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The second Narrative of our Lord is the work of Mark, who was an Evangelist; and according to ancient testimony attended Peter in his journeys and ministry, as Timothy and Titus did the apostle Paul. He is supposed to be the person whom Peter calls his son, that is, a convert to the christian faith, 1 Pet. v. 13. His knowledge of the doctrines and miracles of our Lord must have been derived from the infor. mation of Peter, and of others who had heard our Lord's discourses, and been witnesses of his miracles; and it is probable it had the approbation of Peter. He relates the miracles of Jesus with particularity; but rarely gives us bis discourses. Like Matthew he simply states facts, and leaves the reader to relect on them, and make the proper inferences. For a more full account, see lutrod. Vol. 1. p. 4, &c.

CHAPTER I.

hair, and with a leathern girdle about his loins ;

and he ate locusts and wild honey. And be pro- 7 A. D. 27. The office of the baptist; Jesus baptized, tempted, begins his mi

claimed, saying, “One mightier than I cometh nistry and works many miracles.

after me, the latchet of whose shoes I am not 1. The beginning of the gospel of Jesus Christ, worthy to stoop down and unloose. I indeed 8 2 the son of God. As it is written in the prophets, have baptized you with water; but he shall

“Behold I send my messenger before thy face, baptize you with the Holy Spirit.” 3 who sball prepare thy way before thee. The And it came to pass in those days, that Jesus 9

voice of one crying in the desert; • Prepare ye came from Nazareth of Galilee, and was bapti

the way of the Lord make his paths straight.” zed by John in the Jordan. And immediately 10 4 Thus came John baptizing in the desert and going up from the water, he saw the heavens

preaching the baptism of repentance for the re- rent, and the Spirit, as a dove, descending upon 5 mission of sins. And all the land of Judea, and him :

him: And there came a voice from heaven, il all they of Jerusalem went out to him and were saying, “ Thou art my beloved Son, in whom I

baptized by him in the river Jordan, confessing am well pleased.” And immediately the spirit 12 6 their sins. And John was clothed with camel's sendeth him forth into the desert. And he was 13

CHAP. I. 1. The beginning of, 8c. With other critics, I consider this verse as the title or inscription; and that the fourth verse contains the reddition to the second.

2. in the prophets Some manuscripts and versions read, in the prophet Isaiah,' and others, “in the prophet;' but as many support the text, I adhere to it, especially as it agrees with what follows, where we have quotations from two prophets. Newcome, who adopts the reading, in the prophet Isaiah,' is obliged to suppose, without any authority, that the first quotation from Malachi is an early interpolation.- -Behold, I send, &c. This is quoted in the same manner, Matt. xi. 10. and Luke vii. 27, and applied to John. See Mala. iii. 1. The words, προ προσωπα σου and έμπροσθέν σου, are probably merely explanatory of the 1995 of the prophet. The latter words are omitted in mss. both in Mark and Luke, as well as here; but as they make no differ. ence in the sense, I have retained them.

8. With water, &c This sense of the preposition my is supported by Chap. v. 2. Luke xiv. 31. Heb. ix. 25. Jude 14.; and in this sense it is often used by Zenophon and other Greek writers. That it must here denote the elemeut which was applied in administering baptism, I conceive is plain from what

follows; for John could not mean that our Lord would baptize in the Holy Spirit, or into the name of the Holy Spirit, but that he would pour out upon his diseiples the Holy Spirit.

9. In the Jordan. It is not improbable that our Lord and others whom John baptized went down to the water; and, if witbin its banks, (for the Jordan at some seasons of the year overflowed,) they might be said to be in the Jordan without going into the water at all. As the preposition is used for cur, so it is for as, and like the Hebrew , must be rendered in many places to, ut. Comp. Chap. v. 30. Luke i. 17.; xxiii. 42. Rom. vij. 34.

10. The heavens rent. Campbell renders, “The sky part asunder.” The aerial heavens are intended; the clouds seemed to be rept, while the Holy Spirit descended, perhaps in some bright and luminous appearance, hovering as a dove, and then lighting upon Christ.

11. Thou art my, &c. Matthew says, “This is my beloved son.' Luke agrees

with Mark in the first clause, but in the latter instead of in whom I am well pleased,' Luke has, in thee I am, &c.' These little variations in

ng the same fact are natural, and show that the Evangelists did not copy one from another.

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Simon, James, and John called.

MARK I.

Jesus healeth many. there in the desert forty days, tempted by Satan ; | saying, “What is this? what new doctrine is...

and was with the wild beasts; and the angels this ? for with authority commandeth he even 14 ministered to him. Now after John was deliver- the unclean spirits, and they obey him.” And 28

ed up to prison, Jesus came into Galilee, pro- immediately his fame spread abroad through all

claiming the glad tidings of the kingdom of God, the region about Galilee. And immediately 29 15 And saying, “ The time is fulfilled, and the they went out of the synagogue, and entered

kingdom of God drawąth near: repent and be- with James and John into the house of Simon 16 lieve the glad tidings.” Now as he walked by and Andrew. Now the mother of Simon's wife 30

the sea of Galilee, he saw Simon, and Andrew lay sick of a fever ; and they immediately tell

his brother, casting a net into the sea : for they him of her. And he came and took her by the 31 17 were fishers. And Jesus said to them, “ Come hand, and raised her up; and instantly the fe

after me, and I will make you to be fishers of ver left ber, and she ministered to them. When 32 18 men.' And immediately they left their nets, the evening was come, and the sun set, they 16 and followed him. And thence passing on a brought to him all that were diseased, and those

little further, he saw James the son of Zebedee, that had demons. And all the city was gather- 33

and John his brother, who also were in a ship ed together at the door. And he healed many 34 20 mending their pets. And immediately he cal that were sick of various diseases, and cast out

led them: and they left their father Zebedee in many demons; and suffered not the demons to

the ship with the hired servants, and went af- say, that they knew him. And in the morning, 35 21 ter him. And they went to Capernaum ; and rising up long before the dawn, he went out,

immediately on the sabbath he entered into the and departed into a solitary place, and prayed 22 synagogue, and taught. And the people were there And Simon and those that were with 36

amazed at his doctrine ; for he taught them as Simou followed after him. And when they had 37

one that had authority, and not as the scribes. found him, they said to him, “All men seek 23 And there was in their synagogue a man with an thee.” And he said to them, “Let us go into 38 24 unclean spirit; and he cried out, Saying, “Ah! the neighbouring towns, that I may preach there

what hast thou to do with us, Jesus of Nazareth ? | also; for therefore am I come forth.” And 39

art thou come to destroy us ; I know who thou he preached in their synagogues throughout 25 art, the Holy One of God.”' And Jesus rebu- all Galilee, and cast out demons. And there 40

ked him, saying, “Be silent, and come out came a leper to him, beseeching him, and kneel26 of him." And when the unclean spirit bad ing down to him, and saying to bim, “ If thou

convulsed him, and cried with a loud voice, he wilt, thou canst make me clean.” And Jesus, 41 27 came out of him. And they were all astonish- moved with compassion, put forth his hand,

ed, so that they reasoned among themselves, and touched him, and saith to him, “I will; be

12. Sendeth him forth, &c. That the original word does not imply force, see verse 43. Matt. ix. 38. Jobp x. 3, 4. Acts ix. 40. Comp. Matt. iv. I.

13. Forty days. If the opinion of Michaelis be adopted that Jesus was led by the spirit into the great desert, in which the Israelites sojourned, these forty days may include the time spent in going there, begioning from his baptism, as well as the period be abode there, before the temptation commenced. This account of Mark strongly supports the opinion that our Lord was in that desert, which abounded with serpents and wild beasts.

13-- 20. After John was, &c. Comp. Matt. iv. 19-22. John i. 35-51.

21. They went to Capernaum After baving preached in the synagogue of Nazareth and being thrust out of that city, he went to Capernaum: Luke ir. 16 31. The next verse Matthew places at the end of the sermon on the mount, Chap. vii. 28, 29. On many occasions doubtless the people were astonished at what they heard and saw.

22-28. A man with an, gc, Comp. Luke iv. 33–37. Doddridge conbiders the account of this man as affordipg strong proof that those called de

moniacs were really possessed with demons; while others think that this case only proves that God made use of such men to proclaim the Messiahship of our Lord. See ver. 34.; iii. 11.,

24. Ah! what hast thou, &e. For the sense given to in, see Schleus. In rendering the idiomatic words, ti imir xau cou, I have followed Pearce and others. The same idiomatical words in the Hebrew, I have rendered right, Josh. xxii. 24, but wrong, 2 Sam. xvi, 10.; xix. 22, and 1 Kings xvii. 18, and 2 Chron. xxxv. 21. In the two firs: places it should be, “What have you to do with me, ye sops of Zeruiah?” And in the two last, “What hast, thou tu do with me?” I am now satisfied that the Greek will adnit no other construction.

29-34. They went out of the, &c. Comp. Matt. viii. 14-17, Luke iv. 38-41.

32. Evening was come, $c. The reason why they brought the diseased persons to be healed in the evening, most probably was that the sabbath was ended. 35-39. And in the morning, &c. Comp. Luke iv. 42–44.

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A leper cleansed.

MARK II.

A paralytic healed. 42 thou clean." And as soon as he had spoken a house. And immediately many were gather- 2

immediately the leprosy departed from the man, ed together; so that there was no room to con43 and he was made clean. And he strictly char- tain them, no, not even about the door; and he 44 ged him, and immediately sent him away; And spoke the word to them. And they came to 3

saith to hiin, “See thou say vothing to any him, bringing one sick of the palsy, who was man: but go, show thyself to the priest, and borne by four. And when they could not come 4

offer for thy cleansing those things which Moses near to him because of the multitude, they re45 commanded, for a testimony to them.” But he moved the covering where he was: and when

went out, and began to publish it much, and to they had taken it up, they let down the couch spread abroad the matter, so that Jesus could on which the sick of the palsy lay. When Je- 5 no more openly enter into the city, but was sus saw their faith, he said to the sick of the without in desert places : and they came to him palsy, “Son, thy sins are forgiven thee.” Now 6 from every quarter.

some of the scribes were sitting there, and rea

soning thus in their hearts, “Why doth this 7 CHAPTER II,

man thus speak blasphemies? who can forgive A. D. 31. Christ healeth one sick of the palsy, calleth Matthew, and eateth sins but one, that is God?” And immediately 8 with publicans and sinners.

when Jesus perceived in his spirit that they so 1 And he entered again into Capernaum after reasoned within themselves, he said to them,

some days; and it was reported that he was in Why reason ye thus in your hearts ? Whe-9

REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER 1. 1. We are tauglit the desert, where no eye but that of his Father was upon him, he yielded dignity of our Lord, as being the subject of promise and prophecy. Of not to any allurement; though dwelling among wild beasts, and seeling him the prophets frequently spoke, and to his person and works they the strong cravings of hunger, he was not induced to work a miracle bore witness. The Father spoke in and by them: “Behold I send for his own support, at the suggestion of the enemy. When he had my messenger before thy face, &c." How animating to believers of repelled the enemy, angels came and ministered to him as their Lord. old to hear of Messiah's approach ; to be informed, that the Lord 3. In the calling of the apostles, and the miracles he wrought, whom they sought, even the messenger of the covenant, should soon we have the strongest evidences of his power, compassion and love. come to his temple! And how delightful should be the news to us, Such was his word that Simon and Andrew immediately forsook their that he has come, as the messenger of mercy.

However mean bis nels and followed him; and so did James and John. Demons acstate and outward' appearance, he was the king of Israel; and to do | knowledged him to be the Holy One of God; and diseases of every honour to him John was sent to prepare his way, by preaching repent- kind fled at his word. Well might the people be amazed! It had ance and proclaiming that the kingdom of heaven was at hand. never been so seen in Israel. How diligent was he in his labours of

2. We learn that our Lord as man had the innocent infirmities love and mercy! He went through the towns of Galilee preaching of nature, and was tempted as we are. He no sooner entered on his the glad tidings of his kingdom. No application to him was rejected. ministry than he had to experience the fiery darts of the enemy; but The poor leper sought relief and obtained it. Othen let us look 10 in that conflict he' overcame, and set an example to his followers to him that we may be saved from the maladies of our souls, and obtain resist the devil, and he will flee from them. Though in a solitary | health, holiness, and happiness.

40-45. There came a leper. Comp. Matt. viii. 2. & notes, Luke v. 12.

45. Could no more erter, &c. That is, Capernaum. He could not enter it for the crowds that came to see him, without exposing himself more than he judged proper.

CHAP. II. 2. Spoke the word, &e. That is, the word of God, or of the kingdom,' as the gospel is called, Matt, xiii. 19.

3. One sick of the palsy. Matthew only relates the miracle, without noticing the circumstance of their going upon the roof, &c. Chap. ix. 2-8. Luke agrees with Mark : Chap. v. 18—26.

4. Removed the covering, &c. Pearce, from the construction of the Jewish houses, supposed that the friends of the paralytic, seeing that they could not bring him to Jesus through the crowd, went up the outside stairs to the roof, but finding the door, which was a part of the roof or covering, and which led to an inuer-staircase, fastened, they pulled up or removed this, and then descended into the room where Jesus was. Dr. Shaw supposes that our

Lord was in the area or court, and that they carried him up the outside stairs to the roof, and went on the roof near to the place where Jesus was teaching, and removing a part of the parapet wall, they let down the couch. Either of these methods might be adopted, and ignorance only of the oriental houses could lead any one to consider this account as invalidating the divine autho. rity of the gospel. It is certain that otryn means a covering of any kind, as well as a roof; and a late ingenious Critic conceived it probable that the court might be covered with a kind of awning, fastened to the balustrade or parapet-wall, and that the removing of this is only intended.

5-12. Thy sins are, &c. See notes, Matt. ix. 2-8.

8. Perceired in his spirit, 8c. Campbell renders, knowing in himself, and contends that this gives the sense more explicitly, as the words denote a knowledge peculiar to our Lord. I acknowledge that they evidently suggest that our Lord knew the thoughts of men's hearts, and that he was inwardly conscious of what was passing in their minds; but I think that the literal ren. dering yields this sense, and for this reason I have adhered to it. Wakefield renders, knowing at ouce in his own mind;' and Pearce explains, by his spirit, the divine spirit that dwelt in him. He refers to John iii. 34. Acts i. 2.; X. 38. As a man our Lord was richly furnished with the gift of the spirit, but the words do not seem to me to admit of this turn. Perceiving or knowing in or by die splaít, must signify inward consciousness; and if this cannot be attributed to his spirit as a man, there is no way to accouat for it, but by admitting that it is a proof of his divinity. :

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Matthew called.

MARK II.

Vindicateth his disciples. ther is it easier to say to the sick of the palsy, || Pharisees fast, but thy disciples fast not ?” And 19

Thy sins are forgiven thee; or to say, Arise, Jesus said to them, “Can the companions of 10 and take up thy couch, and walk ? But that the bridegroom fast, while the bridegroom is

ye may know that the Son of man hath power with them? as long as they have the bridegroom

on earth to forgive sins, (he saith to the sick of with them, they cannot fast. But the days will 20 Il the palsy,) I say to thee, Arise and take

up come, when the bridegroom shall be taken 12 thy couch, and go to thy house." And imme- away from them, and then they will fast in

diately he arose, took up the couch, and went those days. No one seweth a piece of undressed 21 forth before them all; so that they were all cloth on an old garment: else the new piece amazed, and glorified God, saying, “We never that filled it up taketh away from the old, and saw any thing like this."

a worse rent is made. And no one putteth new 22 13 And again he went forth by the side of the wine into old skin-bottles; else the new wine

lake; and all the multitude came to him, and bursteth the skin-bottles, and the wine is spil14 he taught them. And as be passed by, he saw led, and the skin-bottles will be marred: but

Levi, the son of Alpheus, sitting at the receipt new wine must be put into new skin-bottles.

of custom, and said to him, “ Follow me.” And And it came to pass, that he went through 23 15 he arose and followed him. And it came to the corn fields on the Sabbath; and his disci

pass, that as Jesus was at meat iu Levi's house, ples began, as they went, to pluck the ears of many publicans and sinners placed themselves And the Pharisees said to him, “Behold, 24

at table with Jesus and bis disciples: for there why do they on the Sabbath that which is not 16 were many, and they followed him. And when | lawful?" And he said to them, “Have ye 25

the scribes and Pharisees saw him eat with pub- never read what David did, when he had need, licans and sinners, they said to his disciples, and was hungry, he, and they that were with

- How is it that he eateth and drinketh with || bim? How he went into the house of God in 26 17 publicans and sinners ?” When Jesus heard the days of Abiathar the high priest, and ate

this, he saith to them, “They that are well the presence-bread which is not lawful for any have no need of a physician, but they that are to eat but for the priests; and gave also to those sick: I came to call, not the righteous, but

who were with him?” And he said to them, 27 sinners (to repentance.]

The sabbath was made for man, and not man 18 Now the disciples of John and of the Phari

for the sabbath: Tberefore the Son of man is 28 sees used to fast; and they come and say to Lord also of the sabbath.” him, “Why do the disciples of John and of the

corn.

REFLECTIONS UPON CAAPTER 11. 1. We may collect that when they knew where he was. Nor did he amuse them with vain our Lords manner of teaching was peculiarly impressive, from the and empty declamation, or with discussing abstruse speculative subeagerness of the people to hear him. They assembled in crowds, jects; but preached the word of the kingdom with all simplicity and

10. To forgive sins, Pearce observes, that the Jews having said in their hearts, ver. 7, “Who can forgive sins, but one, that is God?' Jesus by affirming that he had power to forgive them, did in effect lead them to conclude that he claimed to be God; which, we may justly suppose, he would not have done, if he had not a right to that claim.

13-17. And again he rent, 80. Comp. Matt. ix. 9-13.

14. Levi the son of, &c. It has been generally thought that Levi is only another name for Matthew, as what that Evangelist relates contains the same particulars we have here. Others have contended that they are different persons. See Michaelis's Anmerkung.

17. To repentance. Griesbach has rejected these words on the autho. rity of many Mes. and versions ; but as they are found Luke, v. 32, without any diversity of reading, and as the sense seems incomplete without them, I have admitted them with a mark as of doubtful authority. Wakefield retalns this reading.

19. Can the companions, 8c Comp. Matt. ix. 14, and note. They cunnot fast. It is a time of joy, and not of grief; they cannot therefore fast consistently with common usage.

21-22. No one sereth, 8c. Comp. Matt. ix. 16, 17, and Notes.
20. Corn fields on the Sabbath. Comp. Matt. xii. ), 8. Luke vi. 1, 11•

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The withered hand restored.

MARK III.

Multitudes follow him
CHAPTER 111.

and they about Tyre and Zidon, a great multi

tude, when they had heard. what great things A. D. 31. Christ healeth, the withered hand; chooseth his apostles, and refutes the blasphemy af the scribes, ascribing his miracles lu Beelzebub.

he did, came to him. And he spoke to his dis- 9 !

ciples, that a small ship should attend on him he1 And he entered again into the synagogue ; cause of the multitude, lest they should throng

and there was a man there who had a witbered him. For he had healed many; so that as ma- NO 2 band. And the Pharisees watched him, whe- ny as had grieyous diseases pressed upon him 1. ther he would heal him on the sabbath; that that they might touch him. And unclean spi-, 11 3 they might accuse him. And he saith to the rits, when they saw him, fell down before him,

man who had the sithered hand, “Stand forth.” aud cried, saying, “Thou art the Son of God," 4 And he saith to them, Is it lawful to do good But he strictly charged them that they should 12

on the sabbath, or to do evil? to save life, or to not make him know). 5 kill?” But they were silent. And when be had. And he goeth up a mountain, and calleth to 13

Jooked round about on them with anger, being bim whom he would: and they came to bim,

grieved for the hardness of their hearts, he saith And he appointed twelve, tbat they might be 1! :: to the man, “ Stretch forth thy hand.” And he with him, and that he might send them forth

stretched it forth; and his hand was restored. to preach, And to have the power of healing 15 6 And the Pharisees went out, and immediately diseases and casting out demons. And these were 16 : . took counsel with the Herodians against him,

him, they ; · Simon whom he had surnamed. Peter ; 7 how they might destroy him. But Jesus with,

destroy him. : But Jesus with. And James the son of Zebedee, 'and John the 17 drew with his disciples towards the lake; and brother of James, these he surnamed Boaner

a great multitude followed him from Galilee, ges, that is, Sons of thunder; And Andrew, 18 8 and from Judea, 'And from Jerusalem, and

And from Jerusalem, and and Philip, and Bartholomew, and Matthew, i. from Idumea, and from beyond the Jordan; and Thomas, and James the son of Alpheus.

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faithfulness. His discourses were adapted to the understanding of his 3. With what propriety did our Lord answer the insinuating inhearers, and were alike addressed to their reason and consciences ; and quiry, and refute the cavils of the scribes and pharisees : " How is it hence the attention they paid, and the interest they felt in what he said. that he eateth and drinketh with publicans and sinners ?" They tacitly How should we be affected in reading his discourses? They are not accuse him who was holy and harmless, with comtenaneing such chaOnly the words of truth and soberness, but they are spirit and kife. ;. raclers'; but where should the physician be but with the sick ? Will

2. While we admire the faith of those who brought the paraly- those who are either really well or think themselves so send for him tic, let us adore the power, compassion and love of the Saviour. He or go to him? It is good news to sinners that Christ came to call them did not consider their earnestness and conduct as improper, or as an to repentance. The Pharisees fasted, observed the traditions of the unreasonable intrusion, but knowing their faith, he immediately cured elders, and thought themselves righteous; and hence they blamed our the paralytic. Still he is the same, and has the same power to save, Lord's disciples for plucking an ear of corn on the sabbath. Ở let us not only from diseases and death, but from sin and hell'; and every guard against their spirit, and remember that the sabbath was 'made believer shall experience in the noblest sense, that Jesus has power to for man, for his advantage and happiness, and let us improve it by forgive sins. He is exalted as a Prince and a Saviour to give repent spiritual exercises for the divine glory. In this way its original de. ance and remission of sins; and whosoever shall call on the name of sign will be answered; and it will be a prelude of future rest and the Lord shall be saved.

happiness.

26. Abiathar the high-priest. Ahimelech was high-priest when David

4. To do good or evil, &c. To do evil and to kill, means, not to do went to Nob, 1 Sam. xxi. 12.; but Abiathar might officiate for his father on good, not to save, when we can ; otherwise there could have been no question that occasion ; and as he only escaped the sword of Saul, and was high priest about the lawfulness. during David's reign, he is mentioned in preference to his father.

6. Herodians. See note, Matt. xxii. 16. CHAP. III. .]. And he entered again, &c. Comp. Chap. i. 21. This was

10. Grievous diseuses. Such as was the woman's bloody issue. Chap. v. on another sabbath. Luke vi, 6.

25. xxix. 34. 2. Pharisees watched him. Matthew says, “ They asked him, saying,

14. Appointed twelve. This appointment consisted in his imparting to • Is it lawful to heal on the sabbath ?” They might do this after that Jesus them spiritual gifts, as it follows. Campbell renders, “he selected twelve;' had bid the man stand forth; and our Lord might reply as in Matthew, as which, though implied in the word, is not the literal sense. well as what Mark relates.

18. Thaddeus, See note, Matt. x. %.

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