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Jesus rises from the tomb. tomb cut in stone, in which no man had ever yet been laid. And that day was the prepara- 54

the sun was darkened, and the veil of the templetion, and the sabbath drew on. 46 was rent in the midst. And when Jesus had cried out with a loud voice, he said, "Father, into thy hands I commit my spirit :" and having 47 said this, he expired. Then the centurion seeing what was done, glorified God, saying, "Cer48 tainly this was a righteous man." And all the multitudes who came together to that sight, beholding the things which were done, smote 49 their breasts, and returned. And all his acquaintance, and the woman who had followed him from Galilee, standing at a distance, beheldments; and rested on the sabbath, according

AND the women also, who had come with 55 him from Galilee, followed after, and beheld the sepulchre, and how his body was laid. And 56 they returned, and prepared spices and oint

these things.

The Centurion's confession.

44 And about the sixth hour, there was darkness 45 over the whole land until the ninth hour. And


And, behold, there was a man named Joseph, a senator, of Arimathea, a city of the Jews, 51 and he was a good and righteous man; And And had not consented to the counsel and deed of the rest, and who himself also looked for the 52 kingdom of God. This man went to Pilate, 53 and asked the body of Jesus. And he took it down, and wrapped it in linen, and laid it in a

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REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER XVII. 1. We learn how little the doctrine and miracles of our Lord affected or interested the rulers of Israel. Herod had heard much of him, and wondered who he was; but now he was favoured with a sight of him. He questioned him in many words, desirous to find out his crime, if he had committed any; and perhaps to satisfy his curiosity in learning his sentiments. Our Lord knew that any reply or statement, would have been to no purpose, and was therefore silent. It soon appeared by Herod's treatment of him that he regarded him with contempt; and his claims to a kingdom be considered as a proof of weakness and incapacity. he Ah, how often has virtue in her loveliest forms been thus treated! The men of the world can esteem nothing noble or worthy their regard but the things of the world. In this treatment of Jesus, we see the language of the prophet strictly fulfilled, "He was despised and rejected of men."

2. What greatness, patience, mildness and love did Christ discover on the cross! When his enemies were heaping upon him

Watts' in loc. vol. 1. Works, Campbell's Disser. vi. Part 2. This is one of the many passages which support the opinion of the immediate happiness of the souls of good men after death.

45. And the sun, &c. Comp. Matt. xxvii. 45-51, and notes. 49. And the women, &c. Matt. xxvii. 55, &c. Mark xv. 40, where several of these pious women are mentioned.

50, 51. A man named Joseph, &c. The text of these verses is a little involved; but by a small transposition they become clear and coherent. See Matt. xxvii. 57.

53. Wrapped it in linen. See Matt. xxvii. 59.


A. D. 33. Christ's resurrection declared to the women; who report it to others; he appears to two disciples in the way to Emmaus; then to the apostles to whom he gives a charge, promiseth the Holy Spirit, and aseendeth to heaven.

to the commandment.

But on the first day of the week, very early 1 in the morning, they came to the sepulchre, bringing the spices which they had prepared, and some other women with them. And they 2 found the stone rolled away from the sepulchre : And when they had entered in, they found not 3 the body of the Lord Jesus. And it came to 4 pass, as they were much perplexed about this,

reproaches, and soldiers casting lots for his vesture; while they were regarding him as one forsaken of God and man, one whom it was right to deride and insult, he patiently bore all, without an angry word or even emotion. "Like a sheep before her shearers he was dumb, and opened not his mouth." But no sooner did the penitent robber address him with that important request, "Lord, remember me when thou comest into thy kingdom;" than Jesus had an ear to hear. And in how gracious and remarkable a manner did he answer him!" To day shalt thou be with me in paradise." Our Lord knew that he himself was to be in paradise that day; that though he might seem to men to be forgotten, yet soon would his sufferings be terminated, and his spirit received to the Father's bosom; and even at that moment when he was crucified, he exercised the right not only of for. giving sins, but of disposing of seats in paradise. Unless he was God as well as man, this conduct is unaccountable, and indeed most arrogant and sinful. May we exercise the same repentance, faith and love, that when we die our Lord may receive us to his own presence.

54. That day was the preparation. Matt. xxvii. 62, and note.

55, 56. And the women also, &c. See Ch. xxiv. 10. Mark xvi. 1.

CHAP. XIV. 1. Bringing the spices, &c. From this we learn that these women did not know what Joseph and Nicodemus had done. See John xix. 39, 40.; or that what they had done was only preparative to a more complete embalmment of the body.Some other women, &c. Pearce would omit these words, and Griesbach has marked them as doubtful; but they are supported by the 10th verse.


Two men stood, &c. Mark and Matthew mention only one angel, and

Angels announce his resurrection.


behold, two men stood by them in shining gar5 ments: And as they were afraid, and bowed down their faces to the earth, they said to them, Why seek ye the living among the dead? 6 He is not here, but is risen: remember how he spoke to you when he was yet in Galilee, 7 Saying, 'The Son of man must be delivered up into the hands of sinners, and be crucified, 8 and the third day rise again." And they re9 membered his words, And returned from the sepulchre, and told all these things unto the 10 eleven, and to all the rest. Now it was Mary Magdalene, and Joanna, and Mary the mother of James, and the other women that were with them, who told these things to the apostles. 11 And their words seemed to them as idle tales; 12 and they believed them not. But Peter arose, and ran unto the sepulchre; and stooping down, he beheld the linen clothes laid by themselves, and departed, wondering in himself at that which had come to pass.

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subjects are these about which ye converse with one another, as ye walk, and are dejected?" 18 And one of them, whose name was Cleopas, answered and said to him, "Art thou the only sojourner in Jerusalem, that hast not known the things which are come to pass there in these there in these

the former calls him a young man,' whom he describes as 'sitting. One might at first appear in this posture, and then two as Luke describes.

5. Among the dead. That is, in a place where it was usual to lay the dead.

10. And Joanna, &c. She was the wife of Chuza, Herod's steward. Ch. viii. 3.

13. Two of the disciples, &c. From verse 18th to 30th it appears that Cleopas was one of the two; but neither he nor the other were apostles, as is manifest from verse 30th.-Sixty furlongs. So Josephus also asserts. Bell. Jud. vii. 6, 2. About seven of our miles.

Jesus explains the prophets,

days?" And he said to them, "What things?" 19 And they said to him, "Concerning Jesus of Nazareth, who was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people: And 20 how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him up to be condemned to death, and crucified him. But we trusted that it had been he who 21 should have redeemed Israel: and besides all this, to-day is the third day since these things were done. Moreover, some women also of 22 our company have astonished us, who were early at the sepulchre; And when they found 23 not his body, they came, saying, that they had also seen a vision of angels, who said that he was alive. And some of those who were with 24 us went to the sepulchre, and found it even so as the women had said: but him they saw not."

16. Were so kolden, &c. See Mark xvi. 12, and note; from which place it is probable that they did not know him, either because he appeared in a different dress, or because he assumed a different countenance.

20. And crucified him. The Jews are justly said to have done this, be

Then he said to them, "O unwise, and slow 25 of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken! Ought not the Christ to have suffered 26 these things, and to enter into his glory?” Then beginning at Moses and proceeding 27 through all the prophets, he explained to them, in all the scriptures, the things concerning himself. And they drew near to the town, whither 28 they were going: and he made a show as though he was going further. But they constrained 29 him, saying, "Abide with us; for it is towards evening, and the day is far spent." And he went in to abide with them. And it came to 30 pass, as he was at meat with them, that he took bread, and blessed, and broke it, and gave to them. And their eyes were opened, and they 31 knew him; but he disappeared. Then they 32 said one to another, "Did not our heart burn within us, while he talked with us on the way,

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cause they accused him falsely, and because Pilate delivered him up to their will. Ch. xxiii. 25. Acts ii. 36.; iv. 10.

21. Redeemed Israel, &c. From the Roman yoke, and set up a temporal kingdom. Such were the hopes of our Lord's disciples: they dreamed of earthly things, until the spirit corrected their mistakes, and taught them the spiritual nature of the gospel.

24. Some of those who, &c. These were Peter and John. John xx. 2,&c. 26. Ought not the Christ, &c. According to what the prophets had said of him. Is. liii. 1, &c. Dan. ix. 26. It is also manifest that Moses had written things which referred to Messiah.

31. Their eyes were opened, &c. That is, they then began to know him; they perceived, either from his voice or manner in blessing God and distributing the bread, that it was he.

32. Burn within us, &c. With love and admiration of such a teacher;

He appeared to Peter,


and while he explained to us the scriptures?” 33 And they rose up that very hour, and returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and those that were with them, 34 Saying, "The Lord is risen indeed, and hath 35 appeared to Simon." And they told what things had happened on the way, and how he was known by them in the breaking of bread. And while they were thus speaking, Jesus himself stood in the midst of them, and saith 37 to them, "Peace be unto you." But they were terrified and affrighted, and supposed that 38 they beheld a spirit. And he said to them, Why are ye troubled? and why do thoughts 39 arise in your hearts? Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye 40 behold that I have." And when he had thus


spoken, he showed them his hands and his feet. 41 And while they still believed not through joy and wondered, he said to them, "Have ye


REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER XXIV. 1. When reports were spread that Jesus had risen from the dead, what various feelings and emotions were excited! Some of his disciples could not give credit to the fact, although he had so frequently foretold them of it. They believed in the doctrine of the resurrection at the last day; and perhaps thought that what our Lord said referred to that period; but had they reflected on his language as they ought to have done, they would assuredly have avoided those mistakes into which they fell. Justly might he upbraid them as unwise, and slow of heart to believe. When he appeared in the midst of them, they were terrified, supposing that they saw not Jesus himself, but a spirit in his form and likeness; but how graciously did he address them! He removed their fears, by desiring them

with hope and joy, when the resurrection and glory of Christ were thus forcibly represented.

34. Saying, the Lord, &c. That is, the apostles said, "the Lord hath risen indeed, and hath appeared to Simon." Paul mentions this appearance to Peter, I Cor. xv. 5. The testimony of the two disciples would confirm the fact. To reconcile what is here said with Mark xv. 13, we must suppose that "the rest" were some of the apostles and other disciples, whom the two, who had been to Emmaus, met and told what had occurred, but they did not believe. Some time after Jesus appeared to Simon, and all the apostles being together, he related to them this appearance; and the two disciples also repeated how Jesus had appeared to them, when all present were satisfied and cordially believed.


36. Jesus himself, &c. This was his first appearance to the disciples in a body, mentioned by John xx. 10, &c.

39. My hands and my feet, &c. He referred to these as having still the print of the nails by which he had been fastened to the cross.

41. Have ye any food? Luke has only mentioned one appearance of Lord to all his disciples, while John has related three. The circumstance


then to all the disciples.


here any food?" And they gave him a piece 42 of a broiled fish, and of an honeycomb. And 43 he took it, and ate before them. And he said 44 to them, "These are the words which I spoke to you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the law of Moses, and in the prophets, and in the psalms, concerning me." Then opened he 45. their mind, that they might understand the scriptures, And said to them, "Thus it is 46written, and thus the Christ ought to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day: And 47 repentance and remission of sins ought to be preached in his name among all nations, beginning at Jersualem. Now ye are witnesses of 48 these things; And, behold, I send you that 49 which the father hath promised: but abide ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power from on high."

And he led them out as far as Bethany; and 50 he lifted up his hands, and blessed them. And 51

to use their own senses; "handle me and see." Thus he still by his word and Spirit, removes the groundless fears and scruples of his followers, and establisheth their hearts in the assurance of his power, grace and love.

2. We learn from the two disciples going to Emmaus, how we ought to employ our time to some useful purpose, and what a blessing we may receive. They were not conversing on common or trifling topics, but concerning what had happened in reference to Jesus a prophet, mighty in deed and in word, in miracles and doctrine. They knew not what to think repecting him, whether he was or not the promised Messiah. Thus they reasoned when Jesus himself drew near, perhaps in the habit of a common traveller, and soon inquired what they were

here related appears to be what John relates, xxi. 13, and to have occurred in Galilee.

44. These are the words, &c. Comp. Ch. ix. 22, 44.; xviii. 31-33.Law of Moses, &c. The law of Moses, the prophets and the Psalms, contained the whole of the old Testament, according to the Jewish way of speaking.

47. And repentance, &c. Our Lord gives in his words the sense of some of the prophecies; and what he had frequently taught, during his ministry. -Beginning at Jerusalem. This is a remarkable circumstance, and shows the kindness of the risen Saviour, as well as tends to establish the truth of Christianity. In that city where he was crucified our Lord raised the first Christian church.

49. With power from, &c. That is, with gifts of the Holy Spirit. See

Acts i. 4.

50. He led them out, &c. Nearly forty days had passed from the appearance mentioned, verse 36, before Jesus ascended; during which time the disciples had gone into Galilee according to his order, and he appeared to them there. Luke has given no account of these things.

Christ ascendeth to heaven,


and the disciples worship him. it came to pass, while he blessed them, he was Jerusalem with great joy: And were conti- 53 parted from them, and carried up into heaven.nually in the temple, praising and blessing God. 52 And they worshipped him, and returned to


conversing about. Having received their answer, he instructed them out of the scriptures how the Christ ought to suffer and then to enter into his glory. How delightful, how interesting must have been this discourse! Well might their hearts burn within them, while they listened to him! Such light had never before shone upon their minds; nor had they ever so understood Moses and the prophets. Let us stu

52. And they worshipped, &c. Now if Jesus had ascended before they rendered this act of homage, I conceive they must have intended it as an act of worship strictly so called; for how they could do obeisance to one absent, without supposing him some way acquainted with what they did, or admitting

dy those portions of the holy scriptures and delight to trace the intimations given of the person and work of our Lord, in connexion with what his apostles have taught. Let us converse with him in his word and ordinances, and he will make himself known to us! O let us follow him to heaven in our affections; and rejoice in the hope of seeing a risen, reigning, and glorious Saviour, honoured and adored for ever.

him to be a divine person, is difficult to conceive. Nor can it be said that they paid this homage, while he was ascending;' for according to Acts i. 9, 10, they continued to look up towards heaven, until the angels addressed them. They must then have worshipped him after he had ascended.




The Gospel by JOHN, according to all antiquity, was composed and published the last of the four; and not long before the beginning of the war with the Romans, which terminated in the destruction of Jerusalem, and the dispersion of the Jews. John uniformly speaks of himself in the third person, or by a perephrasis. His style is simple, and abounds in a peculiar kind of antithesis. There can be little doubt but he had seen the other three Gospels; and for this reason he has omitted the facts and miracles, which are there recorded. His Gospel may, therefore, be considered, not as a full history of all that Jesus said and did; but as containing what the others had omitted; and especially what occurred after his baptism by John, and the many interesting discourses which he delivered in answer to the objections of the Scribes and Pharisees. He has given to Jesus the peculiar title of The Logos, or Word,' and ascribes to him the creation of all things. From the manner in which he speaks of the Jews, it is evident that he wrote his Gospel, not in Judea, and among his own people, but in some other country; and the ancients inform us, that he dwelt at Ephesus, and having lived to a great age, he died a natural death, and was buried there, in the reign of the Emperor Trajan. See Introd. p. 6.


There was a man sent from God, whose namé 6 was John. He came for a testimony, to testify 7

A. D. 34
John; the calling of Andrew, Peter and other disciples.

The divinity, humanity and office of Christ; the testimony of of the Light, so that through him all might

believe. He was not that light, but was sent 8
to testify of that Light. The true Light, was 9
that, which, coming into the world, enlighteneth
every man. He was in the world, and the 10
world was made by him, yet the world knew
him not. He came to his own land, and his 11
own people received him not. But as many as re- 12
ceived him, to them he gave the right to become
the children of God, even to those that believed


In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things were made by him; and without him was not 4 any thing made that was made. In him was 5 life; and the life was the light of men. And the light shone in darkness; but the darkness admitted it not.

CHAP. I. 1. The word. John speaks of his Lord in language suitable to his dignity as a divine person. Some think that Jesus was thus called, because God revealed his will by him; but I rather think he is thus called as possessing infinite wisdom, and as being the person described, Prov. viii. &c. He was in the beginning.' He existed before any part of the universe, or from eternity. See Gen. i. 1. For surely it would be unworthy of John, or any man, when going to give a history of an individual, to inform his readers that such a person was, or existed, in the beginning of the transactions he was about to relate; nor are the passages, referred to in support of such a sense, at all similar. See note, Socinean Vers.And the word was God. See Is. vii. 14.; ix. 6. John x. 33–36. Rom. ix. 5. Phil. ii. 6. As for the want of the article, on which some lay stress, see Campbell's note.

2. He was in, &c. This reflection, as Newcome observes, is very emphatical.—With God. John had affirmed he was God, and with God; and he repeats the latter to impress the fact more strongly on the mind. How any consistent and unbiased mind could explain this to mean, he withdrew himself to commune with God, and to receive divine communications, I know not.

3. All things were made, &c. It has been asserted, that yEVETO never has the sense here attributed to it; an assertion void of all truth. In the Septuagint it is used for 8 and for mwy frequently. See Gen. ii. 4. and Con

cord. Kirch. Its primary sense is to be, to become, &c. Now the first conveys the sense given. "All things were, or existed by him, &c." See verse 10th, and Heb. xi. 3. Jam. iii. 9. To limit this proposition to all things done in reference to the gospel, is wholly at variance with every principle of just interpretation or sound criticism.

4. In him was life, &c. He, as God, possessed the power of bringing into existence, and giving life by creation.And the life. Or he who had life, was the light of men. He became incarnate, and dwelt among men, to enlighten them and teach them the way of salvation.

5. In darkness. That is ascribed to darkness, which, properly speaking, belongeth to men whose understandings were dark; as in the former verse that is said concerning life, which could only belong to him, in whom this life was.

6-8. To testify of the light. It was the office of John to preach and testify of Jesus the light; and however useful his ministry might be, he assured them that he was not the light, but only as the morning star to usher it in.

9. Was that which, &c. The reasons for thus construing the text may be seen in Campbell's note.. —Enlighteneth every, &e. Affords the means of being instructed, both to Jew and Gentile.

10. The world was made, &c. To get rid of this testimony to the divinity

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