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ed; before which an incal- inftituted. By these dreadful Culable number of innocent tribunals, all persons in and: pious Chriftiar s were France, who would not worcondemned as heretics, and fhip the image of her deity, ordered to be executed ; and Liberty, and support her that the terror of their pu- atheistical authority with nishment might operate as

their lives and fortunes, were an example towards the adjudged, not as hereties incobiversion of others, the deed, but fanaties and moderés, means of the most lingering and ordered to be put to death, and agonizing death were without a trial. And to fixed on. By this method render their punishment a opposition to her blasphe- terrible example to others, mous authority has been novel and unusual instruconstantly prevented; and ments of death were inventher people, intimidated, have ed, and contrived to dispatch continued in the faith of her as many lives as possible, idolatrous fuperftition. within the shortest time.

Such were the guillotine, the
national bath, and the can-
non. Innocent men, wo-
men, and children, snatched
from their firefides without
notice, have, in this cruel
manner, been mowed down
in an hour, as grass before
the scythe, to an incredible
amount : and by these dread-
ful measures, the people of
France have been deter red
from returning from a state
of anarchy and misery, to
their former fubordination,
order, and peace ; nay, coin-
pelled to unite in the fup-
port of her power.


Such then are the powers and policy which have been " exercifed by the church of Rome, and such " those which have been exercised by that republic F before that church, and in its fight." The ana logy is Itronger than one would think the nature of

things would admit. Indeed, I could show as great a fimilitude between them in many other in stances, but the fear of prolixity forbids it; and surely enough has been said to prove, that the republic could not have conformed more exactly to the policy of the church of Rome, if she had made it the pattern of her wicked ambition, of which, indeed, from all the circumstances, there is a strong probability; and that in this policy thus " exercised” by the republic, the truth of this part of the text ftands clearly fulfilled.

One word more, before I leave this mark of the beast of the earth. He is to exercise the power of the first-mentioned beast before him, or “ in his "fight*." Now, when we say, an act was done « before, or in the fight" of a man, it may imply, that it was done to his prejudice, and that he did not take any pains to prevent it: this was literally the case of the Pope. He saw the republic exercise the fame fraudulent, coercive, and blafphemous measures, which he had done before. He saw his wealth seized, his priests murdered or banished, and millions of his devotees converted to atheism, and loft to all faith in his infallibility and idolatry : and yet, to prevent these remarkable acts of injury to his power, he remained, as it were, an inactive, ftupid fpeétator,

This conduct in the Papal church reminds me of the heathen maxim (for heathens who believe in God can be the authors of truth), “ Quos Deus vult

perdere, prius dementat." " To those who wan" tonly refuse the instructions of his revealed word, “ and even presume to blafpheme his holy name, “God fends a ftrong delufion;" that is, he leaves

* Ver. 14.

+ 2 Thess. ii. II. N 3



them fimply to their fallen, frantic nature, by righteously withholding from them his gracious mercies. Indeed it seems to have been the divine will, that the power of the church of Rome should be destroyed by the fame kind of fraudulent policy and force, by which the had been established, and by which she had done so much mischief in the world; and moreover, that she should be made sensible of this rule of divine justice, “ Nec lex eft juftior alla,

quam necis artifices arte perire fua.,“Nor is there

a more perfect rule of justice, than that he who “ contrives the means of destruction, should perish $. himself by the same means :” or, to quote a higher authority, "If any man will hurt them (oppose his « divine will), he muft, in the fame manner, bę “ killed * ;" “ that he that leadeth into captivity 66 Thall go into

into captivity; and that he that killeth 66 with the sword must be killed with the sword uf."

Ver. 12. (continued).--" And causeth the " earth, and them that dwell therein, to wor,

ship the first beast, whose deadly wound was 66 healed.

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The prophet, having told us, that the republic should exercise all the fraudulent arts and powers of Papal Rome, points out in the same verte another remarkable feature of thie former, which is, that she “ Thall cause the earth (the French nation), and " them that dwell therein (even the people of fo“ reign nations residing therein), to worship the « beast, whose deadly wound was healed(or pagan and imperial Rome). This beast, commentators are generally agreed, is a type of Rome in,;

its pagan ftate; and in this sentiment I concur, al.

* Chap: xi.

Chap. xiii. 10.


though for different reasons. · However, it only then remains to show, in what manner the French republic has caused the people of France, to worship and venerate the policy and customs of ancient Rome.

The profession of a high sense and veneration of human liberty, was fingularly characteristic of the Roman republic. Liberty was her political god, by whose dictates the pretended to regulate her conduct. She held all other nations as barbarians, ignorant of their rights, and oppressed by tyrants. Her common pretexts for making war on them, were to relieve them from oppreffion, to civilize and give them liberty. And yet, with these fair professions in their mouths, the Roman leaders were in their hearts, a fociety of tyrants and robbers. Instead of conferring upon the conquered nations the promised civilization and liberty, their temples were robbed, their public treasures' seized upon; and after being plundered of all that was valuable, and that plunder carried to Rome, heavy contributions and exactions were superadded ; and ever after reduced to the Roman yoke, the oppreffive governments of her generals and lieutenants, completed the scene of calamity.

Now, upon weighing the conduct of the French Tepublic, we shall find, that she has trod in the very steps of pagan Rome. She set out with proclaiming to mankind the excellence of liberty, and the perfect equality of all men. She has declared that all men are “ ignorant of their rights,” and therefore barbarians; that all kings being tyrants, eternal hatred and vengeance Thould be sworn against them. She has announced her commission from “ Heaven, to reform the world, oppressed by the

kings of the earth;” and that she will give liberty to mankind, by fraternizing them into her plan of


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liberty and equality. Under this fpecious pretext, she has made war upon the nations of the four quarters of the world. But instead of giving to those The has conquered the promised liberty, and equality, and freedom from oppression, she has, in imitation of the policy of pagan Rome, robbed their churches, seized upon their public treasures, plun: dered the people of all that was valuable, laid them under the most distressing contributions, and carried her spoil to Paris. And although she has pretended to institute several independent republics, yet the }ias, in every instance, taken care to subject them to her own power, under a military despotism,

And it is not in her civil polity only that she has

worshipped,” or imitated the customs of the Romans. She has paid particular respect to their religious, rites. The Romans had their Dii major rum ek minorum gentium. In the firft class they placed Jupiter or Thunder, Juno or Riches, Minerva or Wisdom, &c, &c. : in the other, dead men, whom they had deified; as Hercules, Faunus, Evander, Romulus, &c. &c. So the republic has constituted greater and lefser deities of the first kind are Liberly, the Country, the Constitution, and Reafon ; of the second, are Voltaire, Rousseau, Mirabeau : and that they might surpass pagan Rome in sin against the God of heaven, they have added to the facrilegious catalogue that affallin Ankerstrom, whom they employed to murder the King of Sweden.

The Romans not only deified dead men, but the virtues ; as Honour, Peace, Plenty, Safety, Hope, &c. So the republic has deified - les Vertus, namely, le Genie, le Travaile, l'Opinion, et les Recompenses Genius, Labour, Opinion, and Rewards; and, resolving to excel her pattern, she has ordered the churches in Paris to be named after the human appetites.


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