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Watchfulness enjoined.

LUKE XXII.

time your hearts be overcharged with excess, || deliver him up to them. and drunkenness, and the anxious cares of this life, and so that day come upon you unawares. 35 For as a snare will it come on all those who 36 dwell on the face of the whole land. Watch

ye therefore, and pray continually, that ye may be accounted worthy to escape all these things which will soon come to pass, and to stand before the Son of man."

Now Jesus thus taught in the temple by day; and at night he went out of the city, and abode in the mount which is called the mount of 38 Olives. And early in the morning all the people came to him in the temple, to hear him. CHAPTER XXII.

Then came the day of unleavened bread, on 7 which the passover must be killed. And Jesus 8 sent Peter and John, saying, "Go and prepare for us the passover, that we may eat it." And 9 they said to him, "Where wilt thou that we prepare it?" And he said to them, "Behold, 10 when ye have entered into the city, a man will meet you, carrying a pitcher of water; follow him into the house where he goeth in. And 11 ye shall say to the master of the house, The Teacher saith to thee, Where is the guest

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holy supper instituted's Peter's fall foretold; agony in the garden; Judas betrayeth him and he is shamefully treated.

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A. D. 33 The Jews conspire against Christ; the passover prepared; the chamber, where I may eat the passover with! my disciples?' And he will show you a large 12 upper room furnished: there make ready.' And they went, and found as he had said to 13 them: and they made ready the passover.

And when the hour was come, he placed 14 himself at table, together with the twelve apostles. And he said to them, “I have ear- 15 nestly desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer. For I say to you, I shall not 16 any more eat of it, until it be fulfilled in the

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I Now the feast of unleavened bread, drew near, 2 which is called the Passover. And the chief priests and scribes sought how they might safely kill him: for they feared the people.

3 Then Satan entered into Judas, surnamed Iscariot, who was of the number of the twelve. 4 And he went and communed with the chief priests and captains of the temple, how he might

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REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER XXI. 1. How awful were the judgments which a merciful Saviour predicted would soon come upon the Jews. His repeated calls to repent had been neglected; his kind invitations to believe on him had been despised; and now they were filling up the measure of their guilt, by their determination to kill the prince of peace. Their own depravity and wickedness were preparing them for destruction, and were instrumental in bringing it upon them. Ambition, injustice, cruelty, revenge, hatred and other vices were general, and like so many demons, were inflicting complicated miseries upon them, so that at last they were destroyed one by another as well as by the Romans. Let us remember the language of our Lord, Unless ye repent ye shall perish in like manner; as certainly and as awfully as they were to perish.

2. Let the servants of Jesus rejoice in the assurance that if per

mer evangelists, "But that day and hour no one maketh known, &c.'

CHAP. XXII. 2. Safely kill him. The connexion requires the term, or some one equivalent to be supplied, or otherwise the reason assigned is inapposite. See Matt. xxvi. 2, and note. 3. Then Satan entered, &c. and moral evil is attributed to him. 4. Captains of the temple. 5, 6. To give him money, &c.

Preparation for the passover.

And they were glad, 5 and covenanted to give him money. And he 6 promised, and sought for a convenient opportunity to deliver him up unto them in the abscence of the multitude.

Comp. John xiii. 2, 27. Acts v. 3. Natural
Comp. Matt. xxvi. 14. Mark xiv. 12.
See verse 54, which supports this insertion.
Thirty pieces of silver. Matt. xxvi. 15.

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secuted, they shall not be forsaken; and though betrayed and abandoned by friends and kindred, they shall be supported. They may be immured in prisons; but even there the peace of God shall gladden their hearts, and his presence be a source of consolation. When falsely accused they shall have utterance and wisdom given which their enemies cannot resist. Though hated for their sentiments, and for their pious and holy devotedness to God, so that one would think none of them would escape, yet such is and has been the care of providence, that they have been preserved while their enemies have perished. The hairs of their head are numbered, and by their perseverance, they preserve their lives. May we be thankful that we do not live in days of persecution; and may we improve our opportunities and privileges by holy diligence and assiduity that we may grow in grace, in faith and purity.

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Lord's supper instituted.

17 kingdom of God." He then took a cup, and gave thanks, and said, "Take this, and divide 18 it among yourselves: For I say to you, I shall not drink of the produce of the vine, until the 19 kingdom of God come." He then took bread, He then took bread, and gave thanks, and broke it, and gave unto them, saying, "This is my body which is given 20 for you do this in remembrance of me." In like manner also, he took the cup after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in my blood, which is shed for you.

21 66 Yet, behold, the hand of him that delivereth 22 me up is with me on the table. And the Son of man goeth indeed, as it was determined: but alas for that man by whom he is delivered 23 up!" Then they began to inquire among inquire among themselves, which of them was about to do this thing.

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24 Now there had been a contention among them, which of them should be accounted the 25 greatest. And he said to them, "The kings of the Gentiles use dominion over them; and they that exercise authority upon them are 26 called benefactors. But ye ought not to do thus: but he that is greatest among you, let him be as the younger; and he that is chief, 27 as he that serveth. For which is greater; he that is at table, or he that serveth? is not he that is at table? But I am among you as he 28 that serveth. Now ye are they who have con29 tinued with me in my trials. And as my Father hath appointed unto me a kingdom, I appoint

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LUKE XXII.

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21-23. Yet, behold the hand, &c. See notes, Matt. xxvi. 21, 25. Matthew gives a more full and particular account of this conversation.

24-30. There had been a, &c. Comp. Matt. xx. 17, &c. Mark x. 32, 35. &c.—Called benefactors. The Kings of Egypt affected the name Euergetes, or benefactor.

29-30. As my father, &c. The common version regards kingdom as belonging to each clause of the verse; and yet the latter verse specifies what it is which Christ appoints to his disciples. I have, therefore, adhered to the construction, so as to express the sense clearly.—That ye may eat, &c. Share in the blessings and privileges of my kingdom. Sit on thrones, &c. Be the chief ministers in my spiritual kingdom; and when I come in my glory to convert men, and to punish my enemies, ye shall concur in my righteous displeasure. See Matt. xix. 28.

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Peter warned of his fall.

also to you, That ye may eat and drink at my 30 table in my kingdom, and sit on thrones judging the twelve tribes of Israel.”

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And the Lord said, "Simon, Simon, behold, 31 Satan hath asked to sift you as wheat: But 32 I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not utterly: and when thou hast returned, strengthen thy brethren." And he said to him, "Master, 33 I am ready to go with thee, both to prison, and to death." And he said, "I say to thee, 34 Peter, the cock will not crow this day, before thou have thrice denied that thou knowest me.” And he said to them, "When I sent you 35 without purse, and bag, and shoes, wanted ye any thing?" And they said, "Nothing." Then he said to them, "But now, he that hath 36 a purse, let him take it, and in like manner his bag: and he that hath no sword, let him sell his mantle, and buy one. For I say to you, 37 that this which is written must yet be accomplished in me. And he was reckoned among the transgressors:' for the things concerning me will soon have an end." And they' said, 38 "Master, behold, here are two swords." he said to them, "It is enough."

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And he came out, and went, as his custom 39 was, to the mount of Olives; and his disciples also followed him. And when he was at the 40 place, he said to them, "Pray that ye enter not into temptation." And he had withdrawn 41 from them about a stone's cast; and he kneeled down, and prayed, Saying, "Father, if thou 42

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31. To sift you as wheat. Our Lord refers, most probably, to all the apostles; and many learned men think that in the first clause there is a reference to Job, Ch. i.`

32. Hast returned. That is, to me by repentance. I render actively, as Knatchbull and others have done, being the just sense of the text.

34. Not crow this day, &c. Comp. Matt. xxvi. 34. John xiii. 38. Mark xiv. 30.

35-38. When I sent you, &c. See Ch. ix. 2, &c.—No sword. The apostles seem to have brought two swords with them in their journey to Jerusalem, for the purpose of defending themselves against robbers.——Buy one. Our Lord never intended to make any resistance, as appears from verse 38. When he therefore said, buy one,' he meant only to apprise them of their danger. Comp. Matt. xxvi. 52, &c.

40. At the place. Gethsemane, a garden on the Mount of Olives. See Matt. xxvi. 36, 37.

43, 44. There appeared to him, &c. Pearce supposes that the three apostles, who bad fallen asleep, had previously seen the angel, and heard him praying in his agony. Paul, at least, refers to something like this agony, Heb. v. 7, “ when he offered up prayers and supplications with strong crying

Judas betrayeth Christ.

LUKE

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wilt, take this cup from me: nevertheless not 43 my will, but thine, be done." And there ap- || peared to him an angel from heaven, strength44 ening him. And being in an agony he prayed more earnestly: and his sweat was as it were great drops of blood falling down to the ground. 45 And when he had risen up from prayer, and come to his disciples, he found them asleep 46 from sorrow, And said to them, " And said to them, "Why sleep ye? rise and pray, lest ye enter into temptation."

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And while he was yet speaking, behold a multitude, and he that was called Judas, one of the twelve, went before them, and drew 48 near to Jesus, to kiss him. And Jesus said to him, "Judas, deliverest thou up the Son of 49 man with a kiss?" When those that were about him saw what would follow, they said to him, 66 Master, shall we smite with the sword?" And one of them smote a servant of the high priest, 51 and cut off his right ear. And Jesus spoke and said, "Let this suffice." And he touched And he touched 52 his ear, and healed him. Then Jesus said to the chief priests, and captains of the temple, and the elders, who came to him, "Are ye come out as against ber, with swords and 53 clubs? When I was daily with you in the temple, ye did not stretch forth your hands against me: but this is your hour, and the power of darkness."

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Then took they him, and led him away, and brought him into the high priest's house. And 55 Peter followed at a distance. And when they had kindled a fire in the midst of the court, and were sitting together, Peter sat down among 56 them. But a certain maid-servant beheld him

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REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER XXIL 1. How instructive is it to contemplate the spirit and conduct of our Lord when his end ap

and tears." Two mss. the Vatican and Alexandrian, and some few others, are wanting; but they are all in the old versions, and in so many mss. that Griesbach has not noticed them as being even doubtful.-Sweat as if it were drops, &c. It is not clear, from these words, whether the resemblance of his sweat to drops of blood be to the colour or to the largeness of the drops of sweat. It may have been the latter; but it may also have been the former, as cases have occurred, when, through violent fears and agonies, the sweat has had the colour of blood. Aristotle, Galen, and others have related such instances.

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47. Behold a multitude, &c. See Matt. xxvi. 47. Mark xiv. 43.

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XXII.

Peter denies him.

as he sat by the fire, and earnestly looked upon him, and said, "This man was also with him." But he denied him, saying, "Woman, I know 57 him not." And a little while after another saw 58 him, and said, "Thou art also of them." And Peter said, “Man, I am not." And about the 59 space of one hour after, another confidently affirmed, saying, "In truth this man also was with him: for he is a Galilean." And Peter 60 said, "Man, I know not what thou sayest." And immediately while he was yet speaking, the cock crew. And the Lord turned, and 61 looked upon Peter. And Peter remembered the word of the Lord, which he had said to him, "Before the cock crow, thou wilt deny me thrice." And Peter went out, and wept 62 bitterly.

And the men that held Jesus derided him, 63 and smote him. And when they had blindfolded 64 him, they struck him on the face, and asked him, saying, "Prophesy, who is it that smote thee?" And many other things they blasphe- 65 mously spoke against him.

And as soon as it was day, the elders of the 66 people and the chief priests and the scribes assembled, and brought him into their council, saying, "If thou be the Christ, tell us." And 67 he said to them, "If I tell you, ye will not believe: And if I also ask you, ye will not answer 68 me, nor release me. Hereafter the Son of man 69 will sit on the right hand of the power of God." And they all said, "Art thou then the Son of 70 God?" And he said to them, "Ye say truly, for I am." And they said, "What need we 71 any further witness? for we ourselves have heard from his own mouth."

proached! He knew that the things which were written concerning him must have an end; and as that end drew near he discovered a

49. Smite with the sword. It was Peter who thus spoke. John xviii. 10. It should seem he did not wait for our Lord's reply, but immediately smote with the sword.

51. Let this suffice. Our Lord did not blame this proof of Peter's courage, but he prevented him from repeating the stroke, and healed the wound which he had given.

52. Captains of the temple. These were inferior Jewish officers, who commanded the divisions of the priests and levites, who attended the temple, and were themselves subject to a chief commander. See Acts iv. 1. ; v. 24. 55. Of the court, &c. See note, Matt. xxvi. 69.

Jesus accused before Pilate.

LUKE XXIII.

Herod examines and despises him.

CHAPTER XXIII.

sent him to Herod, who himself also was at
Jerusalem at that time.

A. D. 33 Jesus accused before Pilate and sent to Herod, who mocketh him;
Herod and Pilate made friends; Pilate releases Barabbas and gives up

And when Herod saw Jesus, he was very 8

Jesus to be crucified; he foretell's the ruin of Jerusalem, prays for his glad: for he had long desired to see him, be

enemies; his death and burial.

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AND the whole multitude of them rose up, 2 and led him to Pilate. And they began to accuse him, saying, "We found this man perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Cæsar, saying that he himself is Christ 3 the King." And Pilate asked him, saying, "Art thou the King of the Jews?" And he answered 4 him and said, "Thou sayest truly." Then said Pilate to the chief priests and to the people, 5 "I find nothing faulty in this man." But they were the more violent, saying, "He stirreth up the people, teaching throughout all Judea, 6 beginning from Galilee to this place." When Pilate heard of Galilee, he asked whether the 7 man were a Galilean. And as soon as he knew that he belonged to Herod's jurisdiction, he

submission, a kind and condescending temper, and a foresight peculiar to himself. When the passover was prepared, he said, “I have earnestly desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer." He had set an example to his followers of the strictest obedience to every divine command, and of the most constant observance of every holy ordinance, but this passover he especially desired to observe, as during it he was to be perfected by his sufferings. He had been called the Lamb of God who should take away the sin of the world,' in allusion most probably to the paschal lamb; and now he was about to be slain and offered. To perpetuate the remembrance of his own sacrifice, he instituted his own supper; and solemnly enjoined his people to observe it. May all that profess his name obey in every thing the commands of their Lord.

2. While checking the rising ambition of some of his disciples he again inculcated humility, as the chief excellence of his disciples; and enforced it by his own example. The kings of the nations use dominion and often oppress their subjects, while they assume the title of benefactors; but let us remember that we ought not to do thus. No, he that is the greatest must be as one that serveth. Jesus thus humbled himself that he might engage us to every duty of kindness, love, and

55-60. Maid-servant, &c. Matthew has given the answers of Peter in a somewhat different form, but the substance is the same. Matt. xxvi. 69-75,

63-65. And smote him, &c. See Matt. xxvi. 67, &c.

66-71. And as soon, &c. See Matt. xxvi. 58–68. Mark xiv. 53, &c. CHAP. XXIII. 1. Multitude of them, &c. That is of the elders, chief priests, scribes, and their dependants; for the common people seem to have favoured the person and cause of Jesus.

2. Perverting the nation, &c. Never was there a more barefaced falseVOL. III. PART XX. T

cause he had heard many things of him; and he hoped to see some miracle wrought by him. Then he questioned Jesus in many words; but 9 And the chief 10 he answered him nothing. priests and scribes stood and earnestly accused him. And Herod, and his soldiers despised 11 and derided him, and arrayed him in a gorgeous robe, and sent him again to Pilate. And on 12 that day Pilate and Herod were made friends: for before they were at enmity.

And Pilate, when he had called together the 13 chief priests and the rulers and the people, Said to them, "Ye have brought to me this man 14 as one that perverteth the people: and, behold, I, having examined him before you, have found nothing faulty in this man concerning any of those things whereof ye accuse him: No, nor 15

condescension, to one another. And if we continue stedfast to him in our faith, love, and obedience, amidst all the trials which may occur, Jesus will reward us with the blessings of his kingdom.

3. Nothing can be more affecting than the sight of our Lord in the garden. Something overwhelming must have come upon him, or he would not have been thrown into the most surprising agony, and sweat as it were great drops of blood! Could this be the mere dread of death? Could this extort from him such strong cries and tears? No; Jesus then began to drink of that cup which divine justice had mingled for him; of that cup of wrath which was due to men. For this good shepherd gave his life for the sheep; suffered for the ungodly. How astonishing that he who was the Lord of angels should now have one sent to strengthen him! What this angel did to strengthen him we are not told; but perhaps he might bring some message of love to animate him under those circumstances which were occurring. He saw the treachery of one disciple, and soon had to witness another deny him with oaths; and was exposed to the insults of his bitter enemies! O that we may ever reflect on the grace of this suffering Saviour, and be interested in his prayer for Peter, that our faith may not fail however it should be tried.

hood than this. Jesus had not long before said, 'Render to Cæsar the things that are Cæsar's, &c.'

3. Thou sayest truly. See note, Matt. xxvi 25, and 1 Tim. vi. 13. 5. He stirreth up the people, &c. According to them Jesus preached sedition, and disturbed the public tranquillity; but when or where had this occurred?

7-12. Was at Jerusalem. As a Jew he was there to keep the passover. Luke only has related the incidents respecting Herod.

13-25. And Pilate, when, &c. Pilate perceived that our Lord was 145

Pilate delivers Christ to the Elders,

LUKE XXIII.

and they crucify him.

yet Herod: for I sent you to him; and, lo, no- | never bare, and the breasts which never gave suck. Then will men begin to say to the 30 mountains, Fall on us; and to the hills, Cover us. For if these things be done to the green 31 tree, what will be done to the dry?" And two 32 others also, who were malefactors, were led with him to be put to death.

thing worthy of death hath been done by him. 16 I will therefore chastise him, and release him." 17 For it was necessary, through custom, that he 18 should release one to them at the feast. But the whole multitude cried out at once, saying, "Away with this man, and release unto us 19 Barabbas." (Who for a certain insurrection made in the city, and for murder, had been 20 cast into prison.) Pilate therefore, desiring to 21 release Jesus, spoke again to them. But they cried aloud, saying, "Crucify him, crucify 22 him." And he said to them the third time, Why, what evil hath he done? I have found no cause of death in him: I will therefore chas23 tise him, and release him." And they were urgent with loud voices, requesting that he might be crucified. And the voices of them 24 and of the chief priests prevailed. And Pilate pronounced sentence that it should be as they 25 desired. And he released unto them him who for insurrection and murder had been cast into prison, whom they had requested; but delivered up Jesus to their will.

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And when they had come to the place which 33 is called Calvary, [PLACE OF SCULLS] they there crucified him, and the malefactors, one on the right hand, and the other on the left. Then 34 said Jesus, "Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do." And they parted among them his garments by casting lots. And 35 the people stood beholding. And the rulers together with the people ridiculed him, saying, "He saved others, let him save himself, if he be the Christ, the chosen of God." And the 36 soldiers also derided him, coming to him, and offering him vinegar, And saying, "If thou be 37 the king of the Jews, save thyself." And an 38 Inscription was written over him in Greek, and Latin, and Hebrew letters, "THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS."

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And as they led him away, they laid hold upon one Simon, a Cyrenian, coming out of the country; and on him they laid the cross, 27 that he might carry it after Jesus. And there followed him a great company of people, and of woman, who also lamented and bewailed him. 28 But Jesus turning to them said, "Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not for me, but weep for 29 yourselves, and for your children. For, behold, the days are coming, in which it will be said, Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that

charged falsely, and that no proof was brought of the things stated against him. The whole body of the priests, elders, and those whom they could influence, were all combined in this work of blood; and the efforts of Pilate to release Jesus were in vain.

26. As they led him away, &c. The soldiers of the Governor. See Matt. xxvii. 27, 32.

28-30. Weep not for me, &c. Not so much for me as for yourselves; and the reason of this follows. See Hos. x. 8. Rev. vi. 16.

31. To the green tree. That is, to one as undeserving of punishment as a green tree is unfit for burning.- -To a dry tree. To one who deserves punishment, as a dry tree is fit for burning.

33-38. And when they were, &c. Comp. Matt. xxvii. 33, &c. Matthew has given a more circumstantial account of what passed during the crucifixion.

39. And one of the malefactors, &c. Matthew says they both railed on him, xxvii. 44.; but it is usual to say, they did it when only one is intended.

And one of the malefactors that were cruci- 39 fied reviled him, saying, "If thou be the Christ, save thyself and us." But the other answered 40 and rebuked him, saying, and rebuked him, saying, "Dost thou not fear God, since thou art in the same condemnation? And we indeed justly; for we receive the due 41 reward of our deeds: but this man hath done nothing amiss." Then he said to Jesus, " Lord re- 42 member me when thou comest into thy kingdom.” And Jesus said to him, "Verily I say to thee, 43 To-day shalt thou be with me in paradise."

40-42. Dost thou not fear God, &c. This shows, that he had a just sense of his own offence; and he was satisfied of the innocence of Jesus. Hence his very important request, "Lord remember me, &c." Pearce supposes that he owned Jesus to be the Messiah; and that, though he now suffered death, he would rise again, and establish an earthly kingdom; but if this was his opinion, how could Christ's coming into this kingdom be of any importance to him, unless he was to be raised too? The Jews admitted a future state, and I think the penitent had respect to that state.

43. To-day shalt thou be, &c. Some critics would remove the comma, I say to thee to-day, Thou shalt, &c. That is, at some future period. This is sanctioned neither by the sense of the text, nor by the authority of the Greek commentators. It is said that Marcian, an ancient heretick, did not read it in his copy, and that Origin found some few mss. without it; but are these sufficient grounds, either to reject or to render doubtful this text? Griesbach did not think so, and he was a more competent judge than Mr. Evanson: See

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