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Spiritual armour.

Tychicus commended. of this dark world, against spiritual wickedness to make known the mystery of the gospel, 13 in heavenly things. Take the whole armour For which I am an ambassador in bonds :, that 20

of God, that ye may be able to withstand, in therein I may speak freely, as I ought to

the evil day, and having done all, to stand. speak. 14 Stand, therefore, having your loins girt about But that ye also may know my affairs, and 21

with truth, and having on the breastplate of what I do, Tychieus, a beloved brother and 15 righteousness; And your feet ready shod with

And your feet ready shod with faithful minister in the Lord, will make known 16 the gospel of peace; Above all, taking the to you all things :

to you all things : Whom I have sent to you 22 shield of faith, with which ye shall be able to for this very purpose,

for this very purpose, that ye might know our quench all the fiery darts of the wicked one : affairs, and that he might comfort your hearts. 17 Take also the helmet of salvation; and the Peace be to the brethren, and love with 23

sword of the Spirit, which is the word of God: faith, from God the Father and the Lord 18 Praying always with all prayer and supplication Jesús Christ. Grace be with all those that 21

with your spirit ; and watching thereto with all love our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity. Amen.

perseverance and supplication for all saints; 19 And for me, that utterance may be given unto

Written from Rome unto the Ephesians me, that I may open my mouth with freedom,

by Tychicus.


ReflecTIONS UPON Chapter vi. 1. We have the respec

2. We learn that whatever our situations in this life inay be, we tive duties of children and parents, and of servants and masters, stated shall be exposed to various trials and temptations. There is need then


; depends on the discharge of these duties. Let children then be subject on that coinplete and heavenly armour which he has provided for to their parents, showing all dutiful and becoming respect, from the Invested with this, we shall be able to stand against all the reasonableness of the command, and from the promise annexed to the wiles and assaults of the devil; and even to conquer and triumph over observance of it. And let parents treat their children with kindness, this great adversary, and all his allied powers and hosts. In this and not, by using improper language, provoke thein 10 anger; but great and glorious warfare, of what advantage are sincerity and upespecially let them be concerned for their religious instruction, as the rightness, righteousness, and true holiness; faith in Christ, and the best method to restrain and sanctify their tempers and hearts, and render hope of eternal salvation, together with the saving knowledge of the them amiable, humble and obedient. As to servants, let them re. scriptures, and fervent, daily prayer. These will be to us, instead of member their situation and duty, and from the authority of Christ, the military belt, breast-plate, greaves, shield, helmet, and sword, regard their masters according to the flesh. Let them cherish good both for repelling the fiery darts of our enemies, and successfully atwill to them, and perform their duty with readiness, and not when tacking them! Let us use this armour of righteousness, and not fear under their eye only, but in their absence, doing herein service to the what the enemy may threaten; or attempt to do against us! Let us Lord. And how great is the encouragement to this, that such service abound in prayer, not only for ourselves, but for others, and especially shall be accepted of God, and even regarded. And let masters re- for the suffering servants of Christ and for his ministers, that they may member that there is one above them, to whom they must give an be supported and enabled to plead and maintain his holy cause with account; and let their conimands be reasonable and just, not using boldness and freedom. In this holy warsáre they have to endure threats or improper severities. How much better is it to rule by love the fiercest attacks of the enemy; and should they fall, how would than by terror; and how nuch more consoling to the mind, to have the good cause suffer, and the Saviour be reproached. May peace those of our household united to us by this sacred principle !

be with all such as love the Lord Jesus in sincerity.

ceivers to be meant, who under the profession of the gospel, were its corrup- “faith” in Christ, and in the promises and doctrines of the gospel, which ters, introducing dangerous errors among those heavenly things” which it would not only repel, but quench the “ fiery darts" of the tempter; and the reveals to men. See his excellent note.

“ word of God," the whole of it, as revealed by the Spirit known and under. 14-20. Your loins girt, $c. Having mentioned the armour in general, stood, would be found as a sword to attack error, and to refute all the sohe now specifies its parts. First, we have the military belt of truth; secondly, phisms of unbelievers; but especially to these must be added fervent, persethe breast-plate of righteousness; thirdly, the sandals, the gospel of peace; vering prayer, both for ourselves and others. fourth, the shield of faith; fifth, the helmet, the hope of salvation, and sixth, 21, 22. My affairs: How I succeed in my work, and what are my sufthe word of God, as the sword of the Spirit. ls. xi. 5. By truth may be ferings and trials, &c.Tychicus. One who had been with Paul at Rome, meant an invariable adherence to truth in their common discourse; and “by and from experience, one whom he could thus recommend. righteousness," their personal obedience to the laws of God; the gospel of 23, 24. Peace be to, &c. Prosperity attend them, as consisting in peace, peace, their interest in its blessings of pardon, justification, and peace with faith, and love from God the father, &c. In sincerity. Without hypocricy God, which would make them ready for every good word and work; and in their profession, and without corruption in practice or sentiment. Vol. III. PART XXII.


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PAUL visited Philippi, in consequence of a vision which he had of a man of Macedonia, who said, “ Come over and help us." Acts xvi. 9–40. On his departure he appears to have left Timothy, Luke, and Silas, to carry on the work. He paid them a second visit, (Acts xx. 6.) when a collection was made there and among the other churches of Macedonia, for the saints at Jerusalem. 2 Cor. viii. and is. Ch.

The design of the apostle was to comfort'them under the concern they had expressed on hearing of his imprisonment ; to check a party spirit, and 10 promote union and love; to guard them against Judaizing teachers, and to inspire them with a concern to adorn their profession.


think this of you all, because I have you in A.-D. 63. Paul's thankfulness for the fruit of their failh; his prayer for

my heart; inasmuch as both in my bonds, them; what had been the consequence of his troubles at Rome; his readi- and in my defence of myself, and my conness to suffer.

firmation of the gospel, ye are all joint-par1 Paul and Timothy, servants of Jesus Christ, takers of the grace bestowed on me, For 8

to all the saints,
who at Philippi,

and you all with the tender affection of Jesus 2 deacons : Grace and peace be unto you, from Christ. . And this I pray, that your love may 9 God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus abound still

abound still more and more in knowledge, Christ.

and in all judgment; That ye may discern 10 I thank my God upon every remembrance the things that are excellent; so that ye may 4 of you; Always, in every supplication of mine

supplication of mine be sincere and without offence till the day of for you all, making my supplication with joy, Christ; Being filled with the fruits of righte- II 5 For your participation in the gospel from ousness, which are by Jesus Christ, to the 6 the first day until now; Being confident of glory and praise of God.

this very thing, that he who hath begun a Now I wish you to understand, brethren, 12

good work in you, will perform it until the that the things which have befallen me have 7 day of Jesus Christ : As it is right for me to come to pass, rather to the furtherance of the


CHAP. I. 1, 2. To all the saints. Ad usual appellation of the disciples; pledge that he will complete and finish it until life shall end. Peirce applies but I find no other instance of aysous Xp. In. and suppose that there is an this to the collection which the church at Philippi had made for Paul; but the ellipsis, which I have supplied from Eph. i. 1. Newcome renders, “To the close of the verse subverts this opinion. For how could Paul expect that God Holy through Christ Jesus." - Bishops and deacous. Or overseers, elders, would be finishing this work until the day of Christ? To remove the force of and deacons.' Only two orders are mentioned here, nor is there any proof this he explains the time of the persecution which Paul was then suffering, a from the New Testament, that any more ordinary officers existed in the church. seuse the words never have. There were more bishops than one at Philippi, as there were in some other 7. As it is right for me, 8c. As you have given the strongest proofs of places ; and of course they could not be in any sense Diocesan, but simply co- your sincerity, and of your faith and love, in stedfastly maintaining your ordinate pastors and teachers of the same people.

profession, and in showing to me, as an apostle, the tokens of the warmest 3—6. With joy. At the recollection of your readiness to receive the affection, during my bouds, and while I have defended my own character, and gospel, and for your continued fellowship, or joint participation in the bless- confirmed the gospel by my preaching and stedfastness, ye appear to be ings and privileges of the gospel, from the first day you were enabled cor-evidently joint-partakers of the grace of God which bringeth salvation bedially to receive it, until now; and I am confident of this very thing, &c. stowed on me. He who hath beyun, $c. God who had begun it by his word and Spirit ; and 8-11. For God is my, &c. He had said, I have you in my heart. For whatever he works in us will be good; and his beginniug the work is a sure God is my witness, &c. In all judgment. Or inward perception and feeling.

Christ is preached.

:: Paul's confidence. 13 gospel; So that my bonds on account of Christ | live in the flesh, this is the fruit of my labour;

· are known through the whole palace, and in yet what I should choose I know not. For 23 14 all other places; And that many of the || I am in a strait between the two, having a : brethren in the Lord, growing confident by desire to depart, and to be with Christ; for , my bonds, are much more bold to speak the this would be far better: Nevertheless to 24 15 word without fear. Some indeed preach Christ remain still in the flesh is more needful for

even through envy and strife; and some also you. And having this confidence, I know that 25 17 through good will. . Some preach him from I shall remain and continue with you all for ?

love, knowing that I am appointed for the your furtherance and joy, in the faith; That 26 16 defence of the gospel. But others from con- your

your glorying in Jesus Christ, may abound : tention, not sincerely, thinking to add affliction through my coming to you again. 18 to my bonds. What then ? notwithstanding, Only let your conduct be becoming the 27

every way, whether in pretence, or in truth, gospel of Christ : that whether I come and see

Christ is preached; and 1 therein do rejoice, you, or be absent, I may hear of your affairs, 19 yea, and will rejoice.' For I know that this that ye stand fast in one spirit, with one mind

will end in my deliverance through your striving together for the faith of the gospel';

prayer, and through the supply of the Spirit And in nothing terrified by your adversaries : 28 20 of Jesus Christ; According to my earnest

According to my earnest which is to them an evident token of perdition ; expectation, and hope, that in nothing I shall but to you, of salvation, and that of God. . be ashamed; but that with all freedom of For to you it hath been graciously given in 29 speech, as always, so now also Christ will be respect to Christ, not only to believe on him,

magnified in my body, whether it be by life,' but also to suffer for his sake; Having the 30 21 or by death. For to me to live is to the honour same contlict which ye saw in me, and now 22 of Christ, and to die will be gain. And if I

And if I hear to be in me.

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REFLECTIONS UPON Chapter 1. | We learn what a spe- ! did the 'apostle think on these his spiritual children ; and while he cial blessing it is to be brought into the fellowship and participation sent up his praises to God on their account, mingled therewith his petitions of the gospel, and should excite the most lively gratitude. Paul had for them. How must it rejoice the heart to experience the good work been tbe honoured instrument of first preaching Christ at Philippi ; and of grace begun, and to be assured of its continuance, until perfected'in the great head of the church had crowned his labours with great suc- the day of Christ! Yet such experience and assurance do not render

Many were effectually called by grace, and became united in exhortations and cautions unnecessary, or fervent prayers useless. the order and bonds of the gospel, 'having their pastors to watch over Paul still requests that their love might more abound, and that thưy. and feed them, and their deacons to take the management of their char- might be filled with the froits of righteousness, that so they might disitable contributions, and afford relief to the necessitous. How natural. play more of the mind of Christ, honour more the glorious gospel, is it to desire that grace and peace, from God the Father and the and win others to the love of the Saviour and faith in him. Lord Jesus Christ, may abound towards such. With what pleasure 2. We learn also to admire and adore the wisdom of divine

13. The palace. The word signifies the judgment-hall, where the Pre. tor beard and decided causes; but was applied to his whole house, aud to that of the emperors. See Peirce's note. Paul's defence of himself, and of the gospel which he preached, (which being a new thing,) became the subject of discourse in the palace, and in the whole city.

14. And that many, &c. Seeing his firmness and constancy, many christian brethren assumed confidence, and boldly preached the gospel.

15–17. Through envy, &c. At my success, or with a design to form a party against me; but others from hearty good will to me and the gospel. The 16th and 17th verses are transposed after Griesbach and all the oldest and best mss. Am appointed for, xc. And that nothing will encourage me more than the success of this cause.-- Not sincerely, &c. But with bad motives, desiring to increase my afflictions and sorrows.

18-20. Christ is preached, &c. And whatever be the motives of men, the kuowledge.ot his name will spread abroad.- - For I knon. By the Holy

ry 3

Spirit, see verse 25. Whether hy life, &c. That Christ would be honoured in and by him, whether he was to live or to die, was his desire and hope.

21--- 24: : To live is Christ. His honour is the end of my life; to preach and serve him in the gospel; but to die would be my own unspeakable gain. Sce 2 Cor. v. 8. Of whatever benefit his services and sufferings might be to men ; it would be far better as to himself :o depart and to be with Christ iu' glory. Peirce explains verse 21, “Christ is my gain in life and death ;" but the context opposes it.

25, 26. And joy in the faith. That I may be a helper of your joy, when I am delivered and come to you again.

27, 28. Only let your, &c. I only at present say to you, let your conduct, &c.- -For the faith, &c. For the truths of the gospel against all unbelievers and persecutors. Which is to them. Which courage and confidence in maintaining the faith, they will think an evident token of your perdition ; but to you it will be a token of salvation and that of God. Some explain that these


Unity recommended.

Abasement of Christ.

mind, esteeming others better than yourselves : A. D. 63. He exhorteth to unity and humility by the example of Christ';

Not regarding every man his own things only, 4 and to a holy conduct that they might be useful to others, and u comfort but every man the things of others also. to him; he recommends Timothy to them, &c.

For let this mind be in you, which was in 3 :1 If there be, therefore, any comfort in Christ, Christ Jesus also: Who, existing in the form of 6

if any consolation of love, if any fellowship of God, did not think it robbery to be equal with

Spirit, if any tender regards and mercies, God, Yet made himself of no account, taking 7 2 Fill up my joy, that ye be of the same mind, on him the form of a servant, being made in the

having the same love, joined together in soul; likeness of men; And, being found in fashion 8 3 minding this one thing, That nothing be done as a man, he humbled himself, becoming obe

through strife or vain-glory; but in humility of dient to death, even the death of the cross.

providence, which often accomplishes its own designs of grace and love may be swallowed up in the love of Christ, and his servants may mercy, as well as of judgment, by circumstances and events which become indifferent to this life from a realizing faith of a better. How to us seem directly opposed. Who could have thought that the im- happy is it when to live is Christ, when his honour and glory are the prisonment of Paul, would have been effectual to the spread and great ends we propose, while we are in the body! Assuredly such success of the gospel! This event, to the eye of sense, seemed to put will find tha! to die is their unspeakable and everlasting gain. Far a bushel over this burning and shining light; and yet this brought him better, far better it is for all good men to depart and be with Christ, 10 Rome, and his bonds on account of Christ became known in the than to remain here ; yet are they willing to remain, so long as they Palace of Cæsar, and in all quarters. His constancy, courage, pru

can be of service to their fellow-men, and as their Lord and Saviour dence, and holy wisdom, inspired some christian brethren with boldness judges it proper. And for such to remain as are favoured with special in preaching the gospel, without fear. Some did this from love to gifts for the edification and enlargement of the church, is Christ, is in Christ, and to precious souls; but others from strise and envy of the itself a peculiar mercy. Paul knew that he should be continued a apostle's fame and usefulness. How noble and generous is his lan- while longer for the furtherance of the gospel, and the joy of believers guage!

“ What then ? Christ is preached, and I therein do rejoice in the faith of it. While we are in mercy spared, and live, let it be and will rejoice." May we constantly feel such a spirit, that the our concern to conduct ourselves as becometh the gospel; and if we name of our Lord Jesus may ever be glorified.

are called to suffer for the name of Christ, let us esteem it our glory, 3. We are taught by the experience of the apostle, to what a and as a token for good, that as we suffer with bim, we shall also high degree, faith, hope, love and submission may be carried ! Selloreign with him.

things will prove to them, your adversaries, that they deserve perdition for and “existing in the form of God" must, by parity of reason, signify that rejecting the gospel for which you suffer.

he was, is, and ever will be, a divine person, God blessed for ever. Peirce 29, 30. To suffer for his sake. A privilege conferred on you, as it will explains the form of God to be his resemblance of him in majesty and enhance your future reward.Ye saw in me, &c. When I was first with glory, and in dominion and power; and others refer it to all the appearances you. Acts xvi. 12, 22, &c.

of God to the patriarchs, which they consider were made by our Lord. } CHAP. II. 14. Any comfort in Christ. This hypothetical manner of have no doubt that it was the same divide person who appeared to the patrispeaking is designed more forcibly to impress the particulars on their hearts. archs, and to the Jews, that afterwards assumed human nature, and is that

In Christ, for those who suffer for him; any consolation for the love of nature had the form, and performed the office of a servant; but I can form no christian brethren; any fellowship in spirit from the same views, faith, and conception of a creature possessing majesty and glory, dominion, and power, hope ; any bowels and mercies among you towards me. Fill up my joy, &c. 80 as to justify the expression of his existing in the form of God. Peirce would

- Minding this one thing, &c. ' For this punctuation, see Grotius aud Dr. support his notion by explaining “the form of a servant” to signify, that be Middleton. He inculcates the exercise of christian affection, concord, and only appeared as a servant, not that he was such in reality. See Is. xlii. 1. union.-Esteeming others, &c. Treating them in such a manner as to show Does not our Lord uniformly speak of himself as sent, and as doing the will your esteem.His orn things, 8c. His own talents, gifts, &c. lest he be. of him that sent him? And is he not, in this very passage said “to become filled with pride; but ther regard the gifts, &c. of others, and promote their obedient to death, &c.?" Was it to the Jews or to Pilate that he rendered Welfare, imitating Christ.

this obedience, or was it not to the Father! I have not noticed the gloss of 6–8. Did not think it, &c. After reading and thinking much on this Socinians, who explain this passage to mean, that Jesus being possessed of the ._verse, and on the unusual terms, agraypornmoato, 1 have adopted the common power of working miracles, may be said to be in the form of God; and his not

version. Dr. S. Clark and others would render, “Did not eagerly desire to using this power means, his humbling himself, &c. This is so manifestly be as God, &c.;" and refer the clause to what follows, as descriptive of his weak, not to say absurd, as to deserve no notice. First, that the power of work. humiliation. Had it referred to the former, they think the Greek would ing miracles ever resided in or could be exerted, according to the will and have been Xat oux apmaypov nynoajirros, &c. But see Luke xi. 13, where pleasure of man, may be justly denied. Again, this votion gives no proper we have the same construction in the original. Admitting this versiou, sense to the various terms of the text, and is a mere hypothesis to support a it would only refer to his intention, as to the state in which he would system. And it may be added, that it is wholly irrelevant to the design of exist, appear among men,- - Taking on him the form, &c. The “form the apostle. For what amazing humility would there be in a man not arroof a servant"_"the likeness of men and the fashion of a man,” must and gating to himself the form of God, but being a servant, appearing like what he cannot but signify, that he was really a man, and really a servant;" was, a man? The passage proves then that our Lord “existed in the form of


Echortation to peace.

Timothy commended. 9 Wherefore God hath highly exalted him, and || good comfort also, when I know your affairs.

bestowed on him a name which is above every For I have no man likeminded with him, who 20 10 other name: That at the name of Jesus every will sincerely care for your affairs. For all 21

; knee should bow, of beings in heaven, and on seek their own things, not the things of Jesus Il earth, and under the earth ; And that every Christ. But ye know him by experience, that, 22

tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, as a son serveth a father, he hath served with to the glory of God the Father.

me in the gospel. I hope therefore to send 23 12 Wherefore, my beloved, as ye have always him presently, as soon as I shall see how the

obeyed, not as in my presence only, but now things concerning me will end. But I trust 24

much more in my absence, work out your own in the Lord, that I myself also shall come 13 salvation with fear and trembling. For it is shortly. Yet I thought it necessary to send 25

God that worketh in you both to will and to to you Epaphroditus, my brother, and fellow14 do, of his own good pleasure. Do all things labourer, and fellow-soldier, but your messen15 without murmurings and disputings; That ye ger, and minister to my wants. For he greatly 26

may be blameless and harmless, the unreprov- longed after you all, and was full of anguish, able children of God, in the midst of a crooked because ye had heard that he had been sick.

and perverse generation; among whom do ye For indeed he was sick, and nigh to death : 27 16 shine as lights in the world, Holding forth

Holding forth but God had mercy on him; and not on him the word of life; that I may glory in the day only, but on me also, lest I should have grief of Christ, that I have not run in vain, nor upon grief. I have sent him therefore the 28 laboured in vain.

more speedily, that, when ye see him again, 17 Yea, and if my blood be poured out upon ye may rejoice, and that I may have the less

the sacrifice and public offering of your faith, grief. Receive him therefore in the Lord with 29 18 I joy, and rejoice with you all. And in the

And in the all joy; and hold such in reputation : Because 30 same manner do ye also joy, and rejoice with for the work of Christ he was nigh to death, not But I trust in the Lord Jesus, to send regarding his life, that he might fill up

what reTimothy shortly unto you, that I may be of mained to be done of your service towards me.

19 me.

REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER 1. 'l. We are taught the glory and grace of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, and how we

should desire to resemble him in mind and spirit. Who can conceive the dignity of Christ as a divine person! possessing the form,

a servant," which consisted in “bis being made in the likeness of men,” in his incarnation ; and in this incarnate state be humbled himself still more by “becoming obedient uuto death, even the death of the cross." Here is bumility indeed!

9-11. Highly exalted him. The Father, in reward of his humiliation and death, exalted him to his own right hand, to enjoy the glory which he had with him before the world began; and he was honoured with a tile, that of Saviour, a name which is above every name, and as the Saviour of sinners, he is to receive homage and worship, from angels and men; from men now Jiving on the earth, and from those in the state of the dead. I consider all intelligent beings as intended, whether good or evil; and that all are subject to him as Lord and king; and this subjection, as well as the whole work of Jesus, is to the glory of God the Father. See Is. xlv. 23. Rom. xiv. II.

12-16. With fear, &c. Peirce would connect these words with the obedience which they rendered to the apostle ; but considering the importance of their own salvation, I cannot but think the common coustruction preferable; nor do I see either the necessity or justice of deserting the usual sense of "salvation," and sinking it to mean only “welfare."--To wild and to do, &c. This working must be understood as being in a way consistent with the exereise of men's own rational powers, ng such motives to the mind, and in such a clear light, as induces it both to choose the way of salvation exhibited, and to perform all the duties required. Of his own, &c. This is

mentioned to encourage them in labouring to secure their own salvation, and to caution them against offending God, lest he should withhold his inward operation, which I consider lo mean the work of his Spirit and grace.

-Do ye shine, 8c. Comp. Matt. v. 14.-The word of life. The gospel wbich promises life, and is the instrument of imparting it to the soul, and of guiding to the enjoyment of eternal life. By attending to these directions the apostle would see the fruits of bis ministry, and be assured he had not laboured in vain.

17, 18. Sacrifice and, $c. The apostle considers their “faith,” as a sacrifice and public offering presented to God; and declares, that if his blood was to be shed and poured out as a drink-offering, to accompany their sacrifice, he would joy and rejoice with them all; and exhorts them to do so too, as thereby a further testimony to the truth of what he had preached would be afforded. Paul was always a martyr in spirit. Acts xx. 23, &c.

19-24. May be of good comfort, &c. From hearivg of your christian behaviour and of your salvation.-All seek their own things, &c. Probably the apostle had desired some others of the christian brethren to undertake this journey; but from a regard to their own ease and comfort they had refused, thus minding their own things, &c.

25-30. Your messenger, &c. The Philippians showed their respect to Paul by sending to Rome Epaphroditus, with money to supply his wants. While there he was sick, and in great danger; but God mercifully restored

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