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Peter, and James, and John, and leadeth them up a high mountain apart by themselves; and 3 he was transfigured before them. And his raiment became shining, very white [as snow,] 4 so as no fuller on earth can whiten. And Elijah and Moses appeared to them; and they 5 were talking with Jesus. And Peter spoke and said to Jesus, "Rabbi; it is good for us to be here: and let us make three booths; one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elijah." 6 For he knew not what to say; for they were 7 much afraid. And a cloud came and surround
ed them; and a voice came out of the cloud, saying, "This is my beloved Son: hear him." 8 And quickly, when they had looked round about, they saw no man any more, but Jesus only with themselves.
And as they came down from the mountain, he commanded them that they should tell no man what things they had seen, until the Son 10 of man were risen from the dead. And they kept that saying with themselves, reasoning one with another what the rising from the dead' 11 could mean. And they asked him, saying, "Why say the scribes that Elijah must come 12 first ?" And he answered and said to them; Elijah verily cometh first, and restoreth all things; and (as it is written of the Son of man,) he must suffer many things, and be contemp13 tuously treated. But I say to you, That Elijah
CHAP. IX. 1. Some of those, &c. See note, Matt. xvi. 28.
2. Very white, &c. Mark does not mention the change of his face or countenance, which Matthew says 'shone as the sun.'
6. A cloud came, &c. Matthew says, a bright cloud, doubtless the same as the Jews called Shechina, from which issued the voice. My beloved Both Matthew and Peter have "in whom I am well pleased." Matt: xvii. 5, and 2 Peter i. 17. While such variations show the independence of the writers, they tend greatly to establish the truth of the facts which they relate.
12. And, as it is written, &c. I read with Pearce and others z«bw;, as I think both the sense and construction of the text requires. It is found in the Alex. and other good mss. Making 'as it is written of the son of man' a parenthetic sentence, the meaning is obvious. That as it was written of the son of man, (Isa. liii.) that he must suffer many things, &c. so our Lord says, must Elijah suffer and be contemptuously treated. In this view of the pas sage our Lord does not say that it was any where foretold that Johu should be thus treated, but as it had been written of him, so he affirms would they do to John.
13. As it is written of him. That this clause refers to the coming of John, in the spirit of Elijah, and not to his sufferings and death, is generally allowed; and to prevent any misapprehension of the text, I have with Heinsius and others transposed it.
A dumb man cured.
is indeed come, (as it is written of him,) and they have done to him whatsoever they chose."
And when he came to his disciples, he saw a 14 great multitude about them, and the scribes disputing with them. And immediately all the 15 people, when they beheld him, were greatly astonished, and running to him saluted him. And he asked them, "About what do ye dispute 16 with them?" And one of the multitude answer- 17 ed and said, "Rabbi; I have brought to thee my son, who hath a dumb spirit; And where- 18 soever it seizeth him, it dasheth him on the ground; and he foameth, and gnasheth with his teeth, and pineth away and I spoke to thy disciples that they should cast it out; and they could not." He answereth them, and saith, 19 "O unbelieving race, how long shall I be with you? how long shall I endure you? bring him to me." And they brought him to him: and 20 when he saw him, immediately the spirit convulsed him; and he fell on the ground, and wallowed, foaming. And he asked his father, 21 "How long is it since this befel him?" And he said, "From his childhood. And it hath 22 often cast him into the fire, and into the waters, to destroy him; but if thou canst do any thing, have compassion on us, and help us." Jesus 23 said to him, said to him, “If thou canst believe, all things are possible to him that believeth." And imme- 24 diately the father of the child cried out, and
15. Greatly astonished. Whitby and others have given the most probable reason of the astonishment of the people, on beholding our Lord, by supposing that his countenance still shone with unusual brightness and lustre as that, of Moses did on his coming down from the mount. Comp. Exod. xxxiv. 29, 30..
17. A dumb spirit. He was deaf as well as dumb, verse 25, and in Matt. xvii. 15, is called a lunatic, in the original sense of that term, meaning that he was subject to fits at short periods, according to the changes of the moon. Hammond remarks, that we have a clear description in the man's case, of the epilepsy. It is evident that the frequency and long continuance of the dis order, had affected both the senses of seeing and hearing, and most probably the faculties of the mind. He was a most pitiable object; and being an only son, it is natural that the father should be much concerned for him.
23. If thou canst believe, &c. Knatchbull points with an interrogation after Suvada; and regarding IGTIG as in the imperative, renders, “And Jesus said to him, If thou canst? do thou believe, all things, &c." He contends, that this resumption of the words which the father had used was a reproof for his doubting respecting his power. Though this is ingenious, I adhere to the usual version as that of the ancients, and especially as some good mss. omit the article on which he lays much stress. Here the faith of the father obtains the cure of the son. -All things are possible, &c. That is, all cures of this kind may be effected for such as believe. Jesus could easily
Christ foretelleth his death.
MARK IX. Humility recommended. said with tears, "I believe; help thou my weak | and servant of all." And he took a child, and 36 25 faith." When Jesus saw that the people came set him in the midst of them; and when he running together, he rebuked the unclean spirit, had taken him in his arms, he said to them, saying to him, "Thou dumb and deaf spirit, "Whosoever shall receive one of such children 37 come out of him, I command thee; and enter in my name, receiveth me; and whosoever shall 26 no more into him." And the And the spirit cried out, receive me, receiveth not me only, but him and convulsed him much, and came out of him; that sent me.” and he was as one dead; so that many said, 27 He is dead." But Jesus took him by the 28 hand, and raised him up; and he arose. And when he had come into the house, his disciples asked him privately, "Why could not we cast 29 him out?" And he said to them," This kind can come out by nothing, but by prayer and fasting."
And they departed thence, and passed through Galilee; and he was unwilling that any one 31 should know it. For he taught his disciples, and said to them, "The Son of man is about to be delivered into the hands of men, and they will kill him; and after he is killed, he will 32 rise again the third day." But they understood not that matter; and were afraid to ask him.
And he came to Capernaum; and being in the house he asked them, "What was it about which ye disputed among yourselves by the 84 way?" But they were silent: for by the way they had disputed among themselves, who 35 should be the greatest. And he sat down, and called the twelve, and saith to them, "If any man desire to be first, he must be last of all,
effect, what the unbelief of his disciples rendered impossible for them to do. 24. I believe, &c. So many of the best mss. and versions omit xulos, Lord, that it has no proper authority. Help thou, &c. To consider MACTIC as meaning unbelief is to make the man contradiet himself. The sense I have given is commonly admitted. Campbell renders, "Supply the defects of my faith."
29. This kind cometh, &e. That is, the power to expel demons and effect cures, can only be obtained by prayer and fasting, because by these exereises the faith requisite is obtained. Pearce and Wakefield refer This kind to faith, and not to demons; but see Campbell's note in reply.
34. Which should be the greatest. Matthew adds, in the heavenly kingdom, by which they understood a temporal kingdom. Matt. xviii. 1.
37. Not me only, &c. The negative particle must have this force here, to make the text consistent with itself.
38. Because he followeth not us. In the common text this clause occurs twice; but the authorities for omitting the first time are so many, that Griesbach has rejected it. John here puts a case not included in verse 37, of one who did not receive Jesus.
40. Not against you, &c. Grotius has justly observed, 'That proverbs used opposite ways, are true, according to the subject of which they are asserted.' Hence Matt. xii. 30, Luke xi. 23. "He that is not with me, is
And John spoke to him, saying, "Rabbi, 38 we saw one casting out demons in thy name; and we forbad him, because he followeth not us." But Jesus said, "Forbid him not; for 39 there is no man who shall do a miracle in my name, that can soon speak evil of me, For he 40 that is not against you is for you. For whoso- 41 ever shall give you a cup of water to drink in .... my name, because ye are Christ's, verily I say to you, he shall not lose his reward. whosoever shall cause to offend one of the little ones who believe on me, it is better for him that a millstone were hung about his neck, and he cast into the sea. And if thy hand cause thee 43 to offend, cut it off; it is better for thee to enter into life maimed, than having two bands to go into hell, [into the unquenchable fire;] Where 44 their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched. And if thy foot cause thee to offend, cut it 45 off; it is better for thee to enter lame into life, than having two feet to be cast into hell, [into the the unquenchable fire.] Where their worm 46 dieth not, and the fire is not quenched. And 47 if thine eye cause thee to offend, pluck it
against me;" such as attributed his miracles to Satan must be wholly opposed to him; but they who made use of his name to expel demons, must attribute such power to him as argued some regard, if not some degree of faith. Such a conduct might be considered as a furtherance of the gospel, if compared with the enmity of the Jewish ruler.
41. For whosoever, &c. He that is not against you, but so far favours you as to give a cup of cold water, out of regard to me, shall not lose, &c. Matt. x. 42.
42. Cause to offend. Comp. Matt. xviii. 8. and note, &c.
43-45. Into unquenchable fire. Wakefield rejects this clause as merely explanatory, and Griesbach admits it as only probably genuine or doubtful.
46. Where their worm, &c. In the valley of Hinnom, the worm died when its food failed, and the fire went out; but in that place, of which this was but an emblem, the worm never dies, and the fire is not quenched. Some consider by worm is meant a guilty conscience, and by fire the torture of the mind. It represents the most exquisite punishment. Compare Is. lxvi. 24, Eccle. vii. 17, Judith xvi. 17.
49. Salted with fire. That is, punished with fire; but shall not be destroyed by this fire, but continued and preserved in it.- As very sacrifice, &c. I have followed Pearce in this version, Comp. Levit. ii. 13.
50. Have salt in, &c. As salt was good in itself both for seasoning and
Future misery awful.
out: it is better for thee to enter into the kingdom of God with one eye, than having 48 two eyes to be cast into hell-fire: Where their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched. 49 For every one shall be salted with fire, as every 50 sacrifice is salted with salt. Salt is good; but if the salt have lost its saltness, with what will ye season it? Have salt in yourselves, and be at peace one with another."
A. D. 32.
Christ discourseth on divorce; blesseth little children; showeth the shall be one flesh; so then they
danger of riches, and he fortelling his own death represseth the ambition of two of his disciples.
AND he arose thence, and cometh into the borders of Judea, by the side of the Jordan; and the people resort to him again; and as he was wont, he taught them again.
REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER IX. 1. From the transfiguration of our Lord, we are reminded of his dignity, glory and humiliation. As he had a being, so he had a glory with the Father before the world began; and some displays of this glory were occasionally made even in his state of abasement. What a surprizing change was made in his appearance on the mount! That countenance which was to be more marred than that of any other man, then shone with a radiance indescribable; and even his raiment was changed by the glory that invested him. Justly might he then be said to be the brightness of the Father's glory, and the express image of his person." And the Father honoured him as such, when he said, "This is my beloved son; hear him. Let us obey this injunction, by a cordial reception of him as our Lord and Saviour; and by a constant regard to his instructions, and a uniform observance of his precepts.
And the Pharisees came to him, and asked against her.
2. In the miracle recorded, we learn the afflicted state of the man, and the power and grace of Jesus. Deaf and dumb, he could not enjoy the pleasures of social intercourse; and when seized by the paroxisms of his complaint, he was constantly exposed to the greatest dangers. He had sometimes fallen into the waters, and sometimes into the fire; and what solicitude and anxiety must this have occasioned to his affectionate parents! While the father was soliciting the compassion of Jesus, his afflicted son fell to the ground, and lay there foaming.
him, "Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife?" tempting him. And he answered and 3 said to them, said to them, "What did Moses command you?" And they said, "Moses permitted us to write 4 a bill of divorce, and to put her away." And 5 Jesus answered and said to them, "Because of your perverse disposition he wrote you this precept. But from the beginning of the creation 6 God made them a male and a female. For 7 this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and cleave to his wife; And they two 8
preserving things, so in a figurative sense, as denoting instruction, humility, it would be useful both to themselves and others. Comp. Colos. iv. 6.at peace, &c. This refers to verses 33 & 34.
CHAP. X. 1. The side, &c. That is, the western side, which was nearest to Galilee and Samaria. Here begins Mark's account of our Lord's going up to Jerusalem to the Passover at which he suffered death.
2. Put away his wife? Matthew add's, for every cause. See Matt. xix. 3.
are no more
two, but one flesh.' What therefore God hath 9 joined together, let not man put asunder."
And in the house his disciples asked him 10 again concerning this matter. And he saith 11 to them, "Whosoever shall put away his wife, and marry another, committeth adultery against her. And if a woman shall put away 12
What an emblem of the helpless, miserable condition of a sinner! Deaf to the voice of God; dumb in respect to his service and praise; convulsed with unhallowed passions, and lying in the filth of sin and pollu tion. But as Jesus could and did heal this man, so he can heal and save the chief of sinners. Believe on him and still it will be found true, that all things of this nature are possible to him that believeth.
3. We are taught in various ways how necessary it is to be hum ble, and to guard against sin, if we would escape future inisery. If there be no humility there can be no real sense of our spiritual condition, nor any repentance for our sin; and if there be no repentance there can be no faith in Christ for pardon and acceptance. We must become as little children, and act with the same sincerity as they do, if we would be approved disciples of Jesus; and if we would attain everlasting lite, we must be ready to suffer any loss, and to endure any hardships, rather than live in sin. Valuable as is a right hand, a foot, or an eye, yet if any of these cause us to offend and live in disobedience to God, it is better to cut them off than to perish for ever What are the severest mortifications and sufferings of this life compared with that state, where the worm dieth not and the fire is not quenched. O how dreadful to be salted with that unquenchable fire. Let us fly from this wrath to come to Jesus as the hope set before us; as the only way to the kingdom of glory.
cept for whoredom, which in a wife is adultery; and this must be understood both here and Luke xvi. 8, aud 1 Cor. vii. 10, 11. In this case a man might either divorce his wife, or proceed against her as having committed a capital offence. Exod. xx. 14.
12. If a woman shall put, &c. The law of Moses is silent on this practice; but in the time of our Lord some wives took this unwarrantable liberty of giving their husbands a bill of divorce. Josephus informs us that Salome divorced her husband Costabarųs; and Herodius acted in like manner to Philip, and married Herod. The Roman ladies acted in the same manner towards their husbands, at the same period. Juven. Sat. vi. 222-230. The
Little children regarded.
How riches ensnare men.
And they brought young children to him, that he might touch them; and his disciples 14 rebuked those who brought them. But when Jesus saw it, he was much displeased, and said to them, "Suffer the little children to come to me, and forbid them not; for of such is the 15 kingdom of God. Verily I say to you, Who
her husband, and be married to another, shé || possess riches to enter into the kingdom of committeth adultery." God!" And the disciples were astonished at 24 his words. But Jesus spoke again and saith to them, "Children, how difficult is it for those who trust in riches to enter into the kingdom of God! It is easier for a camel to go through 25 the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God." And they 26 were exceedingly amazed, saying among themselves, "Who then can be saved?" And 27 Jesus looking upon them saith, "With men it is impossible, but not with God: for with God all things are possible."
soever shall not receive the kingdom of God as a little child, he shall not enter therein." 16 And he took them up in his arms, put his hands upon them, and blessed them.
And as he went forth into the way, there came one running, and kneeled to him, and asked him, "Good teacher, what shall I do that I may 18 inherit eternal life?" And Jesus said to him, "Why callest thou me good? none is good 19 but one, even God. Thou knowest the commandments, 'Do not commit adultery; Do not commit murder; Do not steal; Do not bear false witness; Do no injury; Honour thy father 20 and thy mother." And he answered and said
to him, "Teacher, all these have I observed 21 from my youth." Then Jesus looking on him loved him, and said to him, "One thing thou needest go, sell whatsoever thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven; and come, take up the cross, and 22 follow me." And he was sad at those words, and went away grieved; for he had great pos
And Jesus looked round about, and saith to his disciples, "How difficult is it for those who
baptist, with great fidelity told Herod, 'That it was not lawful for him to have his brother's wife,' and Jesus here maintains the same opinion.
14. Much displeased. At the unfeeling conduct of his disciples; and the reason he assigns for their coming to him, that Of such is the kingdom of God,' implies their right to be regarded as such, and dedicated to him.
15. As a little child. As innocent, simple, humble and teachable, as a little child. This verse proves that Of such is the kingdom of God,' in the former verse, cannot mean, of such like minded adults; for in that case there would have been no necessity to add in so solemn a manner, 'Verily I say to you, &c.'
Then Peter began to say to him, "Lo we have 28 left all and have followed thee." And Jesus 29 answered and said, "Verily I say to you, There is no man that hath left house, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for my sake, and the gospel's, But 30 he shall receive a hundred-fold now in this time, [houses, and brethren, and sisters, and mothers, and children, and lands, with persecutions;] and in the world to come eternal life. But ma- 31 ny that are first shall be last; and the last first."
And they were in the way going up to Jeru- 32 salem; and Jesus went before them; and they were astonished; and as they followed, they were afraid. For he took again the twelve, and began to tell them what things should befal him, Saying, "Behold, we go up to 33 Jerusalem; and the Son of man will be delivered up to the chief priests, and to the scribes ; and they will condemn him to death, and will deliver him up to the Gentiles: And these will 34
19. Do no injury. This clause is wanting in many good mss. and some would omit it. In the parallel places Matt. xix. 18. Luke xviii. 20, it does not occur; and we find there a clause, "Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself," which is wanting here. If the words be genuine, they imply love to our neighbour which will prevent us doing him the least injury.
24. That trust in riches. It is not the possession, but the abuse of
riches, which prevents men entering into the kingdom of God, and especially their love of them, and confidence in them.
25-27. It is easier, &c. Comp. Matt. xix. 24, and note.
30. A hundred-fold, &c. Pearce suspected the words included in brackets to be an early interpolation, and Campbell has assigned strong reasons for believing that they are not genuine, because they are not found to be in fact true. For according to the text if a man suffer the loss of a house, in this life he was to receive a hundred houses, &c. To say he was to receive what is equivalent to them is only to say what is implied in the text without these words, and what indeed is the genuine sense of both Matthew and Luke. One of the copies of Matthew omits the words as well as one copy of the old Latin version. See Campbell.
32. Were astonished, &c. This astonishment and fear arose from the danger in which their Master had been in at Jerusalem formerly. . Comp John, vii. 45.; viii. 40, 59.; but our Lord now began to speak without re serve respecting his death.
deride him, and scourge him, and spit upon him, and kill him: and the third day he will rise again."
And James and John, the sons of Zebedee, came to him, saying, "Rabbi, we desire that thou wouldest do for us whatsoever we shall 36 ask." And he said to them, "What desire ye 37 that I should do for you?" They said to him, They said to him, “Grant to us that we may sit, one on thy right hand, and the other on thy left hand, in thy 38 glory." But Jesus said. to them, "Ye know not what ye ask; can ye drink of the cup which I am to drink of? and be baptized with the bap39 tism that I am to be baptized with?" And they say to him," We can." And Jesus said to them, "Ye shall indeed drink of the cup which I am to drink of; and with the baptism that I am to 40 be baptized with shall ye be baptized: But to sit on my right hand and on my left hand is not mine to give, but to those for whom it is prepa41 red." And when the ten heard this, they began to be much displeased with James and John. 42 But Jesus called them to him, and saith to them, "Ye know that they who rule the Gentiles domineer over them; and their great ones exercise 43 authority upon them. But it shall not be so
REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER X. 1. We learn that marriage is honourable and should not be dissolved, unless when the marriage-covenant has been violated. The original formation of only one man and one woman, showed the design of the creator, and what he thus united let not man attempt to separate. Moses rather regulated than allowed the right of divorce; but the caprice and wickedness of the Jews led them to put away their wives for any trifle. Let Christian husbands show to their wives all due respect; and let them in return show all fidelity. Mutual good will, kindness, and condescension, strengthen the bonds of this social union, and contribute much to the comfort of this state.
2. While we admire the condescension of our Lord, in noticing and blessing the little ones brought to him, how affecting is the account of the young rich man. His inquiry showed some concern for the welfare and happiness of his soul; and his regular conduct in not
35. James and John, &c. From Matt. xx. 20, we learn that they made this request by their mother; and by their own answer to the question, verse 39. We can, they did in effect make the request their own.
among you; but whosoever desireth to be great
And they came to Jericho: and as he was go- 46
37. In thy glory.⋅ Matthew says 'in thy kingdom,' meaning a temporal one, which Mark expresses, by glory, as Matt. iv. 8.
Who rule the, &c. I follow Pearce in considering doxoũy715, &c, as idiomatic. See his excellent note. Campbell is paraphrastic. "Ye know
VOL. III. PART XX.
openly violating the commands of God, so far commend him. Jesus is said to love him, as having some amiable traits in his character; but alas, the love of riches prevailed in his heart. He could not part with these for Christ and eternal life. Hence we see, how difficult it is for those who are rich and trust in their riches to enter into the kingdom of God. Few such believed on Christ; his followers consisted chiefly of the poor. Let the rich learn not to trust in their wealth, but to make this mammon, by their charity, subservient to their spiritual interests. Let us be persuaded that none will be finally losers, whatever sacrifices they are called to make for Christ.
3. Well might the disciples of Jesus be astonished at his going up to Jerusalem, when he knew and told them how he would be treated and put to death. Had he acted on the common principles of men, hẹ would have sought a retreat either in some private part of the country or would have gone into another; but he came not to teach only, but to