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Paul's sufferings.


Duty of being faithful. 7 be partaker of the fruits. Consider what I as doth a gangrene: of whom are Hymeneus

say; and the Lord give thee understanding and Philetus; Who have erred concerning 18 8 in all things. Remember Jesus Christ, of the truth, saying that the resurrection is pasť

the seed of David, who was raised from the already; and overthrow the faith of some.

dead, according to the gospel which I preach : Nevertheless 'the foundation of God standeth 19 9 For which I suffer hardship, as an evil-doer, firm, having this inscription, “ The Lord

even unto bonds; but the word of God is not knoweth those that are his." And, “Let 10 bound. Therefore I endure all things for the every one that nameth the name of the

sake of the elect, that they may also obtain Lord” depart from iniquity.” But in a great 20

the salvation, which is through Christ Jesus, house there are not only vessels of gold and 11 with everlasting glory. This is a faithful of silver, but also of wood and of earth;

saying: For if we die with him, we shall and some to honour, and some to dishonour. 12 live also with him: If we suffer, we shall If a man therefore cleanse himself from these 21

reign also with him : if we deny him, he will things, he will be a vessel to honour, sanctified, 13 also deny us : If we be unfaithful, yet he and fit for the master's use, and prepared unto

abideth faithful: he cannot deny hiniself. every good work. Flee also youthful desires ; 22 14 Of these things put men in remembrance, but follow righteousness, faith, love, peace,

charging them before the Lord, that they together with those who call on the Lord out · contend not about words, to no profit, but to of a pure heart. But foolish and' unprofitable 23 15 the subverting of the hearers. Study to pre-questions avoid, knowing that they beget con

sent thyself approved before God, a workman tentions. And the servant of the Lord must 24

that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly di- not contend ; but must be gentle to all men, 16 viding the word of truth. But shun profane apt to teach, patiently bearing evil, With 25.

and rain babblings: for they will increase to meekness' instructing those that oppose them17 more ungodliness. And their word will eat selves; if, by any means, God may give them

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may be a succession of able, pious, faithful preachers in the churcb. On this 16-18. Vain babblings. About things of no moment, such as many, called principle christians and ministers have ever acted.

teachers, do; for they will tend to increase, and not to check, ungodlinese.. 4. Thut he pleuse, 8c. He that chooses him, does not require him to be The resurrection, $c. Hymeneus is noticed, I Tim. 1. 20. Philetus is not else. occupied with business, foreign to his profession ; but as a soldier to be at his where mentioned. They most probably held that there was only to be a spiritual post and ready to repel the enemy.

resurrection; and that as to believers this was already past; and by this they 3. Contend lawfully. Or, “according to the laws;" and can a minister had overthrown the faith of some, in respect to the resurrection of ihe body. of Christ expect to please him and receive the crowa, unless he faithfully dis- 19. Foundation of God. The promise and bope of a future life and recharge the duties of his office.

surrection, standeth firm, as secured by the mediation of Christ ; 'having this 6,7. First labour, &c. He must sow, and afterwards reap. Consider inscription, as it were, engraved on it, as on a seal, “The Lord knoweth those these things, &c.

that are his," (see Nuinb. xvi. 6,) his faithful servants, and will honour them., 8-10. Remember Jesus, fc. Remember thy Lord and his sufferings, Again on this foundation is inscribed, “Let every one that nameth the name, and this will tend to support thee under all hardships as it does me, who am &c." that professeth his name, and acknowledges bim as his Lord, &c. treated as an evil-doer, or malefactor, (see Luke xxiii. 32, 33, 39,) and now in || 20. In a great house. There are vessels made of the richest inaterials, bonds; but the word of God is not bound, but does and will spread. And what and some of the meanest; so in the visible church are men truly excellent, for I suffer is to promote, as an instryment, the salvation of God's chosen people. their faith, knowledge, piety, zeal, &c. and others worthless, ou account of

11-13. This is a faithful, &c. I consider what follows as meant.- their errors, self-will, and even vices. For if we die, 8c. As martyrs for his gospel and his name, we shall live also, 21. From these things. From these errors, Fain babblings, and hold the &c.-Deny him, &c. When brought before kings and councils he will deny | pure doctrines of the gospel, he will be a vessel of honour, like those of gold us bereafter. Matt. x. 33.-Cannot deny himself. By acting contrary to or silver, &c. his own public and solemn declarations.

22-26. Youthful desires. Not only those of a sensual kind, but ambi14. Put men in, &c. Every where inculcate these things, and charge tion, love of power, confidence in themselves and in their talents, &c. and folpreachers not to contend about words, &c. See I Tim. vi. 4.

low rather righteousness, faith, &c.—Unprofitable, &c. Questions which 15. Study to present, &c. So as to be approved both now and hereafter, convey no profit or instruction to others. The servant of the Lord, 8c. or and not ashamed on account of ignorance, unfaithfulness, or cowardice, rightly him, who was so meek, so kind, so full of love, and who has set us such a fine lividing, &c. giving to all suitable advice, instruction, warning, &c. It has example; but must, like im, be gentle to all, &c.Recover' themselves. often been noticed that the original term is sacrificial, alluding to the priest Regain as it were their senses and reason, and so escape from the snare, '&c. who cut up and divided the sacrifice.

To do the will' of God. Greek, "unto the will." See Boniyer's Conj. VOL. III. PART XXIV. 3 D


Men will become corrupt,

JI TIMOTHY III, yet call themselves christians, repentance to the acknowledgment of the sures more than lovers of God; Having a 5 26 truth; So that they may recover themselves form of godliness, but

form of godliness, but denying its power : out of the snare of the devil, who are taken from such turn away,

from such turn away. For of such are those 6 captive by him, to do the will of God.

that enter into houses, and lead captive weak

women laden with sins, led away by many CHAPTER III.

evil desires, Ever learning, and never able 7 A. D. 65. Paril informs him what kind of men will hereafter arise, yet pro- to come to the knowledge of the truth. Now 8 .fessing Christ; he proposeth to him his own example; und commendeth

as Jannes and Jambres withstood Moses, so do the holy scriptures.

these also resist the truth: men of corrupt 1 But know this that in these last days difficult minds, reprobate concerning the faith. But 9 2 times will come. For men will be lovers of they shall not proceed far: for their folly sball

their own selves, lovers of money, boasters, be manifest unto all men, as that of the others

proud, evil-speakers, disobedient to parents, also was. 3 unthankful, unholy, Without vatural affec- But thou hast fully known my doctrine, 10

tion, covenant-breakers, false accusers, incon- manner of life, purpose, , faith, long-suffering,

tinent, fierce, haters of those that are good, love, patience, Persecutions, sufferings; what 11 4 Treacherous, rash, high-minded, lovers of plea- things befel me at Antioch, at Iconium, at

REFLECTIONS UPON Chapter 11. 1. How necessary is it Even the bonds and sufferings of believers tended to make it known; to be strong in the grace of Christ, in order to discharge either the and it will at length obtain a glorious triumph. Let us ever remember duties of our christian calling or of the ministry. His grace only the faithful saying, " that if we suffer with Christ and for his sake, affords adequate strength; and for this we should look, and in this and for the sake of his cause and people, we shall reign also with him." confide. We have engaged in a holy warfare, with sin, the world, Our sufferings indeed will be of short duration; but our reigh will be and our own depravity; and let us endure the hardships which may for ever. Let us abide faithful to him, as he does to his own.promise. belall us with manly fortitude, as good soldiers of Christ. Called lo 3. From the precepts given to Timothy, we learn what every the high privilege of serving under the banner of the great captain of minister of the gospel should aim to be, and in what manner he should salvation, let it be our concern to 'please him. And especially let both teach and conduct himself.' How unprofitable is contention about ministers of the word, carefully avoid entangling themselves with words! Such contentions are only profane and vain babblings, and worldly business, lest they should become negligent in their work ; but injure the cause of truth, and promote ungodliness. Let erery man let them imitate the husbandman, labouring with perseverance, and of God, follow righteousness, faith, love, peace; and is called to conthen may they hope to be partakers of the fruit. Let us meditate on verse with men who are opposed to the trutlı, let him be gentle, with these things; and may the Lord grant us an understanding to com- meekness instructing those who oppose themselves, if by any means prehend them, and a heart to practice them.

God may give them repentance. Let him study to be a workman 2. “Remember Jesus Christ," &c. Alas, that there should be that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth. any need for such a precept! But what believer is there, who re- Let both ministers and people daily reflect on the double inscription members bin with the constancy, affection, and gratitude that he recorded. If we are truly devoted to him, the Lord knows and loves ought? Who remembers his condescension, in becoming the seed us, and will protect and save us; but if we are his enemies and working of David, his love in dying on the cross, and his power, in rising unrighteousness, he will hereafter say, “I know not whence ye are." from the dead. "These are the great facts of the gospel, and for pub- “ Let every one that nameth the name of the Lord, depart from lishing whichi Paul was in bonds ; but the word of God was not bound. iniquity;" for this only will prove the reality of his faith and love.

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I consider exhly as referring to Geos, God, and not to the enemy; and so Ham- gospel, yet never attain the knowledge, &c. As Jannes and Jambres, &c. mond, Whitby, and others, construe and explain the words.

These were the names of Pharaoli's chief magicians, handed down by tra. CHAP. III, In these last days, Under the gospeldispensation, which dition, though not mentioned by Moses. See Chaldee Para. Exod. vii. 11. already experiences some obstructions, but still greater will arise.

As these resisted Moses, so do those teachers who insinuate themselves into 2--5. For men will be, &c. Selfish, avaricious, boasting of their talents families, resist and pervert the truth. This conduct applies to corrupt deor their privileges, and proud on these accounts; evil-speakers against the ceivers of every age; and especially to all the arts of monks, friars, &c.truth, and disobedient even to their owu parents ; unthankful even to God and Not proceed far. A time will come, when their folly and sin will be made to man, and unholy or prophane; given up to the evil desires of the flesh and manifest, as those of the magicians were. the mind; yet having a form of godliness, outwardly professing it, while prac- 10-13. Manner of life, persecutions, &c. Acts xiij. 50.; xiv. 9-0.; tically denying its power. From any of these turn away; renounce all chris- xxi. 20.-In Christ Jesuis. As believers in hin, and whose desire is to obey tian fellowship with them.

his will, must suffer persecution of one kind or other; and eril men, perseca 6-9. Weak women, &c. Women of little knowledge, and of less virtue, tors, and seducers, will grow worse, &c. who are led away by many evil desires, and who, though ever hearing the 14, 15. Continue thou, 8c. Retain the instructions given thee, remem.

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Excellence of scripture.

Charge to Timothy. Lystra ; what persecutions

. I endured but out living and the dead, at his appearance and 12 of all the Lord delivered me. Yea, and all his kingdom; Preach the word; be instant in 2

that desire to live piously in Christ Jesus, season, out of season; confute, rebuke, exhort 13 will suffer persecution :, And evil men and with all long-suffering and teaching. For a 3

seducers will grow worse and worse, de-time will come when 'they will not endure I ! ceiving, and being deceived. But continue

But continue sound teaching; but will heap to themselves thou in the things which thou hast learned, teachers, according to their own desires, hav

and hast been assured of, knowing of whom ing itching ears; And will turn away their 4 15 thou hast learned them; And that from a ears from the truth, and 'will be turned unto child thou hast known the holy scriptures, fables. But watch thou in all things, endure 5

are able to make thee wise unto salva- hardship, do the work of an 'evangelist, fultil 16 tion by faith in Christ Jesus. All scripture is thy ministry.

given by inspiration of God, and is profitable For I am now ready to be poured out, and 6. for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for the time of my departure is at hand. I have 7

instruction in righteousness, That the man fought a good fight, "I have finished my course, 17 of God may be perfectly fitted for every good I have kept the faith. Henceforth there is 8 -work.


up for me a crown of righteousness, which CHAPTER IV.

the Lord, the righteous judge, will give to A. D. 68. Panl echorteth Timothy, to a diligent discharge of his duty;

me at that great day: and not to me only, informs hin of the nearness of his orn death; desires him to come to

but unto all those also that love his appearhim and bring Murk, and other things that are mentioned.

Endeavour to come unto me speedily. 9 1 I CHARGE thee, therefore, before God, and For Demas hath forsaken me, having loved 10

the Lord Jesus Christ, who shall judge the this present world, and is departed to Thes

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REFLECTIONS UPON CHÁPTÉR III. 1. The prediction here rity, and ministers who like Paul can appeal to the conseiences of men recorded has been long verified, and teachers' of christianity as well as as to the doctrine which they have preached, their manner of life, professors of it, have been guilty of the grossest vices and crimes. resolution, faith, love, and patienée. Happy are all such, however Have not self-love, pride, ingratitude, treachery, and intemperance, men may speak against them; yea, happy are they though called 10 greatly prevailed in the christian world; and do they not now prevail? endure the greatest sufferings, as the apostle was.

Nor should any Are there not many, who are “ lovers of pleasures more than lovers of believer think it: strange, if some degree of suffering and persecution God,” yea, more than lovers of their own families ! And it may be befall him, since we are told, that every pious man will in one manner, ustly added, more than lovers of themselves. To pleasure and in. or another experience it. Let not this move us from our stedfastness; dulgence, peace, comfort, and health, are often sacrificed ; and yet but let us continue in the things which we have learned. If evil men these men retain and observe the form of godliness. How vain, how and seducers grow worse and worse, we ought to grow in the grace hatesul to God the form, where the power of it is thus denied ! O of Christ, and in that knowledge of the scriptures, which is the truest what a reproach is it for any professed teachers of the holy gospel, to wisdom; and especially as the holy scriptures are indeed the word and be guilty of such sins.

will of God, and adapted to promote the edification of every believer, 2. In the worst of times there are men who maintain their integ. May we love and imbibe the spirit of the scriptures!

bering from whom, or from what persons thou hast learned them; and espe- | truths, for reproving errors, for correcting morals, and instructing in every cially consider, that from a child, &c. - Able to make; c. As they foretell branch of righteousness, that the man of God, &c. the doctrine, miracles, sufferings, and death, the resurrection and ascension of CHAP. IV. 1, 2. Appearance and his kingdom. When his kingdom shall Christ, in whom faith is to be exercised for salvation.

be perfected, and all his subjects gathered in and made glorious for ever.16, 17. All scripture is, 8c. Or every writing contained in the uga Preach the word. The pure gospel, whether in season or out of season as to ygapapata, holy scriptures, above-mentioned. Some of the ancient versions, || thyself; confute errors; rebuke evil-doers, exhort all with patience and teaching. with a few of the fathers, omit sai, and join the participle with the preceding 3-5. Sound teuching. The teaching of sound and edifying truth, but noun, “All scripture divinely inspired or given by inspiration of God, &c." will heap, &c. They will choose teachers, who will flatter them and amuse so that we are left to find out what scripture or writing the apostle thus de- them with dreams and fables. But watch thou, &c. As a watchman in nominates. But the preceding verse unquestionably refers us to the sacred Zion, and do the work of thy office as an evangelist. Eph. iv. 11. Fulfil books” of Moses and the prophets, which Timothy bad known from a child; thy, fic. Fully perform the duties of it. and Paul affirms these to be dividely inspired and profitable for teaebing divine 6-8. "To be poured out. As a drink-offering. See Phil. ii. 17. - The

time of my, gr. Paul seems to speak of things from his age, his infirmities 3 d 2


Paul left alone.

His salutations. salonica; Crescens to Galatia, Titus to Dalma. | known, and that all the Gentiles might hear: 11 tia. Luke only is with me. Take Mark and and I was delivered out of the mouth of the

bring him with thee: for he is profitable to me lion. And the Lord will deliver me from 18 12 for the ministry. Now Tychicus I have sent to every evil work, and will preserve me ynto 13 Ephesus. The cloke that I left at Troas with his heavenly kingdom; to whom be glory for

Carpus, when thou comest, bring with thee; ever and ever. Amen,

and the books, but especially the parchments. Salute Prisca and Aquilla, and the household 19 14 Alexander the coppersmith hath done me of Onesiphorus. Erastus abode at Corinth; 20

much evil : the Lord will reward him accord- but Trophimus I left şick at Miletus. En- 21 15 ing to bis works. Of whom he thou aware deavour to come before winter. Eubulus

also; for he hath greatly withstood our words. saluteth. thee; and Pudens, and Linus, and 16 At my first defence no one stood by me, Claudia, and all the brethren. The Lord 22

but all forsook me; may it not be laid to Jesus Christ be with thy spirit. Grace be with 17 their charge, Notwithstanding the Lord stood you. Amen.

by me, and strengthened me: that by me Written from Rome, when Paul was brought the preaching of his gospel might be fully before Nero the second time.

ReflecTIONS UPON CHAPTER IV. 1. Ministers are particu- bringeth a snare," and often leads sincere persons to desert their friends larly interested in the solemn charge given to Timothy. They must in time of danger. When he was called to make his defence no one stand before the tribunal of Christ, who is appointed to be the judge of had the courage to appear for him ; and how noble is his prayer that the living and the dead. How awsul will be his appearance, and how this weakness of his brethren might be forgiven. How little contremendous the consequences of it. O let such as are called by grace fidence should be placed in man! But when men fail, God is the to the office of the ministry, and are in providence employed in it, support of his people. He strengthened Paul, so that by him the preach the word with zeal and fidelity; and let them embrace every gentiles might hear the gospel ; and at this time the blessed apostle occasion for making known the riches of grace, and be instant in season was delivered. And with what aggurance does he add, that the Lord and out of season. What a bright example of this did the beloved would deliver bim from every evil work, not from suffering, but from apostle exhibit. He was ready to depart; his blood would soon be sinning, and preserve him to his heavenly kingdom. Amidst his shed; but how firm bis confidence and hope. He was conscious that dangers and sufferings he sent some of his tried friends to comfort the ke had fought a good fight, finished his course of duty, kept the faith, disciples in various parts, and retained Luke only with himself, and was now ardently looking for the crown of righteousness. His From the hint respecting the books and parchments, we may learn holy mind was unbounded, and his hope was the firm anchor of his that Paul studied and read the works of others, and most probably soul. In such a frame he waited the will of his Lord ; in such a frame works on natural science and history. May his concluding prayer be may we be found, when the time of our departure is at hand.

answered for the writer and reader. The Lord Jesus Christ be with 2. We learn from the complaints of Paul “ that the fear of man

thy spirit. Amen.

May it not

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and his present imprisonment, so that he could not expect to continue long. But he could say, “I have fought the good fight, in maintaining the faith; I bave run the race of duty as a man, mivister, and apostle, and my prospect is glorious, a crown of righteousness is laid up for me, &c."

9-12. To come unto,&c. He stood in need of tried and stedfast friends, as several had forsaken him.---Loved this present, 8c. Demas was afraid of his life, and fled to Thessalonica, where he hoped to be more secure; and other friends were absent to promote the comforts of the churches. Only Luke is with me. He never forsook him.-Take Mark, Acts xv. 38, &c.

13. The cloke, &c. Some render, case or portmanteau; and if this be the sense, it inight contain something valuableThe books, &c. From this we learn that Paul studied and read. Some think they might be the books of the Old Testament; but it is not probable that Paul should be without these. As to the parchments they might contain copies of his own epistles, or other matters of importance.

me. None of my fellow-labourers; but they all forsook me.
be laid, &c. This shows a truly christian spirit.,
17. The Lord stood by, 8c. The Lord Jesus, according to his promise

, (Luke xxi. 15,) that by me the nature and great facts of the gospel might be fully proclaimed, as by it they could not fail to be when Paul defended the christian cause in so public a manner. The mouth of the lion. At this time. Helius Cæsarianeus was Nero's deputy, and put to death whom he would. Paul might well call him a lion.

18. Deliver me from, 8c. Not from every danger, nor it may be from death; but from every evil work; and will preserve, &c.

14, 15. Alexander, &c. See 1 Tim. I. 20.-Hath done me, &c. Per. haps stirring, ap both the upbelieviąg Jews and Gentiles against bim, as he had withstood or opposed the truths he taught.

16. Af my Arst defence, c. He calls it his first defence, because his came was pot decided, and he expected to be tried again,None stood with

19–22. Prisca and Aquilla, &c. See Rom.xvi.3.The household, fe. Either he was at Rome, or might have to go to some other place before he returned to Rome. Ch. i. 16, 17,

-Erastus. He was the chamberlain of Corinth. Rom. Eri. 23, and Acts xix. 22.---Trophimus. He was a native of Ephesus. Acts xxi. 29.-Miletus. Not Miletye, in Asia, not far from Ephesus, but one in Crete, where Paul had been before he went to Rome, and where he left Titus. Cb, i. 2, Before winter. Paal did not expect to die before then.Eubulus, &c. These were members of the christian church at Rome; and it should seem they nobly visited bim in prison.





Titus was a Gentile, and whether a native of Antioch in Syria, or of some other place, he was early converted to the christian faith; and having distinguished himself by his piety and zeal, he was chosen by the church at Antioch, to go with Paul 10 the apostles and elders at Jeru. salem, to consult them respecting the circumcision of the converted Gentiles. Gal. ii. 1, 2 From this time he was the fellow-labourer of the apostle, 2 Cor. viii. 23. We find nothing said respecting him until Paul left bim in Crete ; but this implies that he went there with Paul; and it is most probable that he attended Paul to Rome, on his appeal to Cæsar. The design of the Epistle is similar to che first to Timothy.



ing, and appoint elders in every city, as I A. D. 66. For what end Titus was last in Cretes the qualifications of directed thee: If any one be blameless, the 6

bishops or pastors; evil teachers must be opposed; what kind of men husband of one wife, having believing chilthey are.

dren, not accused of riotous living, or unruli1 Paol, a servant of God, and an apostle of For an overseer must be blameless, 7

Jesus Christ, in respect to the faith of God's as the steward of God; not self-willed, not

elect, and the acknowledgment of the truth soon angry, not given to wine, no striker, not 2 which is according to

to godliness;

dliness; In hope of greedy of filthy lucre; But a lover of hose 8 . eternal life, which God, that cannot lie, pro- pitality, a lover. of good men, prudent, just, 3 mised before the world began; And hath holy, temperate ; Holding fast the faithful 9

in due time manifested his word through that word as he hath been taught, that he may be

preaching, which is committed to me, accord- | able' by sound teaching, both to exhort and to 4 ing to the command of God our Saviour; To confute gainsayers. For there are

Titus, mine own son as to the common faith : unruly people and vain talkers and deceivers, Grace, mercy, and peace, from God the especially those of the circumcision : Whose 11

Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ our Saviour. mouths must be stopped, who subvert whole 5 For this cause I left thee in Crete, that thou households, teaching things which they ought

mightest set in order the things that are want- not, for the sake of sordid gain. One of them- 12

many 10

CHAP 1. 1.-4. de to the faith. Sent to bring them to the faith, and to the acknowledgment of the truth, which is eminently calculated to promote godliness, as it contains the promise, and inspires the hope of eternal life, which God, &c. See 2 Tim. i. 9-11.- And hath, in due, &c. In the time which he had before appointed, he bath manifested his word of promise through that preaching, &c. -To Titus, mine oron, &c. My convert to the christian faith, &c.

5. The things that are, &c. What things these were is noticed in what follows, the appointment of elders in every city, where there were a suffieient nomber of christian conterts. He uses the plural, elders, because it was usual to have more than one in a church. He was, to appoint or constitute, but not without the consent of concurrence of the people, and probably of other elders,

0-9. Beblameless, 8c. 1 Tim.iii. 2,&c.—For an overseer, fc. The same persons are called elders in the Stb verse, and here one of these is described as to his qualifications; and the reason assigned is, “For a bishop or overseer must be blameless, &c." If a bishop was superior to an elder, of another order, how can this be a reason why elders should be blameless? The truth is, a bishop or overseer here is only described by what is a part of his duty, overseeing the affairs of the church. Elders must be blameless : for men, whose duty it is to oversee others, must themselves be blameless, or examples. See I Tim. iji. 3, &c.

10, 11. Of the circumcision, $c. There were many of the Jews, who embraced some truths of the gospel, but who held the obligations of the law, and taught the necessity of observing the rites and customs thereof, and thus subverted Gentile converts. These must be opposed.


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