplorable in the prison of hell.

28. The wife of another. The Greek word means unquestionably a wise, as well as a woman and the Arabic supports this sense here. Most of our old versions, so rendered, as those of Coverdale, Matthewe, Craziner; and Purver, Campbell, and others have followed then. Wak Seld ecaterds, that sv th xaf&ore ought to be coustrued with no-Iuperoon, and supposes that the Persic translator so construed. It is certainly our Lori's desig? to state, that intentional wickedness is criminal as well as the actual deel; and the spirit of the divine command is as much violated in the one case as in the other.

29. Cause thee to offend. So the Geneva, and the marginal rendering of our common version. A man is not apt to be offended at his own scuses or limbs; but if these lead him to offend, and endanger his existence, it is better to lose an eye or an hand, than that the whole body should perish. The moral sense is equally plaju with the natural; and our Lord meant that se. ductions from duty should be avoided at all events.

32. To commit adultery. Such a man commits adultery, if he marry again while his wife is living; and he causes her to commit adultery, if she marry again, while he living; and in this case her second husband is an adulterer.

33–36. Forswear thyself, &c. Comp. Levit. xix. 12. Deut. xxiii. 21. From these verses it appears that the Jews thought no oath biuding, unless

Of common swearing.

Love to enemies. 34 But 1 say to you ; Swear not at all; neither shalt love thy neighbour and hate thine enemy. 35 by heaven ; for it is God's throne; Nor by the But I say to you, Love your enemies, bless 44

earth: for it is his footsto8l; nor by Jerusalem; them that curse you, do good to them who hate 36 for it is the city of the great King. Neither you, and pray for them who injuriously treat

shalt thou swear by thine head, because thou you, and persecute you; That ye may be the 45 37 canst not make one hair white or black. But sons of your Father who is in heaven; for he

Jet your yea be yea, and your no, no; for maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the whatsoever is more than these proceedeth from good, and sendeth rain on the righteous and on evil.

the unrighteous. For if ye love them who love 46 38 “ Ye have heard that it hath been said, An you, what reward have ye? do not even the 39 eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth: But I publicans the same ? And if ye salute your 47

say to you, That ye resist not the injurious brethren only, in what do ye excel ? do not

man; but whosoever shall smite thee on thy even the 'Gentiles" so? Be ye therefore perfect, 48 40 right cheek, turn to him the other also. And even as your Father who is in heaven is perfect,

if any man choose to sue thee at law, and to take away thy vest, let him have thy mantle also.

CHAPTER VI. 41 And whosoever shall compel thee to go one A. D. 31. Christ treateth on alms, prayer and fasting; exhorteth to seek 42 mile go with bim two. Give to him that asketh

the kingdom of God, and not to be anxiously careful concerning the

things of the world. thee, and from him that would borrow of thee, turn not away.

“Take heed that ye do not your acts of righ- 1 43 “ Ye bave heard that it hath been said, Thou teousness before men, in order to be seen by them:

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Let us

REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER V. 1. What holy dispositions does our Lord require! Humility, meekness, gentleness, and an ardent desire after universal goodness and righteousness. The posses. sion of these graces not only exalt and adorn our nature, but constitute the genuine sources of peace and happiness in this life. diligently cultivate them, that being made pure in heart, we may hereafter die, and for ever enjoy God.

2. How awful the degeneracy of that man, who can revile, persecute, and injuriously treat those who are the excellent of the earth. Yet so were the prophets treated; and so Jesus and his disciples. Let those who suffer in like manner remember, that it is their glory to suffer for righteousness' sake; and that great shall be their reward in heaven. Let them ever maintain their usefulness as the salt of the earth and the light of the world, by the communication of divine truth, and the influence of a holy conduct.

3. The divine law as explained by our Lord, condemns not only the outward deed, but the sinful desire and the criminal intention. God requireth truth in the inward parts; and will not hear the prayer of one who regards iniquity in his heart. . O let us keep our hearts with all diligence, least they should be polluted, by causeless anger, or unhallowed desire! In social life let justice and chastity be maintained as constituting the bonds of social union!

4. How disgraceful is common swearing; and how ingenious are men in inventing new forms of it, and yet deeming themselves guiltless. It reflects on the veracity of him who uses it; for what need would there be for any kind of oath, if a man were accustomed to speak nothing but the truth? If we are to be judged for idle words, much more for vain and sinful oaths. Let those who prosess to be the children of God, keep the door of their lips, that they sin not in this manner with their tongues. Let us love and not curse even our enemies.

they used the name of God: See Deut. vi. 13, 19, 20. They might swear by heaven, or earth, or Jerusalem, or their head, and though they did not perform their oaths, they considered themselves guiltless. Our Lord evidently refers to swearing in common conversation; as in a court no oaths of this kind would be admitted.

37. Your yea be yea, 8¢. I have followed Pearce and Campbell, and cannot but think this version more forcible and perspicuous. Our Lord inculcates an invariable adherence to truth, so that a man's simple affirmation or denial of a thing, may be believed. “The Jews had a saying, The yea of the just is yea, and their no is no' Comp. James v. 12.

38. Comp. Exod. xxi. 24. Levit. xxiv. 20. and Deut. xix. 21.

39. The injurious man. That got novego ã refers to the person, who is mentioned in the next words, is to me certain. So Doddridge, Pearce, and VOL. III, PART XIX.


Campbell render. Pearce considers that such persons are meant as the Roman soldiers, publicans, and couriers usually were: Luke iii. 12, 14. Our Lord recommends patience under trying injuries, rather than resistance; and a disposition rather to sustain the loss of what is of small value, than to go to law. To extend these precepts further, would be to authorize every villain to seize the property of his pious neighbour, and to destroy all the principles of natural equity and justice.

41. Compel thee, &c. This kind of compulsion was used by public officers, who seized persons or carriages, as they had occasion.

43. Hate thine enemy. Comp. Ps. cxxxix. 21, 22. Our Lord refers to the comments of the Jews on their law as well as to the law itself.

44. Love your enemies. By blessing them who curse you, &c.
46. Publicans, See Introd. Vol. 1. p. 54. and comp. Luke iij. 13. vii. 34.

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