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John cast into prison.


Genealogy of our Lord.


But Herod the tetrarch, being reproved by him about Herodias his brother Philip's wife, and for all the evils which Herod had done, 20 Added this likewise to all, that he shut up John in prison.


17 Spirit and with fire: Whose winnowing-shovel Whose winnowing-shovel || Who was the son of Maath, who was the son of 26 is in his hand, and he will thoroughly cleanse Mattathiah, who was the son of Shimei, who was his floor, and will gather the wheat into the gra- the son of Joseph, who was the son of Judah, nary; but the chaff he will burn up with un- Who was the son of Joanna, who was the son of 27 18 quenchable fire." And with many other exhor- Rhesa, who was the son of Zerubbabel, who tations he published the glad tidings to the was the son of Salathiel, who was the son of people. Neri, Who was the son of Melchi, who was 28 the son of Addi, who was the son of Cosam, who was the son of Elmodam, who was the son of Er, Who was the son of Josse, who was the son of 29 Eliezer, who was the son of Jorim, who was the son of Matthat, who was the son of Levi, Who 30 was the son of Simeon, who was the son of Judah, who was the son of Joseph, who was the son of Jonan, who was the son of Eliakim, Who 31 was the son of Melea, who was the son of Menan, who was the son of Mattatha, who was the son of Nathan, who was the son of David, Who 32 was the son of Jesse, who was the son of Obed, who was the son of Boaz, who was the son of Salmon, who was the son of Naasson, Who was 33 the son of Aminadab, who was the son of Ram, who was the son of Hezron, who was the son of Pharez, who was the son of Judah, Who was 34 the son of Jacob, who was the son of Isaac, who was the son of Abraham, who was the son of Terah, who was the son of Nahor, Who was the 35 son of Serug, who was the son of Reu, who was

Now it came to pass, when all the people were baptized, that Jesus also having been baptized, and praying, the heavens were opened, 22 And the Holy Spirit descended in a bodily shape, like a dove, upon him; and a voice came from heaven, which said, "Thou art my beloved Son; in thee I am well pleased."


And Jesus himself was about thirty years of age, when he began his ministry, being (as was supposed) the son of Joseph, who was the son of 24 Heli, Who was the son of Matthat, who was the son of Levi, who was the son of Melchi, who was the son of Janna, who was the son of Joseph, 25 Who was the son of Mattathiah, who was the son of Amos, who was the son of Nahum, who was the son of Esli, who was the son of Naggai,

15-18. In expectation, &c.

See notes, Matt. iii. 11, &c.

19, 20. Reproved by him, &c. John was not imprisoned until more than two years after the commencement of his ministry, and this is only mentioned here because that Luke was speaking about John.


22. In a bodily shape, &c. Or appearance, as Pearce renders. Campbell, in a bodily form.' It is probable that Luke only meant by dog what John ειδε saw. Matt. iii. 16. Mark i 10. The Holy Spirit manifested himself in a glorious light, which light descended upon him in the manner a dove descends.

23. And Jesus himself was, &c. The text will fairly admit various versions, according to the sense in which agxouvos is taken. It may be a mere idiom, and the version will be, "And Jesus himself was about thirty years of age, being (as was supposed) the son of, &c." Or supposing the participle to have the sense of 'ruled, governed,' we may render, "And Jesus himself was about thirty years in subjection," which Campbell has adopted, referring to his being in subjection to his parents. I have preferred the version given to either of these, because as to the first, I think the verb following should have been in the infiuitive, and as to the second, the sense of 'ruled, governed,' is not common; and because Luke, Acts i. 1. uses the verb in the same sense as that which I have given. See note there.—About thirty years of age. If our Lord began his ministry when he was little more than thirty years old, and supposing that he was baptized by John during the first year of his ministry, or in the 16th year of the reign of Tiberius, how could Jesus be born in the reign of Herod? If Herod died in March, in the year af Rome 750, as is most probable, Augustus in the year 767, then the 16th

of Tiberius would be 783, and Herod must have died above two years before
the birth of our Lord. It is manifest from Matthew that our Lord must have
been born near two years before Herod died. The common christian era
must then be above three years wrong. As to the fifteenth of Tiberius, this
cannot be dated from the death of Augustus, but from the time when he was
made colleague with Augustus in the government; and Lardner has produ-
ced such evidence of this as satisfied his own mind, without recurring to the
easy expedient of rejecting the accounts of Matthew and Luke, like some
modern critics.Being as was supposed, &c. Some would render, “being
(as was allowed by law) the son of, &c." With Campbell I do not see to what
this can refer; but as Luke had related the miraculous conception of Jesus,
the usual sense of the verb, 'supposed,' applies to the common apprehension
respecting him.-
-Son of Joseph, who was the son of Heli. Matthew informs
us that the father of Joseph was Jacob, and traces his descent in a direct line
through Solomon to David. How then could Joseph be the son of Heli? By
marrying Mary his daughter, who from this must have been his only child
living, and of course heiress of the little property he might possess. Those
who married heiresses were obliged to pass into the family of their fathers-in-
law, and let themselves be reckoned their sons. The principle of inheritance
among the Israelites implied as much; for the inheritance was given to
daughters, in order that the name of their father might not become extinct;
and, consequently, the sons of such marriages were recorded by the name of
their maternal grandfather. Comp. Numb. xxvii. Hence Joseph by marry-
ing Mary became the son of Heli, Mary's father; and this genealogy proves
that Mary was of the family of David, in the line of Nathan; so that our

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Temptation of Christ.


and his victory over Satan.



the son of Phaleg, who was the son of Eber, || man shall not live by bread only, but by what36 who was the son of Salah, Who was the son of soever God appointeth." And the devil brought 5 Cainan, who was the son of Arphaxad, who was him to a high mountain, and showed him all the son of Shem, who was the son of Noah, who the kingdoms of the world in a moment of 37 was the son of Lamech, Who was the son of time. And the devil said to him, "All this 6 Mathuselah, who was the son of Enoch, who power will I give thee, and the glory of them: was the son of Jared, who was the son of Maha- for it is delivered to me; and to whomsoever I 38 laleel, who was the son of Cainan, Who was will I give it. If thou therefore wilt worship 7 the son of Enoch, who was the son of Seth, who me, all shall be thine." And Jesus answered 8 was the son of Adam, who was the son of God. and said to him, "It is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him only shalt thou serve." And he brought him to Jerusa- 9 lem, and set him on a wing of the temple, and said to him, "If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down hence: For it is written, he 10 shall give his angels charge over thee, to keep thee: And on their hands they shall bear thee 11 up, lest at any time thou dash thy foot against a stone." And Jesus answering said to him, 12 "It is commanded, Thou shalt not tempt the Lord thy God." And when the devil had ended 13 all his temptation, he departed from him for a time.

A. D. 31. Christ's temptation and victory; begins his ministry; his discourse at Nazareth; cureth Peter's mother-in-law, and many who had demons.


Now Jesus, being full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan, and was led by the 2 Spirit into the desert, And at the end of forty days was tempted by the devil. And during those days, he ate nothing: and, when they 3 were ended, he was hungry. And the devil said to him, "If thou be the Son of God, com4 mand that this stone become bread." And Jesus answered him, saying, "It is written, That


REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER III. 1. In the appearance of the Baptist the promise of one prophet and the prediction of another were fulfilled. “Behold I will send you Elijah the prophet before the great and terrible day of the Lord come," said God by Malachi. John came in the spirit and power of that zealous servant of the Lord. But Isaiah had predicted his office as the harbinger of Messiah. He was to be the voice of one crying in the desert, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, &c." When John appeared, and raised his voice as a prophet, a new era commenced in the land of Israel. The spirit of prophecy had long ceased among that people, and it must have afforded unspeakable delight to the serious to hear one peculiarly endowed with the spirit of wisdom and piety.


2. We learn from the inquiries of the people the success which attended the ministry of John. While with holy severity he attacked

Lord was in the strictest sense, the son of David, notwithstanding his miraculous conception.

36. The son of Cainan, &c. This generation is found in the Septuagint, Gen. xi. 12, and Jackson has stated the reasons for admitting it. Jackson's Cron. Vol. 1. p. 69, &c.

CHAP. IV. 2. And at the end of forty, &c. As the text appears to me elliptical, I have supplied so as to agree with the context. For however Satan might have tempted our Lord before, by exciting gloomy and desponding thoughts, he did not tempt him as to turning a stone into bread, until the end of the forty days.

4. By whatsoever God, &c. 5. All the kingdoms of, &e.

See note, Matt. iv. 4. and Deut. viii. 3.
Luke has added to Matthew's account the

8. Get thee behind me satan, Griesb.

the Pharisees and Sadducees, exposed their errors, and the sandy foundation of their hopes, he called on all to repent, that they might receive the blessing of remission. When the multitude inquired, "What they must do?' he taught them to evince their repentance by kindness and charity. To publicans, who attended his ministry and sought his advice, he recommended a strict adherence to justice; and to the soldiers, a peaceful demeanor towards all, and to be content with their pay. With a noble frankness, when some thought that he was the Christ, he informed them that he was but his harbinger; and that such was the dignity of Messiah, that he was unworthy to perform the meanest office for him. May every preacher be like John, zealous and faithful, and seek not his own honour, but the honour of his Lord and Saviour, and then may he expect that he will not labour in vain, nor spend his strength for nought.

circumstance, 'in a moment of time.' This strongly supports the opinion of those Commentators, who suppose that what is related, passed in our Lord's mind. See note, Matt. iv. 1.

8. It is written, &c. The clause, 'Get thee behind me, Satan,' is wanting in the best mss. and most of the old versions; and has been inserted from Matthew.

13. For a time. Until the time which our Lord called the hour and the power of darkness, when the prince of this world tried him by wicked men. John xiv. 30. Luke xxii. 3, 53.

14. Into Galilee. After he had heard that John was cast into prison. Matt. iv. 12. None of the three Evangelists have related any part of the circumstances noticed, John i. 19, to iv. 43.

Jesus preacheth at Nazareth.




And Jesus returned, in the power of the Spirit, into Galilee and there went out a fame of him 15 through all the country round about. And he taught in their synagogues, being glorified by all. And he came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up: and, as his custom was, he went into the synagogue on the sabbath, and stood 17 up to read. And the book of the prophet Isaiah, was delivered to him. And when he had opened the book, he found the place where it 18 was written, "The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, inasmuch as he hath anointed me to preach glad tidings to the poor; he hath sent me to heal the broken-hearted, to proclaim deliverance to the captives, and recovery of sight to the blind, to set at liberty those that are bruised, 19 To proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord." 20 And he closed the book, and gave it again to the attendant, and sat down. And the eyes of all those that were in the synagogue were fixed 21 upon him. And he began by saying to them, « This day is this scripture fulfilled in your ears." 22 And all bore testimony to him, and wondered at the words full of grace, which proceeded out of his mouth, and they said, "Is not this the 23 son of Joseph ?" And he said to them, "Ye will surely say to me this proverb, Physician cure thyself' whatsoever things we have heard done in Capernaum, do here also in thy 24 own country." And he said, " Verily I say to



you, No prophet is acceptable in his own country. 25 But I tell you in truth, there were many widows

16. Stood up to read. By standing up he showed that he was ready to read the lesson of the day, if they would permit him.

17. Book of the prophet, &c. From this place Pearce observes, that at Nazareth, at least, the books of the Jewish scriptures were written in separate volumes, as they gave to Jesus only that of Isaiah.

18, 19. The spirit of the, &c. In what way the clauses, "the recovery of sight to the blind, and to set at liberty those that are bruised," have crept into the text; and whether, from a various reading of the Hebrew, we have not in the Sept. and in Luke two translations of the same text, I leave to the learned to decide. I confess it seems to me probable, that the Sept. read

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He casteth out a demon.

in Israel in the days of Elijah, when heaven was shut up for three years and six months, so that there was a great famine throughout all the land; Yet to none of them was Elijah sent, 26 but to a widow in Zarephath, a city of Zidon. And there were many lepers in Israel in the 27 time of Elisha the prophet; yet none of them, but Naaman the Syrian was cleansed." And 28 all in the synagogue, when they heard these things, were filled with wrath, And rose up, 29 and drove him out of the city, and led him to the brow of the hill on which their city was built, that they might cast him down headlong. But he, passing through the midst of 30 them, departed.

And he went down to Capernaum, a city of 31 Galilee; and taught them on the sabbath. And 32 they were astonished at his doctrine: for his word was with authority. And in the synagogue 33 there was a man, who had a spirit of an unclean demon; and he cried out with a loud voice, Saying, "Ah! what hast thou to do 34 with us, Jesus of Nazareth? art thou come to destroy us? I know thee who thou art; the Holy one of God." And Jesus rebuked him, 35 saying, "Be silent, and come out of him!" And when the demon had thrown him in the midst of the assembly, he came out of him, and hurt him not. And they were all amazed, and spoke 36 among themselves, saying, "What word is this! for with authority and power he commandeth the unclean spirits, and they come out."

And 37

trines which he delivered! While the people admired what he spoke, some of the scribes, most probably, said, 'Is not this the son of Joseph ?"

23. Heard done in Capernaum, &c. From this it is evident our Lord had wrought miracles in Capernaum; and the other Evangelists place before this, what follows here, ver. 31; and Matthew all that Luke says, from ver. 31, to Ch. vii. 36.

24. Acceptable. That is, treated with the honour to which his office is entitled. Comp. Matt. xiii. 57. Mark vi. 4, and John iv. 44.

25-27. I tell you in truth, &c. Our Lord shows, by instances, that a prophet not being acceptable in his own country, or to his own countrymen, was sent to others, or others came to him and received divine favours; întimating that their unbelief would lead him to act in like manner. See 1 Kings xvii. 7-16, 45.; James v. 17. and 2 Kings v. 14, &c. With Campbell I have so rendered as to avoid the ellipsis of the last clause.

29. And drove him, &c. Maundrel visited Nazareth, and informs us that it is situate in a concave round valley on the top of a high hill. Their conduct shows how much they were irritated by what our Lord said. His passing through the midst of them and departing, seems to have been miraculous.

Christ cureth many.

a report of him went out into every place of the country round about.

And he arose out of the synagogue, and entered into Simon's house. Now the mother of Simon's wife was seized with a great fever; and 39 they besought him for her. And he stood over her, and rebuked the fever; and it left her and immediately she arose and ministered to them.


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Now when the sun was set, all those that had any sick with various diseases, brought them to him and he laid his hands on every one of 41 them, and cured them. And demons also came And demons also came out of many, crying out, and saying, "Thou art the Son of God." And he rebuking them suffered them not to say, that they knew he was the Christ.



And when it was day, he departed and went into a desert place: and the multitude sought him, and came to him, and urged him not to 43 depart from them. But he said to them, "I must preach the glad tidings of the kingdom of God to other cities also: for therefore am I 44 sent." And he preached in the synagogues of Galilee.


REFLECTIONS UPON CHAPTER IV. J. The temptation of our Lord should teach us what to expect and how to resist. If the Adversary, for wise and holy purposes, was permitted to assault the Lord Jesus, to endeavour to seduce him from honouring the father, can his disciples expect to be free from similar attacks, and like trials? If this enemy of all righteousness thus dared to tempt the Son of God, will he be afraid to tempt weak and sinful mortals? If then Satan, or his messengers, be suffered to buffit us, let us not think that some unusual or strange thing has happened to us; for this is what is common to the followers of Christ. Like him let us resist the devil that he may flee from us. O let us maintain such a humble dépendence on divine aid as never to tempt God by exposing ourselves to danger, in expectation of extraordinary deliverance. Let us learn to overcome the world, and despise all its riches, honours and glories, when offered at the price of our innocence. To do this we must be armed with the sword of the word of God; and whenever tempted use this as our defence.

Teacheth from a ship. CHAPTER V.

A. D 31. Christ teacheth out of Peter's ship; a miraculous draught of fishes; a leper cleansed; one sick of the palsy healed; Matthew called ; he eateth with publicans, &c.

34-37. Ah! what hast thou, &c. See note, Mark i. 24-28, and Matt. Viii. 29, &c.

38-39. Into Simon's house. Comp. Matt. viii. 14, and Mark i. 29. 40–44. Now when the sun, &c. See note, Mark i. 32, &c. CHAP. V. 1–3. He stood by the lake, &c. Comp. Matt. xiii. 1, 2. Mark iv. 1, &c.

4-11. Launch into the deep, &c. Matthew and Mark mention the callVOL. III. PART XX. O

Now it came to pass, when the multitude 1 pressed on him to hear the word of God, as he stood by the lake of Gennesaret, That he saw 2 two ships standing by the lake: but the fishermen had gone out of them, and were washing their nets. And he entered into one of the 3 ships, which was Simon's, and besought him to launch out a little from the land. And he sat down, and taught the multitude out of the ship. Now when he had ceased speaking, he said to 4 Simon, "Launch out into the deep; and let down your nets for a draught." And Simon 5. answering said to him, "Master, we have laboured during all the night, and have taken nothing nevertheless at thy word I will let down the net." And when they had done this, 6 they inclosed so great a multitude of fishes, that their net began to break. And they beckoned to their partners, who were in the other ship, that they might come and help them. And they came, and filled both the ships, so that they

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41. Christ. Griesb.

2. We learn that it was the custom of our Lord to frequent the synagogues every sabbath; and by his own holy example as well as by his precept, he has enforced the observance of it on all his servants and followers. In the synagogues the scriptures were constantly read; and it affords pleasure to reflect, that they have been constantly read in the christian church, and that this is made a part of our religious service. Let us attend to whai Jesus read, it contains a faithful representation of the deplorable state in which the Gospel finds us. The nniserable prisoners of divine justice, captives of Satan, having the eyes of their understanding blinded, and all the powers of the soul enfeebled and polluted. In this state Jesus appears to open the doors of our prison, to break off our fetters, and to restore our sight. He comes to proclaim the blessed jubilee, the free and full forgiveness of all our sins, and the restoration of our lost inheritance. This is the acceptable time; this is the day of salvation; and for these blessings let us ever be thankful.

ing of Simon and the other Apostles, but do not mention the miracle of the fishes. Matt. iv. 18, and Mark i. 16, &c.

6. Began to break. The term must have this sense here; for had it broken altogether, how could they have preserved the fish? Or how could their companions have helped them? The same turn must be given to the

close of the next verse,

8. Lord, for I am a sinful, &c. I have followed Campbell in rendering, 102

A leper is cleansed.

LUKE V. 8 were near sinking. When Simon Peter saw this, When Simon Peter saw this, he fell down at Jesus' knees, saying, "Depart 9 from me, Lord, for I am a sinful man." For astonishment seized him, and all that were with him, at the draught of the fishes which they 10 had taken: And in like manner also were James, and John, the sons of Zebedec astonished, who were partners with Simon. And Jesus said to Simon, "Fear not; henceforth thou shalt 11 catch men." And when they had brought their ships to land, they forsook all and followed him. And it came to pass, when he was in a certain city, behold a man full of leprosy: who, when he saw Jesus, fell on his face, and besought him, saying, "Master, if thou wilt, thou canst make 13 me clean." And he put forth his hand, and touched him, saying, "I will: be thou clean." And immediately the leprosy departed from 14 him. And he commanded him to tell no man: "but go, and show thyself to the priest, and offer for thy cleansing, as Moses commanded, 15 for a testimony to them." But so much the more went there a fame abroad of him: and great multitudes came together to hear him, and to be cured by him of their infirmities. 16 And he withdrew himself into the wilderness, and prayed.

17. And it came to pass on a certain day, as he was teaching, that there were Pharisees and teachers of the law sitting by, who had come from every town of Galilee, and Judea, and Jerusalem and the power of the Lord was exer18 ted in curing the sick. And, behold, men brought on a bed one that was sick of the palsy: and they sought how to bring him in, and to 19 place him before Jesus. And when they could not find by what way they might bring him in because of the multitude, they went up to the roof, and let him down through the tiling, with

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A paralytic restored. || bis couch, into the midst before Jesus. And 20 when he saw their faith, he said to him, " Man, thy sins are forgiven thee." And the scribes 21 and the Pharisees began to reason, saying, "Who is this that speaketh blasphemies? Who can forgive sins but God alone?" But when 22 Jesus perceived their reasonings, he answering said to them, "Why reason ye in your hearts? Which is easier? to say, Thy sins are forgiven 23 thee; or to say, Rise up and walk? But that 24 ye may know that the Son of man hath power upon earth to forgive sins, (he said to the sick of the palsy,) I say to thee, Arise, and take up thy couch and go unto thy house." And 25 immediately he rose up before them, and took up that whereon he lay, and departed to his own house, glorifying God. And they were all 26 struck with amazement, and they glorified God, and were filled with fear, saying, "We have seen strange things to day."

And after these things Jesus went forth, and 27 saw a publican, named Levi, sitting at the receipt of custom: and he said to him, “Follow me." And he left all, rose up, and followed 28 him. And Levi made for him a great feast in 29 his own house: and there was a great company of publicans and of others that sat down with them. But the scribes and Pharisees mur- 30 mured against his disciples, saying, "Why do ye eat and drink with publicans and sinners?" And Jesus answering said to them, "They that 31 are well need not a Physician; but they that are sick. I am come to call, not the righteous, but 32 sinners, to repentance.”

And some said to him, "Why do the disciples 33 of John fast often, and make prayers, and in like manner the disciples of the Pharisees; but thine eat and drink?" And he said to them, 31 "Can ye make the companions of the bride

Kugios Lord here, because Peter seemed to discover that his master was more than a man, which overwhelmed him with fear and awe. Like Manoah, he perhaps thought by seeing so glorious a person, his life could not be continued. Comp. 1 Kings xvii. 18.

12. A certain city, &c. Or town, near to Capernaum, most probably. Comp. Matt. viii. 2. and Mark i. 40.

17. On a certain day, &c. This was at Capernaum in the house where he was accustomed to sojourn, as appears from Matt. ix. 1. compared with Mark ii. 1,

18-26. One that was sick of, &c. Comp. Matt. ix. 2-8. and Mark ii. 3-12, where see the notes.

19. Through the tiling, &c. Some tiling might be removed in order to let the couch down near to Christ. Or we may render, near to the tiling. See Schleus in dia.

27. A publican, &c. See Mark i. 14. and Matt. ix. 9, and notes.

33-35. Why do thy disciples, &c, Comp. ix. 14. and Mark ii. 18, &c. From the former Evangelists, it seems that the disciples of John asked this.

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