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AND it came to pass that, while Apollos was at Corinth, Paul having passed through the upper parts came to Ephesus: and meeting 2 with some disciples, He said to them, "Have ye received the Holy Spirit since ye believed?" And they said to him, "We have not even 3 heard whether there be a Holy Spirit." And he said to them, "Into what then where ye baptized?" And they said, "Into John's bap4 tism." Then said Paul, "John indeed baptized with the baptism of repentance, saying to the people, that they should believe on him who was to come after him, that is, on Christ Jesus." 5 When they heard this, they were baptized into 6 the name of the Lord Jesus. And when Paul had laid his hands upon them, the Holy Spirit came on them; and they spoke in different 7 languages, and prophesied. Now all the men were about twelve.
27. Who through grace, &c. I think the order of the words support the sepse usually attributed, that it was through grace, or by divine favour and influence, that the Corinthians had believed; and that Apollos was useful to them in increasing their knowledge, and deepening their serious impressions, as well as by maintaining the honour of the Saviour, and convincing the Jews. CHAP. XIX. 1. Upper parts, &c. Galatia and Phrygia, which lay north of Ephesus, Ch. xviii. 23.
Have ye received, &c. The gifts of the Spirit. Their answer shows that they had no correct knowledge of the doctrine of Christ; and induced Paul to inquire for what end they had been baptized.
4. John indeed, &c. John's baptism was designed to lead men to Christ, to whom he bore testimony.
6. Holy Spirit came, &c. This was an evidence of the power and faithfulness of our Lord; and such gifts tended to establish the truth of the gospel, and to spread it abroad. It is probable that these twelve men were pious
and performs signal miracles.
and separated the disciples, discoursing daily in the school of one Tyrannus. And this was 10 done for the space of two years; so that all those who dwelt in Asia heard the word of the Lord Jesus, both Jews and Gentiles. And 11 God wrought signal miracles by the hands of Paul; So that from his body were brought unto 12 the sick handkerchiefs or aprons, and the diseases departed from them, and the evil spirits went out of them.
Then some of the Jews, who went about as 13 exorcists, took upon them to call over those who had evil spirits the name of the Lord Jesus, saying, "We adjure you by Jesus whom Paul preacheth." And there were seven sons of one 14 Sceva, a Jew, and chief of the priests, who did
And the evil spirit answered and said, 15 "Jesus I know, and who Paul is I understand; but who are ye?" And the man in whom the 16 evil spirit was, leaped on them, and overcame them, and prevailed against them, so that they fled out of that house naked and wounded. And this was known to all, both Jews and 17 Greeks, dwelling at Ephesus; and fear fell on them all, and the name of the Lord Jesus was magnified. And many who believed came, con- 18 fessing and declaring their past practices. Ma- 19 ny of those who used magical arts brought their books together, and burned them before all men: and the price of them was computed, and
Jews, who had now come to Ephesus, but who had not heard Apollos, or other teachers.
8. Stating to them, &c. For this sense of mudwv, see Schleus. It does not signify the effect, but his attempt to induce them to believe.
9. Tyrannus. Perhaps a Gentile philosopher, or teacher. Paul always first preached to the Jews, and on their rejecting the gospel, he then spoke to the Gentiles.
12. From his body, &c. The shadow of Peter passing by is supposed to have cured some; and in like manner Jesus honoured Paul, by similar wonders being wrought by any thing which had touched him.
13. Exorcists. Such as used magical arts, adjuring demons, by certain names, to come out of those who had them. Seeing the cures which were effected by the apostle, through the name of Jesus, they thought this name more efficacious than what they had used.
14-17. Seven sons, &c. These sons of a priest must have been wicked imposters.- — The evil spirit, &c. By the organs of the man, or he answered, influenced by the evil spirit, &c.- -And the man, &c. I should think this man was insane, a maniac, who, by an uncommon exertion, thus beat these Jews. This was likely to excite attention to the gospel.
19. Used magical arts, &c. Such as sleight of hand, and other methods of deceiving and cheating the vulgar. This was common at Ephesus, so that Εφισια γραμματα denote spells or charmä.- -Fifty thousand, &c. If these 235
Demetrius excites the people
found to be fifty thousand pieces of silver, 20 So mightily did the word of God grow and prevail.
21 Now after these things were ended, Paul purposed in his mind, when he had passed through Macedonia and Achaia, to go to Jerusalem, saying, "After I have been there, I 22 must see Rome also." So he sent into MaSo he sent into Macedonia two of those who ministered unto him, Timothy and Erastus; but he himself continued 23 a while in Asia. And at this time there arose 24 no small disturbance about that doctrine. For a certain man named Demetrius, a silversmith, who made silver models of Diana and her temple, furnished no small gain to the workmen; 25 Whom he called together, with those of like occupation, and said, "Sirs, ye know that by 26 this employment we have our wealth. Moreo
ver ye see and hear, that not alone at Ephesus, but almost through all Asia, this Paul hath persuaded and turned aside a considerable multitude, saying, that they are no gods, which 27 are made with hands: So there is not only danger that this our occupation should come into contempt; but also that the temple of the great goddess Diana should be despised, and despised, and her magnificence should be destroyed, whom 28 all Asia and the world worshippeth.' And
when they heard this, they were full of wrath, and cried out, saying, "Great is Diana of the 29 Ephesians." And the whole city was filled with confusion: and having seized Gaius and Aristarchus, men of Macedonia, Paul's fellowtravellers, they rushed with one consent into 30 the theatre. And when Paul would have gone
REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER XIX. 1. Amidst oppositions and tumults it is delightful to behold how the word of God grew and mightily prevailed. Still may it grow and prevail, and separate be
were the Roman silver denarii, one would be worth near eightpence of our money, and the whole amount to near two thousand pounds. Doddridge sup. poses they were Attic drachms, one of which was worth about ninepence. These facts strongly show the impression which divine truth had made.
21-28. Paul purposed, &c. From his epistle to the Romans we learn that he had long cherished the desire of visiting Rome. Models of Diana, &c. I have given the full sense of the text. Demetrius reasoned as all men do, who regard their interest in this life as the one thing needful. He accuses Paul of teaching "that they are no gods which are made with hands;" and deeply laments that he had persuaded many to believe this. The honour
to support the honour of Diana.
in to the people, the disciples suffered him not. And some of the chief magistrates of Asia, who 31 were his friends, sent unto him, desiring that he would not venture himself into the theatre. Some therefore cried one thing, and some ano- 32 ther: for the assembly was confused; and the greater part knew not why they had come together. Then was Alexander advanced out 33 of the multitude, the Jews having put him forward. And Alexander waved his hand, and would have made a defence unto the people. But when they knew that he was a Jew, all 34 with one voice for about two hours cried out, "Great is Diana of the Ephesians." And when 35 the town-clerk had appeased the people, he said, "Ye men of Ephesus, what man is there that knoweth not how that the city of the Ephesians is a worshipper of the great Diana, and of the image which fell down from Jupiter? Since therefore these things cannot be spoken 36 against, ye ought to be quiet, and to do nothing rashly. For ye have brought hither these men, 37 who are neither robbers of temples, nor yet blasphemers of your goddess. Wherefore if 38 Demetrius, and the workmen that are with him, have a matter against any man, court-days are kept to give judgment, and there are deputies; let them summon one another. But if ye inquire 39 any thing concerning other matters, it shall be determined in a lawful assembly. For we are 40 in danger of being called in question for this day's disturbance, as there is no cause by which we can account for this concourse." And 41 when he had thus spoken, he dismissed the assembly.
tween the sinner and his sins, be they ever so customary, ever so reputable, ever so gainful. Convinced of the necessity of forsaking their past unholy and wicked practices, many of the Ephesians did so;
of Diana was at stake. They must, therefore, come to her assistance, whom Asia and all the world worshipped.
29-34. Filled with confusion. Popular tumults are often occasioned by a few cunning and interested men. Paul possessed a spirit of courage, and was ever ready to defend the cause of his Lord; yet he was equally prudent, and listened to the persuasions of his friends.—The Jews having put, &c. The Jews put forward Alexander to make an apology for them, and to accuse Paul and his followers as the common disturbers of mankind. See 2 Tim. iv. 14.
35-41. The town-clerk. Or, 'the recorder.' He appears to have been
AND after the disturbance ceased, Paul called to him the disciples, and embraced them, and 2 departed to go into Macedonia. And when he had gone over those parts, and had given them 3 much exhortation, he came into Greece. And after abiding there three months, the Jews ing laid wait for him as he was about to sail into Syria, he determined to return through 4 Macedonia. And Sopater, the son of Pyrrhus," a Berean, accompanied him as far as to Asia; but Aristarchus and Secundus of the Thessalonians; and Gaius, of Derbe, and Timothy, and 5 Tychicus and Trophimus, of Asia; These went 6 before and waited for us at Troas. And we sailed away from Philippi after the days of unleavened bread, and came to them at Troas in five days; where we abode seven days.
and by this showed their repentance to be sincere. Others vainly attempted to use the name of Jesus as a charm, in order to increase their gain; but their design was singularly frustrated, and themselves exposed to shame and disgrace. What honour did Christ put on his faithful servant Paul! in enabling him to work so many and astonishing miracles, yet still more by conferring the gifts of the Holy Spirit. May the same Spirit in his gracious and sanctifying influences be more abundantly shed forth; and then may we expect to see religion in its power and beauty, spread and prevail; then will converts spring up as the grass, as willows by the water-courses.
2. From the example of the Heathens at Ephesus, let us learn to be zealous in the holy cause of christianity. They could not bear that the least disrespect should be shown to their imaginary goddess Diana. And shall we be silent, when the name of our Lord and Saviour is reproached; when his love and grace are despised, and when his cause is assaulted? They rent the air with acclamations in praise of the vain object of their worship. And shall we be silent and not celebrate the praises of him, who pitied us, redeemed us, and will finally save us? They showed their zeal and ardour by sparing no expense to adorn Diana's temple, or to procure silver models of it. And shall we
favourable to Paul; and by his conciliating address, at last succeeded in restoring peace.
He raiseth Eutichus to life.
And on the first day of the week, the disci- 7 ples having assembled to break bread, Paul discoursed to them, being to depart on the morrow; and he continued his discourse until midnight. And there were many lamps in the 8 upper room, where they were assembled. Now 9 a young man named Eutichus, had fallen into a deep sleep and as Paul discoursed a long time, he sank down with sleep, and fell to the ground from the third story, and was taken up dead. Then Paul went down, and fell on him, 10 and embracing him said, "Trouble not yourselves; for his life is in him." When he there- 11 fore had come up again, and had broken bread, and eaten, and talked a and eaten, and talked a long while, even till break of day, he then departed. Now they 12 brought up the young man alive, and were not a little comforted.
CHAP. XX. 4. Son of Pyrrhus. The best mss. and several versions contain these words.- -Gaius of Derbe. Derbe was a city of Lycaonia, Ch. xvi. 6.; and yet Gaius is called a Macedonian, Ch. xix. 29. He may have been a native of Derbe, and an inhabitant of Thessalonica, as Jesus is called a Nazarene, because he resided there.Timothy. The Syriac adds, of Lystra, which Wakefield considers genuine. See Ch. xvi. L.
And we went before to the ship, and sailed 13 unto Assos, there intending to take in Paul; for so he had appointed, intending himself to
grudge the least sum to honour the Saviour, or to spread the savour of his blessed name? Some of these Ephesians were indeed influenced by mercenary motives; and would to God a similar spirit had never prevailed in the christian church. Facts prove that it has prevailed and raised tumults against those who have been the most decided friends of the Saviour
3. We may learn from the conduct and language of the Ephesians, how childish and absurd are the thoughts of men, on the subject of the Deity as the object of worship. They had gods many and lords many; they had also goddesses; and the image of Diana they believed had fallen from Jupiter, their chief God. This legend had no foundation in truth; but like the object they worshipped was a mere invention. Yet they all considered the apostle as asserting a strange opinion, when he stated that the works of men's hands were no gods. Paul laboured to convince them of this obvious truth; and to lead them to the knowledge of the true God and of Jesus Christ whom he had sent, that they might be saved. And his labours in this respect were not in vain. May the blessed gospel be sent and preached in every heathen land, that by its light the folly and wickedness of all idolatry may be exposed, and the souls of the people saved.
7. To break bread. To partake of a feast of charity, which concluded with partaking of the Lord's supper. The poor in heathen cities partook of the flesh of the sacrifices offered; and as christians were not allowed to eat of what was offered to idols, the more wealthy made some provision for their poor brethren. See 1 Cor. xi. 20, and comp. with Ch. xvi. 2.
10. Trouble not, &c. Paul restored him to life by the power of Christ; but did not claim any honour to himself.
12. They brought, &c. To Paul, to express his gratitude for the mercy
Paul's last address
14 go by land. So he met with us at Assos, and 15 we took him in, and came to Mitylene. And we sailed thence, and arrived the next day over against Chios; and the next day we touched at Samos; and, having remained at Trogyllium, 16 on the next day we came to Miletus. For Paul had determined to sail by Ephesus, that he might not spend much time in Asia: for he hastened, if it were possible for him, to be at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost.
And from Miletus Paul sent to Ephesus, and 18 called the elders of the church. And when they had come to him, he said to them, "Ye know, from the first day since I came into Asia, after what manner I have been with you the 19 the whole time, Serving the Lord with all humility of mind, and with many tears, and trials, which befel me by the lying in wait of 20 the Jews; And that I have not kept back any thing which was profitable to you; but have shown it you, and have taught you pub21 licly, and from house to house; Testifying both to the Jews and Greeks, repentance towards God, and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ. 22 And now, behold, I go bound in spirit unto
Jerusalem, not knowing the things that shall 23 befal me there: Except that the Holy Spirit witnesseth to me in every city, saying, 'that
vouchsafed: and the brethren were comforted by what they heard and saw. 13-16. And we went, &c. Luke speaks of himself as now with Paul. The places mentioned were islands and sea-ports in the Ægean sea. Michaelis supposes that Paul had hired a small vessel at Philippi (see verse 6) for the convenience of himself and friends, and sailed in it to Patara, Ch. xxi. 1, where he went aboard a trader, bound to Phoenicia.
17. Elders of the, &c. It is evident, by comparing the 18th verse, that these elders were the bishops of the church at Ephesus; and that there was then no distinction between these, appears from Phil. i. 1. Titus i, 5, 7, and 1 Peter v. 1, 2. These were no more than joint pastors of one church.
19. Many tears. These accompanied his earnest admonitions and intreaties. He felt the importance of what he delivered, and aimed to make others feel.
21. Towards God, &c. Or, in respect to God, &c. Repentance for the sins committed against him; and faith in Jesus, in his obedience and death for pardon and life.
to the elders of Ephesus,
bonds and afflictions await me.' But none of 24 these things move me, nor do I regard my life as dear to myself, so that I may finish my course with joy, and the ministry, which I have received from the Lord Jesus, to testify the glad tidings of the grace of God. And now, behold, 25 I know that ye all, among whom I have gone preaching the kingdom of God, shall see my face no more. Wherefore I declare to you 26 this day, that I am pure from the blood of all men. For I have kept nothing back, but have 27 declared to you the whole counsel of God.
22. Bound in spirit, &c. Forced by his own inclinatiou, and from a sensé of duty. See Ch. xviii. 5.—Not knowing, &c. He had only the general knowledge mentioned in the next verse.
24. None of these things, &c. What magnanimity does the apostle discover? He did not speak thus in a state of enjoyment and safety; but when he was constantly giving proof of this by his labours, trials, and sufferings.
"Take heed therefore to yourselves, and to 28 all the flock, over which the Holy Spirit hath made you overseers, to feed the church of him who is Lord and God," which he hath purchased with his own blood. For I know this, that 29 after my departure grevious wolves will enter in among you, not sparing the flock. From 30 among your own selves also will men arise, speaking perverse things, to draw away disciples after them. Watch therefore, and remem- 31 ber, that for three years, night and day, I ceased not to admonish every one with tears.
"And now, brethren, I commend you to God, 32 and to the word of his grace; to him who is able to build you up, and to give you an inheritance among all those that are sanctified.
28. ▾ Griesb. others, Lord.
26. I am pure, &c. From the guilt or punishment of it. See note, Ch.
28. Who is Lord and God, &c. There are no fewer than six various readings of this text. We have to die, Tu Kugia, tu Xgiola, të KUIN AN, TO ON xai Kupiw, and TM Kuçin xai Ory. After weighing the evidence for each, Griesbach concludes in favour of "the church of the Lord;" and places in the inner margin the last as not improbable. I have preferred the last, as supported by the greatest number of mss. collated, and as accounting best for the other variations. For it is more easy to omit a word in transcribing than to insert one; and one transcriber might omit T 9, and retain - Kuşi, as judging the latter more accordant with what follows. If this were the case, which [ think most probable, this arose early, as the oldest mss. have the latter, and all the old versions, except the Arabic and the common text of the Vulgate, which has T. The phrase, 'church of the Lord' never once occurs in the whole New Testament, and church of Christ,' only once. The reading which I have preferred will also be singular, as connected with the term church; but the sentiment conveyed is expressed by Philip, when he exclaimed, "My Lord and my God." See note, John xx. 28. All those passages which support the doctrine of two natures, also support this sentiment. See John i. 1— 12. Rom. ix. 5, &c.- - With his own blood. Wakefield adheres to the received text, and renders dia tu aipatos to it. “Which he gained for himself by his own son." This is the most singular version which was ever made of the
Their sorrow on parting.
33 I have coveted no man's silver, or gold, or ap34 parel. Yea, ye yourselves know, that these hands have ministered unto my necessities, and 35 to those that were with me. I have shown you in all things, that by so labouring ye ought to support the infirm, and to remember the words of the Lord Jesus, that he said, 'It is more blessed to give than to receive."
And when he had thus spoken, he kneeled 37 down, and prayed with them all. And they all wept much, and fell on Paul's neck, and 38 kissed him, Sorrowing most of all for the words which he had spoken, that they should see his face no more. And they conducted him to the ship.
REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER XX. 1. How delightful must have been these interviews of Paul and his friends! The most pleasing emotions would be excited. He would view them with all the tenderness, regard, and affection due to his spiritual children, who would be his crown and his joy in the day of Christ; and while they beheld and heard him, mingled feelings of admiration, love, and gratitude would prevail. While partaking of the Lord's supper, as members of Christ, how delightful their communion; and while recollecting the love, power, and grace of their suffering Lord, and the amazing change wrought on their souls, how must their hearts burn within them. No wonder that Paul continued his discourse to an unusual period; and though one was overcome with sleep, it is probable the rest were attentive, and treasured up in their memories the interesting truths, promises, and exhortations of the apostle. This was to them a peculiar season! May we often enjoy such in our present state, and be prepared for the communion and fellowship of the saints in
2. From the spirit and conduct of the apostle, both ministers and people may learn what they should be and do. Both should serve the Lord. Those who are called to preside in the assemblies of the saints, and to discharge the duties of the pastoral office, should keep back nothing which is profitable to them. Nor should they be satisfied with 'public instructions,' but should teach 'from house to house' repentance towards God, and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ. And while the
text, and evidently formed to set aside the atoning sacrifice of Jesus. With the same design some would suppose an ellipsis of vis, and translate, "who purchased the church by the blood of his own son." No version, no Greek father ever entertained the notion of such an ellipsis. This passage I conceive both supports the divinity and the atonement made by our Lord.
30. From among, &c. See Rev. ii. 2, and 1 Cor. xi. 19.
Paul saileth to Phoenicia. CHAPTER XXI.
A. D. 60. Paul determines to go to Jerusalem; Philip's 'daughters prophetesses; Paul having arrived at Jerusalem, is apprehended and in great danger; he is rescued by the chief captain, and permitted to speak to the people.
32. To him who is able, c. I give this version, because I think with Doddridge, that it is harsh to say, "that the word can give us an inheritance, &c." Paul, indeed, informs Timothy that the scriptures are "able to make wise, &c." 2 Tim. iii. 15. They have an objective ability, containing sufficient information of the way of salvation, &c.; but this is very different from ascribing to them the power of giving an inheritance. I refer then, w duraw, to God, as giving the best sense.
AND it came to pass, that, after we had I separated from them, and had launched, we came with a straight course to Coos, and the day following to Rhodes, and thence to Patara. And having found a ship sailing over to Phœni- 2 cia, we went aboard, and loosed. Now when 3 we had discovered Cyprus, and had passed by it on the left hand, we sailed into Syria, and landed at Tyre: for there the ship was to unload her burden. And finding disciples, we 4
christian pastor thus faithfully and zealously labours, may the people receive the word with all readiness of mind, and through the grace of Christ repent and believe. And amidst all the afflictions, trials, and persecutions, may both shepherds aud flocks, display the same holy courage, submission, and confidence as the apostle, saying, "None of these things move me, neither count I my life dear to me, so that I may finish my course with joy."
3. We learn how christian pastors should engage in the work of the ministry, and how they should conduct themselves in reference to the flock committed to their charge. They should be the subjects of divine grace, and partakers of the Holy Spirit in his renewing influences; and of his gifts in such a degree, as to be apt to teach, exhort, and rebuke with all long-suffering and gentleness. And they should "take the oversight of the flock, not by constraint, but willingly; not for filthy lucre, but of a ready mind; coveting no man's silver, or gold, or raiment.' And if they do possess some little of the good things of this life, they should be examples of liberality and charity, remembering the words of the Lord Jesus, how he said, That it is more blessed to give than to receive." They ought to be bold in the faith, not shunning to declare the whole counsel of God; and by a steady and holy walk they should be examples to the flock. Happy the minister who can say, "I am clear from the blood of all men" who have heard me. May the great Shepherd raise up and send many such labourers into his vineyard.