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A rest in heaven.
some must enter therein, and those to whom glad tidings were first preached entered not 7 in because of unbelief: God again limiteth a certain day, saying by David, "To-day," after so long a time, as it is said, "To-day if ye will hear his voice, harden not your hearts." 8 For if Joshua had given them rest, then God would not afterwards have spoken of another 9 day. There remaineth therefore a rest to the 10 people of God. For he that is entered into God's rest, hath rested also from his own 11 works, as God did from his. Let us diligently Let us diligently labour therefore to enter into that rest, lest any man fall after the same example of unbe
The word of God is quick, &c.
lief. For the word of God is quick, and power- 12 ful, and sharper than any two-edged sword, and pierceth even to the dividing asunder of soul and spirit, and of the joints and marrow, and is a discerner of the thoughts and intentions of the heart. Nor is there any creature 13 that is not manifest before him: but all things are naked and opened to the eyes of him to whom we must give an account.
to enjoy in Canaan. For there was a rest as to the sabbath, when God had finished his works, and which the Israelites enjoyed before God swore that they should not enter into his rest; and his oath could not refer to this.
4, 5. For Moses, &c. Mentions the rest of the sabbath as commencing when God finished the work of creation; and yet in the Psalms God speaks of his resolution in the case of the Israelites in the wilderness, "That they should not enter into his rest;" which shows that the rest of the sabbath was consistent with another rest.
REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER IV. 1. We learn that men may enjoy the means of grace, and have the glad-tidings of rest and happiness announced to them; and yet, in consequence of their negligence and unbelief, may never enjoy that rest and happiness. The Israelites enjoyed the rest of the sabbath; that day which God hallowed, when he had finished the stupendous work of creating the heavens and the earth. On this day they were commanded to rest from their common labours, and to unite in praising, worshipping, and serving Jehovah. To them was given also the promise of the earthly Canaan, where they were to enjoy rest, and to observe and keep God's sabbaths; but this promise, those who came out of Egypt did not believe, and in consequence never entered into that rest. Let us fear, therefore, lest any of us, who enjoy the means of grace, the promise of rest and peace, and have the glad-holy word, especially his word as denouncing punishment on unbelievers. tidings of salvation preached to us, should, like them, come short of attaining these unspeakable blessings. The word of promise cannot profit, unless it be cordially received and digested, as it were, in the mind by faith. Then, indeed, it will become the support of hope, and the ground of joy and triumph.
2. We are reminded that both the rest of the sabbath and the rest in Canaan were only typical of a better rest, a future and heavenly one. This was intimated, when the Israelites were called to seek another rest, long after they had been settled in Canaan. "To-day," said David, "if ye will hear his voice." What a mercy it is that there is a blessed, a heavenly rest remaining for the people of God, when they have finished their toils and labours here. This is a delightful, holy, everlasting sabbath, resulting from the completion of the great work of redemption. Let us diligently labour therefore to enter into this rest, by a renunciation of our own righteousness, by the exercise of self-denial and repentance, and by a firm reliance on Christ, his blood, righteousness, power, and grace. And how should we regard God's
It will be found, when he executes it, quick and powerful, sharper than a two-edged sword, slaying the sinner, while it exposes the evil thoughts and intentions of the heart. Nor ever let us imagine, that we can escape the detection of God, if we be unbelievers; for nothing can be concealed from him, and to him we must give an account of all our conduct.
6-9. Since therefore, &c. There was a promise of some entering in, and they to whom the glad tidings were preached, did not because of unbelief, God again limiteth, &c.—To-day if ye will, &c. Even then when they had been so long settled in the land of Canaan, he directs them to seek an entrance into his rest, which they would find, if they heard his voice, and did not harden their hearts. From this we may infer, that there is a rest, distinct from the sabbath, and from that in the land of Canaan, to which Joshua conducted the people; as if the last had only been intended, God would not have spoken of another. There is a rest which now remaineth as the subject of promise and the object of hope to the people of God. The apostle calls this a Sabbatism, which though it includes the sense of rest, it expresses also the nature of it. It will resemble the sabbath in its employments and enjoyments, but in a degree of which we can now form no conception.
A. D. 63. Our Lord a High-priest; authority and honour of his priesthood; the negligence of the Hebrews reproved.
HAVING therefore a great high priest, that 14
10. For he who, &c. The rest which God hath promised, and which he gives to every believer; he hath rested from all his works of trial and suffer. ing and pain, as God did from his works of creation.
11. Diligently labour, &c. By using all the means with which we are favoured; and by guarding against the deceitfulness of sin, lest we should fall, after the example of the Israelites, by unbelief. And let us take heed to the word of the gospel, as the word of God.
12. For the word of God, &c. The gospel, which is his word, and may figuratively be said to be quick, or living, especially as attended with the quickening and animating influence of the Spirit; and powerful, in convincing and converting men.—Sharper, &c. As it pierceth to the dividing of soul and spirit, showing which of the spirits are animal and which spiritual, “as a sword divides the joints and the marrow," so that it pervades the inmost recesses of the mind, "and is a discerner of the thoughts, &c." Comp. I Pet. i. 23, and 1 Thess. v. 23, with John xii. 48, and 1 Cor. xiv. 25.
13. Before him. In the sight of God, whose word it is, and who will certainly both bestow blessings, and inflict punishments according to it, as he did to the Israelites..—But all things are naked, &c. As the inward parts of the animal sacrificed, when cut up, are opened and exposed to every one's view, so that no disguise, no hypocricy can be of any avail.
14-16, Having therefore, &c. Peirce observes that the apostle (Ch.
Christ our high priest.
He learnt obedience. hath passed into the heavens, Jesus the Son || psalm, "Thou art a priest for ever according 15 of God, let us hold fast our profession. For to the order of Melchizedek." And Christ 7 we have not a high priest who cannot compas- in the days of his flesh, when he had offered sionately feel for our infirmities; but one who up prayers and supplications with strong crywas tempted in all things like ourselves, though ing and with tears, to him that was able to save 16 without sin. Let us therefore come with con- him from death, (and he was heard as to what fidence to the throne of grace, that we may he feared ;) Though he was a Son, yet he 8 obtain mercy, and find grace to help in time learned obedience by the things which he suffered; And, having been made perfect, 9 he became the author of eternal salvation to all that obey him; Called of God a high 10 priest according to the order of Melchizedek: Of whom we have many things to say, and 11 hard to be explained, since ye are dull of hearing..
of need. 1
For every high priest taken from among men is appointed for men in things relating to God, that he may offer gifts and sacrifices 2 for sins: One who can have compassion on the ignorant, and on those that err from the way; since he himself also is compassed with 3 infirmity. And, on this account he ought, as for the people, so also for himself, to offer sacrifices for sins.
For whereas, by this time, ye ought to be 42 teachers, ye have need of one to teach you again, some of the first elements of the oracles of God; and have become such as have need of milk, and not of strong meat. For every 13 one that useth milk only is unskilful in the word of righteousness; for he is a babe. But strong food belongeth to perfect men, even 14 to those who, by reason of use, have their
Now no man taketh this honour to himself, but he that is called of God, as was Aaron. 5 So the Christ also glorified not himself by becoming high priest; but God who said to him, "Thou art my Son, to day have I be6 gotten thee:" As he saith also in another
iii. 1,) had called them to "consider Jesus Christ, the apostle and high priest of their profession," goes off to show that he was superior to Moses, and that the unbelief of their fathers was punished, as a warning to them; and that they having a promise of rest, might fall short of it through unbelief, now returns to consider the character and authority of Christ as high priest.Great high priest. See Ch. i. 3, and Ch. ii.-Passed into, &c. Not as high priest on earth, but in heaven, where he lives to make intercession for us; one full of compassion for our infirmities, as while here he was tempted and tried as we are. From his greatness, as Jesus the Son of God, we should hold fast our profession; and from his compassion and intercession, we are encouraged to approach with confidence to a throne of grace, &c.
CHAP. V. 1-3. For every high priest, &c. That Christ is such a high priest I will now prove. As a high priest taken from among men, is one appointed by proper authority to act for men in things relating to God's worship; and particularly to offer gifts or free-will-offerings and sacrifices to expiate sins: one who can have compassion on the ignorant and erring, from a sense of his own infirmities; and who on this account feels a necessity of offering sacrifices for himself as well as for the people.
4-6. As was Aaron, &c. Whom God chose and called to this office among his brethren; so Christ did not assume to himself the honour of being high priest, but was called and appointed to his office by him who called him "His Son," and said of him, "Thou art a priest for ever, &c." He called him His Son, and proved him to be so by raising him from the dead, (Acts xiii. 23,) soon after which Christ presented himself as high priest in the most holy place above. The order of. According to the manner or likeness of Melchizedek. 7-11. And Christ in the, &c. These verses illustrate verses 1, 2, and show that he can have compassion.And with tears. This circumstance is not mentioned by any of the evangelists; but weeping, as the evidence of sorrow, was one of the infirmities of our nature, to which he was subject. John xi. 34. Comp. Luke xxii. 44, with Matt. xxvii. 46.To save him from death. VOL. III. PART XXIV. 3 F
Not from dying, but from the state of the dead. Jesus said, indeed, “If it be possible, let this cup pass from me;" but he added, "Not my will, but thine be done."—And he was heard. With Peirce, I include these words in a parenthesis; and consider them to mean, that in a little time he was delivered from the power of death, being raised again, and so his prayer was answered.
-Though he was a Son, &c. The Son of God in human nature, yet in this nature he learned obedience by the, &c. one trial preparing him for another; and he learned how difficult it is to obey, and what faith and fortitude are necessary under trials, and from this can have compassion on men.-Made perfect. By all his sorrows and sufferings, as a high priest, he has become the author of, &c. to all who believe on him, and practically obey him.Of whom, &c. What follows to Ch. vi. 20, is a digression in Paul's manner, one thought suggesting another; and Ch. vi. 20, the words, "According to the order of Melchizedek," mark the resumption of the subject, and in Ch. vii. 1, &c. the subject is pursued agreeably to the assurance of discussing higher doctrines which is given, Ch. vi. 1, 3.
12-14. Some of the first, yc. I follow Macknight in considering va as the accusative plural, and suppose the apostle to refer to those spiritual views and explications of the writings of Moses and the prophets, as relating to the person and work of our Lord, which, in the course of his ministry, he had given them, but which they had not understood, or had forgot, misled by the comments of the Rabbies; so that in this respect they were babes.- In the word of righteousness. In that word which reveals the justifying righteousness of God, and which lays the firmest foundation for the hope and comfort of a penitent sinner. Rom. i. 17.; x. 6—1.—But strong food, &c. The truths conveyed by the types and figures of the law, or in allusions by the prophets, may be called "strong food," as they invigorate the mind, and are fit for perfect men, advanced in knowledge and piety, and who, by exercising the faculties of their minds, can discern good and evil, truth and falsehood. Such they ought to have been.
REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER V. 1. With what feelings of respect and gratitude should we contemplate our great high priest? He is by nature the Son of God, as well as by his humiliation the Son of man; and as. Mediator, he has passed into the heavens, into the holy temple of God, to plead for us. He has carried our nature with its sinless infirmities there; and in this nature can, and does, compassionately feel for us. He remembers his own trials, temptations, and sufferings, which he endured in this world of sorrow, sin, and misery; and though he sustained them all with invincible fortitude, and remained pure and holy amidst so many occasions of sin and pollution, he knows how to pity us, and bear with our infirmities. Let us then hold fast our profession of his name; and, under a sense of guilt and weakness, "come with confidence to the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy, and find grace to help in time of need."
2. We hence also learn the nature of the high priest's office, and the superior excellence of Christ as our high priest. Every high priest Every high priest under the law was employed in things relating to God, in offering gifts
CHAP. VI. 1-3. Not laying again, &c. Not treating again of what ye have often beard as first principles, or elements of the doctrine of Christ. "Repentance from dead works," works which merit death, and which, if not repented of, will assuredly lead to it; "and of faith towards God," as necessary to every act of acceptable worship, (Ch. xi. 3,) “of the doctrine of baptims," or washings, enjoined by the law, as emblems of the purity of the mind, and of the influence of the Spirit, which the gospel requires and promises; "of the putting on of hands," as the offerer of any sacrifice did, confessing thereby that he was a sinner, and expecting forgiveness by the shedding of blood, which represented the way of obtaining forgiveness by the death of Christ; "of the resurrection, &c." which was implied in the covenant made with Abraham, and was revealed by the prophets, as well as a final judgment. Some, by" putting on of hands" refer to the communication of the Spirit by the hands of the apostles; but I prefer the sense given See Peirce. This we mill do, &c. We will proceed from treating of the first principles of the doctrine of Christ, tanght in the law and the prophets, to the deep and more sublime meaning of some of these oracles, which is the perfection of christian knowledge.
State of Apostates.
ance who have been once enlightened, and have tasted of the heavenly gift, and have been made partakers of the Holy Spirit, And have tasted of the good word of God, 5 and seen the powers of the age to come, And 6 yet have fallen away; since they again crucify to themselves the Son of God, and expose him to public shame. For the land which hath drunk 7 in the rain that often cometh upon it, and bringeth forth herbs useful to those for whom it is cultivated, receiveth blessing from God; But that which beareth thorns and briars is 8 rejected, and is near being accursed; whose end is to be burned.
But, beloved, we are persuaded better things 9
.4-6. For it is impossible. By any ordinary means; yet nothing of this kind is in its own nature impossible with God. To renew those, &c. The construction requires this transposition, as all the participles are governed by
ånd sacrifices for sins; both for his own sins and for those of the people. It was necessary, that he should be one who felt compassion for the ignorant and for those who erred from the right way; and who, from a sense of his own infirmities and offences, should be ready to use every proper method to recover sinners to God. To be thus employed was a high and distinguished honour; but no one had a right to this honour, but he that was called of God, as was Aaron. Our Lord did not assume it without a divine call; and in the days of his humiliation, how did he intercede with strong cries and tears? And oh, how did he suffer, when his soul was made an offering for sin! Though he were a Son, the Father did not spare him, but freely gave him up for us all; and it was by his sufferings that he was made perfect, as our high priest, and that he obtained eternal redemption for all that obey him. In the knowledge of his person, office, and grace let us continually grow, that we may not be babes, and unskilful in the word of unrighteousness; let us press onward in the path of duty and holiness.
this verb. Once enlightened. By the truths of the gospel.-Tasted the, &c. Have had experience of the heavenly gift, as a person has of food by tasting it; and this gift I consider as Christ. See John iii. 16; iv. 10. Drs. Owen and Doddridge suppose the Spirit is meant ; and Macknight applies it to the gift of freedom from the yoke of the law; while Newcome adopts Dr. Campbell's notion, and considers the bounty of God bestowed on men by the gospel, to be meant.- -Of the Holy Spirit. In his extraordinary gifts. I Cor. xii. 4, &c.Of the good word, &c. Of the gospel as preached, its doc trines and promises, and perceiving, in some measure, the excellence of them.
And seen the powers, &c. The various miracles wrought in attestation of the gospel, and of the glory, grace, and power of Christ. See Ch. ii. 5.— The age to come, means the christian dispensation. See Dr, Owen.—Have fallen away. Wholly apostatised from the profession of the gospel, and turned back to the antiquated ceremonies of Moses.Since they crucify, ye. By this conduct they approve of the crucifixion of Christ as a just act of their brethren; and testify that if it were possible, they would also crucify him again; and they do, as far as it is in their power, expose him to public shame and reproach, hardening their unbelieving brethren, &c.
7, 8. For the land, &c. Such cannot, by ordinary means, be renewed: for as good men resemble fertile ground, and which repays the labour of the husbandman, so these resemble land that is barren, and which, notwithstand
Proofs of sincerity.
of you, and things that belong to salvation, 10 though we thus speak. For God is not unrighteous, so as to forget your work and love, which ye have shown to his name, in that ye have ministered to the saints, and still minister. 11 And we desire every one of you to show the same diligent care, to the full assurance of 12 hope unto the end: That ye be not slothful, but imitators of those who through faith and 13 patience inherit the promises. For when God made his promise to Abraham, because he could swear by no greater, he swore by himself, 14 Saying, "Surely blessing I will bless thee, and 15 multiplying I will multiply thee." And so, after he had patiently waited, he obtained the
REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER VI. 1. We learn that we should not rest satisfied with attaining the knowledge of the first principles of the doctrine of Christ, but should go on unto perfection. First principles are indeed necessary in their place; but are obviously intended to be the basis of higher and more noble views and attain ments. To know and experience repentance from dead works-works of sin and iniquity deserving death, is the beginning of our spiritual life; and faith towards God, a full conviction of his being, attributes, and glories is the ground of all worship: "For he that cometh to God must believe that he is, and that he is the rewarder of those who diligently seek him." Though ritual washings and purifications are done away, yet what was signified by them, sincerity, purity of heart and life, are what we should ever cultivate. And let us respect the practice of setting apart to any holy office, by prayer and imposition of hands; and amidst the afflictions of life and in the prospect of death, how should the doctrine of the resurrection animate and encourage us, while that of a final judgment should fill us with awe, and excite us to watchfulness, that we may find acceptance in that day.
2. We are forcibly admonished to guard against apostacy from our christian profession, by the consequences of it. Those who totally fall away, and renounce the name they professed to revere, and in which they avowedly placed their confidence; and are induced to reject the Saviour, and as far as in their power again to érucify him, are exposed to the most awful danger of perishing. Few such, if any, have been brought to repentance. O let us not then rest in any illu
ing the rain which comes often upon it, and the expense of cultivating, continues barren. In this case it is given up to be burnt, as accursed land, as such apostates will be.
Safety of believers.
promise. promise. For men indeed swear by one that is 16 greater and an oath for confirmation is to them an end of all gainsaying. In which view 17 God, being more abundantly willing to show to the heirs of promise the immutability of his counsel, confirmed it by an oath; That by two 18 immutable things, in which it was impossible for God to lie, we might have strong consolation, who have fled for refuge, to lay hold on the hope set before us: Which hope we have 19 as an anchor of the soul, sure and sted fast, and fixed in the part within the veil; Whither 20 the forerunner is entered for us, even Jesus, made a high priest for ever, according to the order of Melchizedek.
9, 10. Better things of you, &c. Whatever the gifts may be, mentioned verses 4-6, the apostle supposes they might be enjoyed without these better things, the things relating to salvation. The persons who are described above, are not said to be "called, born of God, justified, or sanctified." They are not said even to have believed on Christ, or to be in any way partakers of saving blessings. To forget your work, &c. Your work arising from your love to Christ, manifest in ministering to the saints.
10. labour. Griesb.
mination we may have received, or in any taste we may have had of the heavenly gift, of the good word of God, and of the powers of the christian dispensation; nor in any gifts of the Spirit, as if these were inseparably connected with salvation. Alas! men may have the most shining talents, and may be caressed and praised, and yet prove vile apostates. Whatever advantages they may enjoy for spiritual improvement, they are like that land, on which labour is employed in vain, and which only yields briars and thorns, and is nigh to cursing. Olet such dread the curse which must come upon them.
3. We learn that though fidelity requires that a minister should warn professors of danger, yet what pleasure it affords when he can, on sure grounds, hope better things of men, things which belong to their salvation. Such hope had the apostle in respect to the believing Hebrews, from their work and love to the name of the Saviour, manifested in their sympathy and charity to his saints. Yet such have need of exhortation, not to settle on their lees, but to be followers of those who through faith and patience inherit the promises, Behold what strong consolation is provided for such as have fled for refuge to the hope set before them in the gospel, whose faith and hope like a steady anchor hath entered into heaven, and fixed on the blessed Redeemer, who lives and reigns there, and who as their Forerunner, is gone to prepare a place for them! How are all spiritual blessings secured to the believer! The God of truth hath promised, hath sworn; and on these two immutable things his faith may rest.
11, 12. To the full assurance, &c. That by your watchfulness and care, you may attain and preserve the full assurance of your hope to the end of your lives; and on no account becoming slothful, but imitating the example of your forefathers, who, through faith and patient waiting, now inherit, &c.
13-15. His promise to, &c. Of a son by Sarah, he confirmed it by his oath; but Abraham obtained the fulfilment of it by patiently waiting.
16. And an oath, &c. In things doubtful, as well as to confirm a promise, usually satisfies men, and puts an end to all contradiction or gainsaying. 17-20. Confirmed it by an, &c. In condescension to all to whom the promise is made, he confirmed it by an oath; or made an oath the mediator 411
Melchizedek, a priest.
A. D. 63. Christ Jesus is a priest after the order of Melchizedek, and far more excellent than the priests after the order of Aaron.
For this Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of the most High God, who met Abraham returning from the slaughter of the kings, and 2 blessed him; To whom even Abraham gave a tenth part of all the spoils; first being by interpretation King of righteousness, and then King of Salem also, which is, King of peace; 3 Without recorded father, without recorded mother, without priestly pedigree, having neither beginning of days, nor end of life; but, being like to the Son of God, who 4 abideth a priest perpetually. Now consider how great this priest was, to whom even the patriarch Abraham gave the tenth part of the spoils. 5 And indeed those that are of the sons of Levi, who receive the office of the priesthood, have a commandment to take tithes from the people according to the law, that is, from their brethren, though these come out of the loins of 6 Abraham: But he whose pedigree is not derived from them, received tithes from Abra
surety, or ratifier of his counsel. See Macknight.-Two immutable things A promise and an oath. -We might have, &c. We believers, the heirs of the promise, might have strong consolation under the terrors of the law, having fled for refuge to the hope of pardon and life, which the gospel gives, as the man-slayer did to the city of refuge, from the avenger of blood; and to this hope, as to an anchor, our souls are fastened amidst the storms of life; and this anchor is strong and stedfast, being fixed in the part within the veil, in the most holy place, heaven. Whither the forerunner, &c.
CHAP. VII. 1—3. For this Melchizedek, &c. See Gen. xiv. 18-21, and notes... -King of righteousness. Or, a righteous king; and "king of Salem," which means peace, and this name was given to Jerusalem, where he probably reigned in peace. Ps. lxxvi. 2, comp. with Josh. x. 1. Hence there was a priest divinely appointed to officiate for his people before Abraham's descendant, Aaron, was called to that office. Without priestly pedigree. Either by father or mother's side; nor have we any account of the beginning of his days, or of the end of his life and ministry; but so far as the scripture account is concerned, he is, in this respect, like the Son of God, who abideth a priest continually. The time the Levitical priests officiated, is called their days. Luke i. 23. They did not begin before the age of thirty, nor minister after that of fifty years. Numb. iv. 2, 3, 16. His priesthood, as to its beginning or end, was not limited by any law of God. It is in this view that he is like the Son of God. It is in this view that he was like the Son of God, that he did not derive his office by descent, but by special appointment; nor was the period of his ministry limited.
The law changed.
ham, and blessed him that had the promises. Now, without all contradiction, the less is 7 blessed by the greater. And here men who 8 die receive tithes; but there he received them of whom it is testified only that he lived. And 9 if I may so speak, Levi also, who receiveth For 10 tithes, payed tithes through Abraham. he was then in the loins of his father, when Melchizedek met him.
Now if perfection were by the Levitical 11 priesthood, (for in respect to it the people received the law,) what further need was there that another priest should rise according to the order of Melchizedek, and that he should not be called according to the order of Aaron? For the priesthood being changed, there is 12 made of necessity a change of the law also. For he of whom these things are spoken be- 13 longeth to another tribe, of which no man gave attendance at the altar. For it is evident that 14 our Lord sprang out of Judah; of which tribe Moses spoke nothing concerning the priesthood. And it is still far more evident; because 15 another priest ariseth according to the likeness of Melchizedek, Who is made such, not ac- 16
4. How great this priest, &c. As guç is the nearest antecedent, I construe autos as agreeing with it; and it is not the greatness of the man, but of his office, to which Paul refers. Abraham was great by his wealth, and still greater as heir of the divine promises; yet to Melchizedek he gave a tenth of the spoils, as to the priest of the most High God.
5-10. The sons of Levi, &c. They had a tenth of the tithes paid by all the people to the Levitical tribe, (Numb, xviii. 24-31.;) but he whose pedigree is not derived from them, received tithes from Abraham, the origin of their family, and as a priest, blessed him who had received the promises. And without all, &c.- -Only that he lived. Some contend that is in the imperfect tense; but whether this be so or not, it is certain it may be rendered in the manner I have done, and as the exigence of the place seems to require, we having no account of his death in Gen. and the words of the Psalmist, (Ps. cx. 4,) only implying that such a person had lived and been a priest to the most High God.—And if I may so, &c. If I may consider the matter in this light, Levi may be said to pay Melchizedek tithes by his progenitor Abraham., 11. Now if perfection, &c. As the apostle does not infer what follows from the preceding statement, but simply reasons upon it, I have so rendered the particles; E μy, as to show it. See Hoogeven and Doddridge's note. Now if perfection, the complete expiation of sin, and the pardon of it, so as to secure to the sinner life and happiness, were by the Levitical priesthood, and the sacrifices which they offered, then would there be no need of another priest or priesthood? The parenthetical sentence, "In respect to it the people, &c." the law appointing Aaron and the Levites, to minister before God, and specifying and enjoining every part of their service; it is evident that the common version cannot be right, for under it, &c. which implies that the Levitical priesthood existed before the law which appointed it was given.
12. The priesthood, &c. In respect to which the whole ritual law was given, being changed, there must be a change of the law which appointed it; and this was signified when God appointed a priest after the order of Melchizedek, and not after that of Aaron.
13-16. To another tribe, &c. Than that of Levi; and it is evident from what is said by the Psalmist and prophets, that the Messiah was to spring from Judah, of which tribe Moses has said nothing concerning the priesthood,