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Depravity of the Cretans.

Duty of the aged and the

young. selves, a poet of their own, said, “ The Cretans || sound doctrine: That the aged men be sober, 2

are alway liars, evil beasts, slothful gluttons.” || grave, prudent, sound in faith, in 'love, in 13 This testimony is true. i Wherefore rebuke patience: That the aged women in like man- 3

them sharply, that they may be sound in ner, be in behaviour as becometh holy persons, 14 the faith; Not giving heed to Jewish fables, not false accusers, not given to much wine, and commaridments of men, who turn away te

teachers of good things; That they may in- f 15 from the truth. To the pure all things are struct the young women to love their husbands,

pure : but to those that are defiled and unbe- to love their children, To be prudent, chaste, 5

lieving nothing is pure; but even their mind keepers at home, good, odedient to their own 16 and conscience are defiled. They profess to husbands, that the word of God be not evil

know God; but in their works they deny him, spoken of. In like manner exhort the young 6 being abominable, and disobedient, and as to men to be prudent. In all things show thyself 7 every good work reprobate.

a pattern of good works: in doctrine show

ing uncorruptness, gravity, sincerity, Sound 8 CHAPTER II.

speech, that cannot be condemned; that he A. D. 66. Directions to Titus both as to his doctrine and life ; the duty of who is opposed may be ashamed, having no evil

thing to say of you. Exhort servants to be 9 But speak thou the things which become obedient to their own masters, and to please

servants and all christians.


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-REFLECTION'S UPON Chapter 1: 1. We are taught what 2. We should learn to detest the character of those of the cir. is the faithi of God's elect; that it is the acknowledgment of the || cumcision, as well as of the Cretalis. The former being instructed in lryth which is according to godliness. The truth; contained in the the law, pretended to have attained the highest degree of disine knowgospel is the doctrine of faith ; and the cordial reception and ac- ledge, and opposed the gospel with the greatėsi zeal. Yet were they knowledgment of this, is the grace of faith', end in the exercise of wholly destitute of piery; and in their spirit and practice were unruly, this faith in humble worship godliness consists. How delightful is it vain talkers, and deceivers. How necessary is it that such teachers to enjoy the hope of the gospel! How important and interesting is its be exposed, and their mouths stopped by a forcible statement of truth, object, eternal life;"! and how firm and sure the ground of it, the to prevent the evils which they might occasion. What can be more promise of that God, who cannot Jie ? ! let us cherish this blessed disgraceful akan lying, cruelly, and gloltony; and when these vices are hope, and never give it up for any thing which the world may present generally among a people, they surely ought to be sharply rebuked. or promise To induçe, men to believe, and through believing to l While guilty of these sios, it will avail nothing to abstain from ceraltain this exalted hope, is the design of the christian ministry; and it tain kinds of food, and to pretend to outward purily; for the mind and should be matter of thankfulness, that good men, men of wisdom, the conscience are defiled. What will professing that we know God piety, and zeal, have been 'raised up tớ preach the unsearchable riches signify, if by our works we clearly show, that we reject his authority of Christ. May many such be still raised up, who shall be able by over us, and that we do not regard his holy will?. ANʻthat do this their doctrine to instruet, by their reasoning to convince; and by their are abominable, because disobedient; and as they are reprobate as meekness, gentleness, love, kindness and compassion, to confort and to every good work, without repentance they must speedily perish. O edify the flocks over which they are placed.

that such may consider and repent.

12. One of themselves, 8c. Epimenides, in bis book concerning oracles. -Evil beasts. Cruel and savage, as well as gluttonous.

13, 14. Rebuke them, &c. Tell them plainly of the sins to which they are most exposed; and to be on their guard against Jews, who, for the sake of gain, renounce the faith of the gospel.

15. To the pure, 8c. All kinds of food are pure; but to those defiled by intemperance, and unbelieving as it respects the freedom of the gospel, nothing is pure, as even their own minds, &c.

16. They profess to know, &c.' The Jews did so. See Rom. ii. 17–21.

-Disapproved. And condemned, when tried by their own law, yet are they so ready to disapprove and condemn others.

CHAP. II. 1, 2. Sound doctrine. Which is agreeable to what I have taught, and tends to promote the interests of purity and holiness.---Aged mnen, &c. Some think that the apostle means elders or bishops, as the same qualifications are mentioned, I Tim. iii. 2, s.

3-5. Aged women, &c. Those employed by the church, as deaconesses to teach and instruct the younger, and probably children. 1 Tim. iii. 11.To love their. 8c. As unfaithfulness among married persons was a common sin; and as the rites of heathen worship tended to corrupt the female character, these precepts werè necessary; and especially to prevent any reproach being cast on the gospel.

6. Self-governed. Macknight renders, “to govern their passions." They are to be humble and chaste, and not to give the reips to their pride and Justs.

7,8. In teaching, &c. See 2 16. Incorruptness, as to the nat. ter, gravity, sincerity as to the manner of teaching; and such “sound speech," iu exhorting, &c. as cannot be condemned.

9, 10. Servants, &c. See Eph. vi. 6, &c.—Not contradicting. When they command any thing; «not purloining," or secretly stealing any thing but showing, &c.

Believers live soberly, &c.


Duty to magistrates them well in all things; not contradicting;

CHAPTER III. 10 Not purloining, but showing the utmost fide

A. D. 66. Paul directs Titus what to teach and what to avoid; he must lity;, that they may adorn the doctrine of

roject heretics ; ke then desires him to come to him at Nicopolis. God our Saviour in all things. 11 For the grace of God, which bringeth salva- Put them in mind to be subject to princi- 1 12 tion, hath appeared to all men, Teaching us palities and powers, to obey magistrates, to

that we should deny ungodliness and worldly be ready to every good work, To speak evil 2

desires, and live soberly, righteously, and of no man, not to be contentious, but gentle, 13 piously, in this present world; Looking for showing all meekness to all men. For we 3

that blessed hope, even the glorious appear- ourselves were also, formerly unwise, disobe

ance of our great God and Saviour Jesus dient, deceived, slaves to many evil , desires, 14 Christ; Who gave himself for us, that he and pleasures, living in malice and envy,

might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify hateful, and hating one another. But when 4

unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good the kindness and love of God our Saviour, 15 works. These things speak, and exhort, and towards man appeared ; • He saved us, not 57

rebuke with all authority. Let no man de- by works of righteousness which we had done, spise thee.

but according to his mercy, by the washing

ReflecTIONS UPON CHAPTER 11. 1. Persons of every rank, 2. We have the best reasons and the strongest motives 10 conduct age, and condition, need, admonition, and direction. The aged who ourselves in the manner recomiended. How hias the grace of God have nearly finished their course, ought to show a sobriety, gravity, appeared in the gift of his dear Son! of him who is the great God. and prudence, which may edify their younger christian brethren; and and Saviour, Jesus Christ! And how has the grace of our Lord for their own comfort, they should be sound in faith, love, and patience. appeared in giving himself for us, giving up his life a ransom for the And how suitable is it for ageď women to conduct themselves as be- ungodly, for the chief of sinners, that he might redeem them from all cometh their holy character and profession, Not addicted to the vices iniquity, and through the influence of his Spírit, purify them for him-: usual among heathens, they ought to be examples to younger women self

, and make them a peculiar people, zealous of good works! This of every virtue and grace which can adorn their sex, and commend is the glorious salvation of the gospel ; the salvation which it reveals, the gospel. What an honour is it when they are mothers in Israel and which it brings to the soul, when it is believed. For every beand teachers of good things; and when through their influence, others liever is taught to reject and shun all ungodliness, and worldly desires, are induced to discharge every relative duty. Young men are too and to live in the exercise of sobriety as to himself, righteously and frequently inconsiderate, and self-willed. They need to be exhorted justly in respect to his conduct to others, and piously discharging the to regard prudence, Even servants of she lowest rank, should be duties he owes to God. Living in this present world, in this humble, faithful and obedient to their own masters; and by such a eonduct holy manner, with what joy may they expect the appearance of Christ ; they may not only adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour, but win either to remove them by death or for judgment. To them this will them to love and serve him. Whatever be our situation or calling, be a glorious appearance ; and it will be the accomplishment of all in that let us ever aim to glorify him, whose we are and whom we their hopes. For Jesus comes to destroy all enemies, and to establish profess to serve.

his people for ever in heaven.

11. Hath appeared, &c. The saving grace of God hath appeared in the gift and work of Christ, and is now preached to all men, where ever the gospel is sent.

12. Teaching us. That we should deny and renounce ungodliness, idol. atry, and vice, and live in a sober, righteous, and pious manner, &c. * 13

of our great God, &c. Hammond and many others had thus rendered the text, long before the ingenious Granville Sharp publisbed his canon respecting the Greek article. That this version is founded on the Greek usage, and that the text can only be applied to one person, the learned reader may see proved from the Greek fathers, in Mr. Wordsworth's letters. This passage stands then as a proof, that he who is our Saviour, is also the great God.

14. Who gave himself, &c. Who appeared in our nature, and as man, gave up himself to pain, sufferings, and death, with the merciful design of redeeming us, &c.

CHAP. III. 1, 2. To be subject. See Rom. xiii. 1, &c. - To speak

evil, fc. Not to act as the Jews do, who abuse the Gentiles, who are conten. : tious, &c. but as disciples of Christ, we must be gentle and meek.

3. For we ourselves, &c. In our unconverted state were unwise, disobe. dient, &c.; and for this reason we should pity those who are in a similar state.

4-7. The kindness and love, &c. The love of the Father, from which originated the salvation of sinners, and who, in union with the Son, is the Saviour ; when this love appeared, was made manifest by the coming of Jesus, and the preaching of his gospel, he saved us from our heathen ignorance, Jewish pride, &c.; not indeed by works of righteousness, &c. “ but according to his mercy, by the washing of regeneration, and the renewing, &c.” The Holy Spirit produces in us a radical moral change, purifying our hearts, and renews our minds more and more. Some would apply, “the washing of regeneration” to baptism only; an opinion opposed to that of onr Lord. John iii. 3, 6. Which he shed, &c. In his gifts and graces, through the prevailing intercession of Jesus our Saviour. By his grace, &c. See Rom iii. 24 -26. —Heirs as to, 8c. By being made children of God by faith.

Good works necessary

Heirs of eternal life.

TITUS III. of regeneration, and the renewing of the Holy || such is subverted, and sinneth, being self- . 6 Spirit;

Which he shed on us abundantly condemned. 7 through Jesus Christ our Saviour; That When I shall send to thee Artemas, or 12

being accounted righteous by his grace, we Tychicus, endeavour to come to me to Nico

might be made heirs as to the hope of eternal polis: for I have determined there to winter. 8 life. This is a faithful saying, and these Diligently conduct on their way Zenas, once 13

things I command that thou affirm constantly, a teacher of the law, and Apollos, that nothing so that they who have believed in God may may be wanting to them. And let our people 14 be careful to maintain good works. These also learn to maintain good works for necessary

are the things which are good and profitable uses, that they may not be unfruitful. All 15 9 to men. But avoid foolish questions, and that are with me salute thee. Salute those

genealogies, and contentions, and strivings who love us in the faith. Grace be with you about the law; for they are unprofitable and

all. Amen.

, 10 vain. Reject an heretic after the first and It was written to Titus, from Nicopolis in Il second admonition; Knowing that he that is


ReflecTIONS UPON CHAPTER mi. 1. How proper is it for its operation ? Notwithstanding all our unworthiness, the kindnes believers, to remember what was once their state, character and con- and love of God our Saviour hath appeared to us in the gospel, and duct! Let us call to mind that we ourselves were formerly unwise, || by the influence of the Holy Spirit, hath effected a blessed and imignorant of our true spiritual condition, knew not God aright, nor his portant charge in our state, temper, and conduct. We have been holy law or will; but were proud and disobedient, despising the divine washed from our pollutions, renewed in our minds, through the reauthority, and walking in the way of our own hearts. We were generating influence of the Spirit, adopted into God's family, accountslaves to many evil desires and carna! pleasures, wanderers from God ed righteous, and made heirs of the hope of eternal life. In this and goodnese, malicious, envious, and bitter enemies to one another. wonderful manner he saves us ; and how evident it is, that this is not Thus did sin reigo in our hearts and minds, and spread its unholy in- by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his fluence through all our conduct. And what do such sinners deserve ? own rich and abounding mercy. From motives of love and gratitude, Surely they, merit the severest strokes of justice ? And what matter we are called to obey every divine precept; 10 be subject to principa. for the deepest humiliation and repentance before God ? How justly lities and powers, 10 obey magistrates, to be ready to every good may we acknowledge our vileness, ingratitude, and obduracy! And work; for these are the things which are good and profitable to men. what goodness, patience, and long-suffering hath God exercised to- We should avoid vain wrangling; and if a man be obstinate in bis wards us? It is of the Lord's mercies we are not consumed, even error, we should rejeot him, and bave no connexion with him. In because his compassion does not fail.

works of charity and kindness let us abound that we may not be un2. How rich and free is the exercise of grace, and how powerful fruitful in the Lord.

8. This is a faithful, &c. He refers to what he had been saying in the four preceding verses; and these things I command as an apostle, &c.To maintain, $c. As it respects themselves, and to promote the practice of good works in others.

10, 11. An heretic. A factious man, who forms parties, chiefly with a view to self interest. See Campbell's Diss. 9. Such a one, having been admonished as Christ directed, Matt. xviii. 15–18, and he still continuing refractory, reject.18 subverted. As to the spirit of the gospel, and sinneth against his knowledge.

12. To Nicopolis. Either that in Thrace, or one in Macedonia. This shows that Paul was not a prisoner ; and of course this was written before the second epistle to Timothy.

13. Zenas, 8c. I follow Jerome in rendering rouincy a teacher of the law, because it is used for such in the gospels. Apollos is often mentioned.

14. Our people, &c. Some supply disciples. Let them learn to aboard in hospitality and charity to the poor.

15. Who love us in, &c. Who love as christians, as believers in the same Saviour,

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PAILEMON appears to have been a native or at least an inhabitant of Colosse, as Paul mentions in his epistle to the church there, that Onesimus was one of them. He was one of Paul's converts, as he intimates verse 19; and he appears to have been a man of some note, as he had a numerous family, a church in his house, or the brethren met there for worship. He showed great respect for Paul, when he was the second time imprisoned at Rome, 2 Tim. i. 16. &c.; but this epistle was written near the same time as that to the Colossians.

A. D. 63. Paul testifies his joy on hearing of the faith and love of Philemón, love, because the bowels of the saints are re

and desires him to forgive his servant Onesimus, and to receive him as a freshed by thee, brother. christian brother.

Wherefore, though I might use much free- 8 1

Paul, a prisoner of Jesus Christ, and Timo- dom in Christ, to enjoin thee what is fit, Yet 9 thy our brother, to Philemon the beloved, because of my love I rather beseech thee, as 2 and our fellow-labourer; And to our beloved Paul the aged, and now also a prisoner for

Apphia, and Archippus our fellow-soldier, and Jesus Christ. I beseech thee, I say, for my 10

to the church which assembleth in thy house: son Onesimus, whom I have begotten in my 3 Grace be to you, and peace, from God our bonds: Who' formerly was unprofitable to 11 Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

thee, but is now profitable to thee and to me: 4

I thank my God, making mention of thee Whom I have sent again : do thou therefore 12 5 always in my prayers, (Having heard of thy receive him, that is, mine own bowels : Whom 13

faith in the Lord Jesus, and of thy love towards I was willing to retain with me, that in thy 6 all the saints ;) That the communication of stead he might have ministered to me in my

thy faith may become effectual by the ac- bonds for the gospel: But without thy con- 14

knowledgment of every good thing which is sent I would do nothing; that thy good deed 7 among us" in Christ Jesus. For we have should not be as it were of necessity, but wilgreat joy and consolation on account of thy | lingly.

lingly. For perhaps he therefore departed 15

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CHAP. I. 1-3. Philemon, nur fellow-labourer. From this some consider Philemon a preacher; but he might labour to promote the gospel by his influence and property, without preaching it. Apphia, &c. Some think she was the wife of Philemon ; and Archippus was the pastor of the church which met in the house of Philemon. Philip. ii. 25.

4-7. Hcard of thy faith, 8c. To prevent ambiguity, I have transposed the words of the text, and have given what all critics allow to be the sense. See Matt. xii. 22, and I Cor. vi. 11.-Of thy faith, &c. Of the fruits of thy faith, in doing good to the saints, may be effectual in briuging others to the acknowledgment of what is good among us believers. For we have, &c.

8, 9. In Christ, to enjoin, &c. As an apostle. Yet because of my love VOL. III. PART XXIV.

3 E

to thee, I use not authority, but beseech thee, as Paul the aged, now grown old in the service of Jesus, and a prisoner for him. How delicate, and yet affecting must this have been to Philemon.

10--14. Begotten in, &c. By the gospel to a new and holy life; who formerly was unprofitable to thee, not doing the duty of a servant, and even running away; but by the change wrought in him will be profitable to thee and me. Receive him as a convert, whom I tenderly love, and whom I would have retained to minister to me in thy stead, while I continue in bonds; but I thought it not right without thy consent, &c.

15, 16. Receive him for ever. To part with him no more until death ; and as a christian brother, to enjoy future happiness with him.- Both in the


Paul undertakes


to answer for him for a season, that thou shouldst receive him | refresh my bowels in the Lord. Having con- 21 J6 for ever;

No longer as a servant, but above fidence in thy compliance I have written to a servant, a brother beloved ; especially to me, thee, knowing that thou wilt even do more

but how much more to thee, both in the flesh, than I say. At the same time also prepare 22 17 and in the Lord ? If thou therefore consider me a lodging : for I trust that through your

me as a companion, receive him as myself. prayers I shall be given unto you. Epaphras, 23 18 But if he have wronged thee, or owe thee my fellow-prisoner in Christ Jesus; Mark, 24 19 ought, put that to mine account; Paul Aristarchus, Demas, Luke, my fellow-labourers,

have written it with mine own hand, I will salute - thee. The grace of our Lord Jesus 25 repay it: not to say to thee that thou owest Christ be with your spirit.

Amen. 20 besides to me even thine own self. Yea, bro- Written from Rome to Philemon, by

ther, let me have joy of thee in the Lord : Onesimus a servant.


Reflections Upon Pailemon. ]. If not many, yet there miglit have used authority as an apostle of Christ; but be beseeches have been some rich and noble called by grace, and who have as Paul the aged, and now the prisoner of Christ, and reminds him adorned the gospel, by their holy conduct. Such a person was Phile- how much he oned 10 him as the instrument of God for bis salvation ! mon. Paul's friend and convert; and whatever might be his rank or He beseeches not for himself, but for Onesimus! This person had property, it was his chief glory and happiness to be so eminent for his been faithless to his master, stolen some of his property and fled to faith in the Lord Jesus Christ, and for his love to all the saints. It Rome. Here he heard Paul preach, was brought to repentance, and is only in this manner that real faith in him can be manifested. For admitted into the church of Christ. He showed his repentance by his if we love nof our christian brother, whom we see, how can we have fruits ; and the apostle speaks of him as a christian brother, beloved that faith which works by love towards him whom we have not seen? | by himself and ought to be so by others. He sends him back 10 bis It will be an honour to us and to the holy cause in which we are en- master, stating his conversion and becoming responsible for what he gaged, if our communion in this faith should induce all who are ac- owed. O let this amiable conduct remind us of him who took on quainted with us to acknowledge, that there is some good thing among himself our debts, and who has paid them! Who has become a

And what joy will it excite in every humble believer to hear of the ransom for us, and who in consequenoe haih redeemed us 10 God. faith and usefulness of others ? Especially will the hearts of pious We indeed like Onesimus had departed from our duty and our God; faithful ministers be comforted, when they hear that the bowels of poor but by his recovering grace, we are brought back, that we niay be saints are refreshed, by the liberality of their richer brethren.

received and abide with him for ever. May the grace of Christ be so 2. We may justly admire the humble spirit of the apostle, and with our spirit, as to strengthen and invigorate it, that we may to the the wisdom and sovereign grace of God towards Onesimus! He end of our days, sérve, honour, and glorify him! Amen.


fesh, fc. On account of your relation to him as his master, and as his fel- I have confidence that thou will do so, and even go beyond what I request

. low-christian.

22. A lodging, &c. Here Paul expresses his hope that he should be re. , 17-19. As a companion, 8c. As a friend, receive him as thou wouldst leased, through the many prayers presented for him; and he hoped again to me.- -If he have wronged, $c. Most probably Onesimus would tell Paul visit Colosse. what he had doue ; and the debt Paul was willing to take upon himself.

23—25. Epaphras, 8c. See Coloss. i 7.; iv. 12, &c. He was now sof. Not to say, 8c. I enter into this engagement, notwithstanding I might say fering to bonds with Paul. Mark was with Paul when he wrote this epistle; that thou owest to me much more than what he owes to thee, even thy ownself, but when he wrote the second to Timothy, he was not:Aristarchus. Coloss as far as relates to thy knowledge and state as a christian.

iv. 10.-Luke. He abode with Paul at Rome until he was released. The 20, 21. Let me have, &c. Increase my joy by receiving Onesimus; and excellent men must have greatly contributed to promote the christian caixe.


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