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Paul visits Corinth,


and preaches to the Gentiles. CHAPTER XVIII.

proached, he shook his raiment, and said to

them, “Your blood is upon your own heads; A. D. 54. Paul laboureth and preacheth at Corinth; by a vision he is en

couraged ; he is accused before Gallio, but diomssed; he visits different I am pure; henceforth I will go unto the Genchurches; Apollos, instructed by Aquilla and Pricilla preacheth Christ tiles." And he departed thence, and entered 7

into a certain man's house, named Justus, a AFTER these things Paul departed from A. Gentile, who worshipped God, whose house 2 thens, and came to Corinth; And found a certain was adjoining to the synagogue. And Crispus, 8

Jew named Aquilla, born in Pontus, lately come the chief ruler of a synagogue, believed on from Italy, with his wife Priscilla; (because the Lord with his whole household ; and many of

Claudius had commanded all Jews to depart the Corinthians on hearing believed, and were 3 from Rome :) and went unto them: And be baptized. Then the Lord spoke to Paul in the 9

cause he was of the same occupation, he abode night by a vision, “Fear not, but speak, and

with them, and worked: (for by their occupation be not silent: For I am with thee, and no man 10 4 they were tent-makers.) And he discoursed in shall lay hands on thee to hurt thee : for I have

the synagogue every sabbath, and endeavoured many people in this city.” And he continued 11 5 to persuade the Jews and the Greeks. And there a year and six months, teaching the word when Silas and Timothy had come from Mace- of God among

them. donia, Paul was zealously affected in spirit, and Now when Gallio was the deputy of Achaia, 12

testified to the Jews that Jesus was the Christ. the Jews rose with one consent against Paul, 6 And when they opposed themselves, and re- and brought him to the judgment-seat, Saying, 13


up the measure of their iniquities, until wrath came upon them to let them be received with all cordiality, and even with joy, as the the uttermost, and avenged at once the blood of Christ and of his truths of God. ministers, whom they had slaughtered. They had showed no pity nor 3. Need we be surprized at the feelings of the apostle, when he meroy; and they received no pily nor mercy, in the day of their visi- entered Athens, famed for her arts, her wisdom and her civil institutation. Let their punishment be a warning to all, to avoid the sins and tions, but sunk in the grossest idolatry? What christian can behold impenitence which occasioned it.

a polite and learned city, abandoned 10 trilling speculations, and de. 2. Let us admire the spirit, candouf, and conduct of the Bereans. graded by the lowest superstition, and not feel his spirit noved with Among them the apostle met with a most candid reception. They compassion ? The sight of this produced in Paul the most generous showed a true dignity of spirit; for they searehed the scripture daily ardour, to impart to them the knowledge of the true God, and of the to see whether the things the apostle preached were as he repre

way of salvation by Christ ; and though his generous efforts were sented them; and being fully satisfied from examination of the truth treated by many with contempt, yet some through grace embraced the and divine authority of the gospel, they received it with all readiness truth, and became the disciples of Jesus.

How well adapted was of mind. Every faithful and judicious minister will be desirous, that Paul's discourse, to make known the true and only living God, the his hearers should follow their example, and not yield a blind maker of heaven and earth? The statement also of a future judgment and implicit subjection to what he preaches, but to try it by the was calculated 10 alarm their fears, and to lead them to repentance. unerring standard of the holy scriptures. If our doctrines are not May these weighty and soleinn truths ever be duly regarded and imfounded on revealed truth, they deserve no regard; but if they are, proved, that we may stand in the day of judgment.

rection of the dead; and others of the Areopagites with more dignity said, they would hear him again. God, however, gave such testimony to the word of his grace that many believed.

CHAP. XVHI. 2. Bceause Claudius, &c. Suetonius, in the life of Claudius Cæsar, says, “He expelled the Jews from Rome, who were continually raising disturbances, Chresto being their leader.” I consider Christ to be meant by this historian; and it is probable, that the factious unbelieving Jews, raising disturbances on account of the Christians, caused them to be banished from Rome.

3. Pentimakers. In the Talmud every father is commanded to teach his son a trade, &c. Such a custom was founded in the knowledge of human nature, and would tend to remind them of the sin of idleness, and prevent those early habits of extravagance and dissipation into which the youtli of the rich and great too often fall. One of these rabbies is sirdamed the shoemaket,


another the baker, &c. See Doddridge's note. Tents of skins or silk were much used in those countries.

4. Endeavoured to persuade. The verb unquestionably has this sense here. It does not express the effect, but the attempt of the apostle.

6. Shook his raiment. See Luke x. 11. Neh. v. 13. By this action Paul testified that as a teacher he would have no further intercourse with themiYour blood, $c. Your destruction is owing to yourselves. See 1 Kings ii. 32. Ezek. xxxiii. 5.

7. Named Justus. He is distinguished from the Jews, and of course was a Gentile proselyte. We also learn that those called Greeks, verse 4; were in fact Jews who' spoke the Greek language.Synayogue. There were more than one syuagogue at Corinth, see verse 17; but the one referred to was probably that iu' which Paul had preached. 9, 10. Fear not, $c. This was a kind and gracious assurance, and could




The Jews accuse Paul.


Apollos comes to Corinth. “ This person persuadeth men to worship God sailed from Eqhesus. And when he had landed 22 14 contrary to the law.” And when Paul was about at Cesarea, and gone up, and saluted the

open his mouth, Gallio said to the Jews, “ If church, he went down to Autioch. And after 23 it were a matter of injustice or wicked mischief, he had spent some time there, he departed,

O ye Jews, I might reasonably bear with you: and went over all the country of Galatia and 15 But if it be a question of doctrines and names, Phrygia in order, strengthening all the dis

and of your law, look ye to it; for I will not be ciples. 16 judge of such matters.” And he drove them And a certain Jew named Apollos, born at 24 17 from the judgment-seat. Then all the Greeks Alexandria, an eloquent man, and able in the

took Sosthenes, the chief ruler of a synagogue, scriptures, came to Ephesus. This man was 25 and beat him before the judgment-seat. But instructed in the doctrine of the Lord; and Gallio cared for none of these things.

being fervent in spirit, he spoke and taught 18 And Paul after remaining there still many exactly the things of the Lord, knowing only

days, bade farewell to the brethren, and sailed the baptism of John. And he began to speak 26 thence into Syria, and with him Pricilla and boldly in the synagogue; whom when Aquilla

Aquilla; having shorn his head in Cenchrea: and Priscilla had heard, they took unto them, 19 for he had a vow. And he came to Ephesus, and explained to him the doctrine of God

and left them there : but he himself entered more perfectly. And when he desired to pass 27

into the synagogue, and discoursed to the Jews. | into Achaia, the brethren wrote, exhorting the 20 And when they desired him to abide with them disciples to receive him; who, when he had 21 for a longer time, he consented not; But bade come, helped those much who through grace

them farewell, saying, “I must by all means had believed. For he earnestly confuted the 28 keep the approaching feast in Jerusalem : but Jews, and that publicly,

Jews, and that publicly, proving by the scripI will return unto you, if God will.” And he tures that Jesus was the Christ.

REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER XVII. 1. We learn that Paul's from the same noble motives, and assuredly their labours shall not be success aroused the zeal and passions of his unbelieving brethren to in vain in the Lord. oppose the gospel; but he received the assurance that their efforts 2. We learn how God raises up men for the work of the miniswould be vain. How amiable was his spirit, as well as that of his try. Happy was it for the churches that God raised up such a hopeful two friends Priscilla and Aquilla. We find them, while endeavour-labourer as Apollos. He was fervent and zealous, eloquent and able ing to propagate the gospel, maintaining themselves by the labour of in the scriptures of the Old Testament ; and what he knew he was their own hands. Their situation and circumstances rendered this at ready to communicate to others. He was also humble and unassu. that period necessary. Paul had a right to look for support to his ming; and what he did not know he was willing to learn from those converts, as he himself states in his Epistle to the church of Corinth, who could instruct him. Having only become acquainted with the 1 Cor. ix. 114; but he did not insist on this right, lest his enemies doctrine of John the baptist, he could only like him preach the docshould have some ground to charge himn with preaching the Gospel trine of repentance; but Aquilla and Priscilla taught him the great from mercenary motives. He was influenced in this by a generous facts of the gospel, which he believed. Thus may aged christians be concern to advance his Redeemer's cause ; bei ng persuaded that his ready 10 teach and encourage their younger brethren: and may all fidelity to Christ would be more apparent, and his labours might that enter on the work of the ministry be as teachable as Apollos, and thereby become more successful. May all ministers of the word act like him, they will be commended and become growingly useful.

not fail to inspire Paul with courage, and animate him to holy diligence in the he preached to them, took Sosthenes, a ruler of a synagogue, and beat him. work of the ministry.

-Gallio cared, &c. He did not interfere so as to punish them for this 12-16., When Gallio, &c. He was brother to the philosopher Seneca,

breach of the peace. and was a man of a mild disposition. This conduct showed that he despised 18. Cenchrea. This was the sea-port of Corinth. -Had a von. Prothe Jews, and would not interfere in questions respecting their law -Ofbably that of a Nazarite. The Nazarite was to shave his head at the temple; doctrines. Of religious doctrines, whether true or false ; and of names, as but as many Jews lived at a distance froin it, the strictness of the law was whether Jesus be the Christ, &c.

dispensed with. Why St. Paul acted thus, see Ch. xvi. 3, and 1 Cor. ix. 20. 17. All the Greeks, 8c. The Alex. ms. and Valg. Copt. and Arab. ver- 21. Keep this feast, &c. The feast of the passover, at which Paul hoped sions have not the word Greeks, and Pearce would omit it. If it be genuine, to meet many of his christian brethren, to convince many unbelievers. it must signify Gentiles, who, provoked at the Jews for accusing Paul because 22. Saluted the church, &c. From Cesarea Paul went to Jerusalem,

stayed during the passover, and then departed to visit the churches which he

city, &c.


Paul arrives at Ephesus,


and performs signal miracles. CHAPTER XIX.

and separated the disciples, discoursing daily in the school of one Tyrannus.

And this was 10 A. D. 56. Paul visits Ephesus ; the Holy Spirit given by the laying on of his

hands; the Jems blaspheme his doctrine ; Jewish exorcists beaten; con- done for the space of two years; so that all juring buoks brought and burnt; Demetrius raiseth an uproar in the those who dwelt in Asia heard the word of the

Lord Jesus, both Jews and Gentiles. And 11 And it came to pass that, while Apollos was God wrought signal miracles by the hands of at Corinth, Paul having passed through the Paul; So that from his body were brought unto 12

upper parts came to Ephesus : and meeting the sick handkerchiefs or aprons, and the dis2 with some disciples, He said to them, “Have eases departed from them, and the evil spirits

ye received the Holy Spirit since ye believed ?” went out of them.

And they said to him, “We have not even Then some of the Jews, who went about as 13 3 heard whether there be a Holy Spirit." . And exorcists, took upon them to call over those who

he said to them, “Into what then where ye had evil spirits the name of the Lord Jesus,

baptized ?” And they said, “ Into John's bap- saying, “We adjure you by Jesus whom Paul 4 tism.” Then said Paul, “ John indeed baptized preacheth.” And there were seven sons of one 14

with the baptism of repentance, saying to the Sceva, a Jew, and chief of the priests, who did people, that they should believe on him who And the evil spirit answered and said, 15

was to come after him, that is, on Christ Jesus.' “ Jesus I know, and who Paul is I understand ; 5 When they heard this, they were baptized into but who are ye?” And the man in whom the 16 6 the name of the Lord Jesus. And when Paul evil spirit was, leaped on them, and overcame

had laid his hands upon them, the Holy Spirit them, and prevailed against them, so that they

came on them; and they spoke in different tied out of that house naked and wounded. 7 languages, and prophesied. Now all the men And this was known to all, both Jews and 17 were about twelve.

Greeks, dwelling at Ephesus; and fear fell on And Paul went into the synagogue, and spoke them all, and the name of the Lord Jesus was boldly, discoursing for about three months, and magnified. And many who believed came, con- 18

stating to them the things concerning the king- fessing and declaring their past practices. Ma- 19 9 dom of God. But when some were hardened, I ny of those who used magical arts brought their

and believed not, but spoke evil of that doctrine books together, and burned them before all before the multitude, he departed from them, men: and the price of them was computed, and

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had planted. Pearce observes that this was his fourth visit to Jerusalem, and which he made about twenty-one years after his conversion.

25. Exactly the things, &c. As far as his knowledge extended. He taught that men were to receive the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins.

26. The doctrine of God, &c. The truths of the gospel; what Jesus had tanght and done.

27. Who through grace, &c. I think the order of the words support the sense usually attributed, that it was through grace, or by divine favour and influence, that the Corinthians had believed; and that Apollos was useful to them in increasing their knowledge, and deepening their serious impressions, 23 well as by maintaining the houour of the Saviour, and convincing the Jews.

CHAP. XIX. 1. Upper parts, &c. Galatia and Phrygia, which lay north of Ephesus, Ch. xviii. 23.

2. Have ye received, &c. The gifts of the Spirit. Their answer shows that they had no correct knowledge of the doctrine of Christ; and induced Paul to inquire for what end they had been baptized.

4. John indeed, &c. John's baptism was designed to lead men to Christ, to whom he bore testimony.

6. Holy Spirit came, &c. This was an evidence of the power and faithfulness of our Lord; and such gifts tended to establish the truth of the gospel, and to spread it abroad. It is probable that these twelve men were pious

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Jews, who had now come to Ephesus, but who had not heard Apollos, or other teachers.

8. Stating to them, &c. For this sense of muOwy, see Schleus. It does not signify the effect, but his attempt to induce them to believe.

9. Tyrannus. Perhaps a Gentile philosopher, or teacher. Paul always first preached to the Jews, and on their rejecting the gospel, he then spoke to the Gentiles.

12. From his body, &c. The shadow of Peter passing by is supposed to have cured some; and in like manner Jesus honoured Paul, by similar wone ders being wrought by any thing which had touched him.

13. Escorcists. Such as used magical arts, adjuring demons, by certain names, to come out of those who had them. Seeing the cures which were effected by the apostle, through the name of Jesus, they thought this name more efficacious than what they had used.

14-17. Seven sons, &c. These sons of a priest must have been wicked imposters. The evil spirit, 8c. By the organs of the man, or he answered, influenced by the evil spirit, &c.- - And the man, &c. I should think this man was jpsane, a maniac, who, by an uncommon exertion, thus beat these Jews. This was likely to excite attention to the gospel.

19. Used magical arts, $c. Such as sleight of hand, and other methods of deceiving and cheating the vulgar. This was common at Ephesus, so that Epecia ypaepepata denote spells or charms. Fifty thousand, sc. If these



Demetrius excites the people


to support the honour of Diana. found to be fifty thousand pieces of silver, in to the people, the disciples suffered him not. 20 So mightily did the word of God grow and And some of the chief magistrates of Asia, who 31

were his friends, sent unto him, desiring that 21 Now after these things were ended, Paul he would not venture himself into the theatre.

purposed in his mind, when he had passed | Some therefore cried one thing, and some ano- 32 through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jeru- ther; for the assembly was confused; and the

salem, saying, “After I have been there, 1 greater part knew not why they had come 22 must see Rome also." So he sent into Ma- together. Then was Alexander advanced out 33

cedonia two of those who ministered unto him, of the multitude, the Jews having put him for

Timothy and Erastus; but he himself continued ward. And Alexander waved his hand, and 23 a while in Asia. And at this time there arose would have made a defence unto the people. 24 no small disturbance about that doctrine. For But when they knew that he was a lew, all 34

a certain man named Demetrius, a silversmith, with one voice for about two hours cried out, who made silver models of Diana and her tem- “Great is Diana of the Ephesians.” And when 35

ple, furnished no small gain to the workmen; the town-clerk had appeased the people, he 25 Whom he called together, with those of like said, “Ye men of Ephesus, what man is there

occupation, and said, “Şirs, ye know that by that knoweth not how that the city of the Ephe26 this employment we have our wealth. Moreo- sians is a worshipper of the great Diana, and

ver ye see and hear, that not alone at Ephesus, of the image which fell down from Jupiter ? but almost through all Asia, this Paul hath Since therefore these things cannot be spoken 36 persuaded and turned aside a considerable mul- against, ye ought to be qniet, and to do nothing

titude, saying, that they are no gods, which rashly. For ye have brought hither these men, 37 27 are made with hands; So there is not only who are neither robbers of temples, nor yet

danger that this our occupation should come blasphemers of your goddess. Wherefore if 38 into contempt; but also that the temple of the | Demetrius, and the workmen that are with him, great goddess Diana should be despised, and have a matter against any man, court-days are

her magnificence should be destroyed, whom kept to give judgment, and there are deputies; 28 all Asia and the world worshippeth.” And let them summon one another. But if ye inquire 39

when they heard this, they were full of wrath, any thing concerning other matters, it shall be

and cried out, saying, “Great is Diana of the determined in a lawful assembly, For we are 40 29 Ephesians.” And the whole city was filled in danger of being called in question for this

with confusion: and having seized Gaius and day's disturbance, as there is no cause by which Aristarchus, men of Macedonia, Paul's fellow- we can account for this concourse. And 41

travellers, they rushed with one consent into when he had thus spoken, he dismissed the 30 the theatre. And when Paul would have gone assembly.

REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER XIX. 1. Amidst oppositions tween the sinner and his sins, be they ever so customary, ever sa and tumults it is delightful to behold how the word of God grew and reputable, ever so gainful. Convineed of the necessity of forsaking mightily prevailed. Still may it grow and prevail, and separate be. their past unholy and wicked practices, many of the Ephesians did so ;

were the Roman silver denarii, one would be worth near eightpence of our money, and the whole amount to near two thousand pounds. Doddridge sup. poses they were Attic drachms, one of which was worth about ninepence. These facts strongly show the impression which divine truth had made.

21–28. Paul purposed, &c. From his epistle to the Romans we learn that he had long cherished the desire of visiting Rome. Models of Diana, &c. I have given the full sense of the text. Demetrius reasoned as all men do, who regard their interest in this life as the one thing needful. He accuses Paul of teaching that they are no gods which are made with hands;" and deeply laments that he had persuaded many to believe this. The honour

of Diana was at stake. They must, therefore, come to her assistance, whom Asia and all the world worshipped.

29–34. Filled with confusion. Popular tumults are often occasioped by a few cunning and interested men. Paul possessed a spirit of courage, and was ever ready to defend the cause of his Lord; yet he was equally prudent, and listened to the persuasions of his friends.-The Jews having put, 8c. The Jews put forward Alexander to make an apology for them, and to accuse Paul and his followers as the common disturbers of mankind. See 2 Tim. iv. 14.

35–41. The town-clerk. Or, the recorder.' He appears to have been CHAP. XX. 4. Son of Pyrrhus. The best mss. and several versions contain these words.Gaius of Derbe. Derbe was a city of Lycaonia, Ch. xvi. 6.; and yet Gaius is called a Macedonian, Ch. xix. 29. He may have been a native of Derbe, and an inhabitant of Thessalonica, as Jesus is called a Nazarene, because he resided there. Timothy. The Syriac adds, of Lystra, which Wakefield considers genuine. See Ch. xvi. I.

Paul goes through Macedonia.


He raiseth Eutichus to life. CHAPTER XX.

And on the first day of the week, the disci- 7 A. D. 60. Paul goeth 10 Macedonia, preacheth, and raiseth Eutychus to ples having assembled to break bread, Paul

life; he calleth for the elders and committeth God's flock to them; he discoursed to them, being to depart on the warueth them of false teachers, commendeth them to God and departeth.

morrow; and he continued his discourse until 1 And after the disturbance ceased, Paul called midnight. And there were many lamps in the 8

to him the disciples, and embraced them, and upper room, where they were assembled. Now 9 2 departed to go into Macedonia. And when he a young man named Eutichus, had fallen into

had gone over those parts, and had given them a deep sleep: and as Paul discoursed a long 3 much exhortation, he came into Greece. And time, he sank down with sleep, and fell to the

after abiding there three months, the Jews ground from the third story, and was taken up having laid wait for him as he was about to sail dead. Then Paul went down, and fell on him, 10

into Syria, he determined to retạrn through and embracing him said, “Trouble not your4 Macedonia. And Sopater, the son of Pyrrhus," selves; for his life is in him.” When he there- 11

a Berean, accompanied him as far as to Asia; fore had come up again, and had broken bread, but Aristarchus and Secundus of the Thessalo- and eaten, and talked a long while, even till

nians; and Gaius, of Derbe, and Timothy, and break of day, he then departed. Now they 12 5 Tychicus and Trophimus, of Asia; These went brought up the young man alive, and were not a 6 before and waited for us at Troas. And we little comforted.

sailed away from Philippi after the days of un- And we went before to the ship, and sailed 13 leavened bread, and came to them at Troas in unto Assos, there intending to take in Paul; five days; where we abode seven days.

for so he had appointed, intending himself to

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and by this showed their repentance to be sincere. Others vainly grudge the least sum to honour the Saviour, or to spread the savour of attempted to use the name of Jesus as a charm, in order to increase bis blessed name ? Some of these Ephesians were indeed influenced by their gain; but their design was singularly frustrated, and themselves mercenary motives; and would to God a similar spirit had never preexposed to shame and disgrace. What honour did Christ put on his vailed in the christian church. Facts prove that it has prevailed and faithful servant Paul! in enabling him to work so many and astonishing raised tumults against those who have been the most decided friends of miracles, yet still more by conferring the gifts of the Holy Spirit. the Saviour May the same Spirit in his gracious and sanctifying influences be more

3. We may learn from the conduct and language of the Ephesiabundantly shed forth; and then may we expect to see religion in its ans, how childish and absurd are the thoughts of men, on the subject power and beauty, spread and prevail; then will converts spring up as of the Deity as the object of worship. They had gods many and lords the grass, as willows by the water-courses.

many; they had also goddesses; and the image of Diana they believed 2. From the example of the Heathens at Ephesus, let us learn had fallen from Jupiter, their chief God. This legend had no founto be zealous in the holy cause of christianity. They could not bear dation in truth; but like the object they worshipped was a mere inventhat the least disrespect should be shown 10 their imaginary goddess tion. Yet they all considered the apostle as asserting a strange opinion, Diana. And shall we be silent, when the name of our Lord and Saviour when he stated that the works of men's hands were no gods. Paul is reproached; when his love and grace are despised, and when his laboured to convince them of this obvious truth; and to lead them to the cause is assaulted ? They rent the air with aeclamations in praise of the knowledge of the true God and of Jesus Christ whom he had sent,

that vain object of their worship. And shall we be silent and not eelebrate they might be saved. And his labours in this respect were not in vain. the praises of him, who pitied 1, redeemed us, and will finally save May the blessed gospel be sent and preached in every heathen land, us? They showed their zeal and ardour by sparing no expense to adorn that by its light the folly and wickedness of all idolatry may be exposed, Diana's temple, or to procure silver models of it. And shall we and the souls of the people saved.

favourable to Paul; and by his conciliating address, at last succeeded in restoring peace.

7. To break bread. To partake of a feast of charity, which concluded with partaking of the Lord's supper. The poor in heathen cities partook of the flesh of the sacrifices offered; and as christians were not allowed to eat of what was offered to idols, the more wealthy made some provision for their poor brethren. See 1 Cor. xi. 20, and comp. with Ch. xvi. 2.

10. Trouble not, &c. Paul restored bim to life by the power of Christ; but did not claim any honour to himself. 12. They brought, &e. To Paul, to express his gratitude for the mercy

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