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shew his wrath and make his power known, endured with much long-suffering the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction and that he might make known the riches of his glory on the vessels of mercy, which he had afore prepared unto glory." Here it is evident the last verse comes in, in connection with the foregoing, as giving another reason of the destruction of the wicked, viz. shewing the riches of his glory on the vessels of mercy: higher degrees of their glory and happiness, in a relish of their own enjoyments, and a greater sense of their value, and of God's free grace in bestowing them.
7. It seems to argue, that God's goodness to them who are to be the eternal subjects of his goodness is the end of the creation; since the whole creation, in all its parts, is spoken of as THEIRS. 1 Cor. iii. 22, 23. "All things are yours, whether Paul, or Apollos, or Cephas, or the world, or life, or death, or things present, or things to come, all are yours.' The terms are very universal; and both works of creation and providence are mentioned; and it is manifestly the design of the apostle to be understood of every work of God whatsoever. Now, how can we understand this any otherwise, than that all things are for their benefit; and that God made and uses all for their good?
8. All God's works, both of creation and providence, are represented as works of goodness or mercy to his people; as in the 136th psalm. His wonderful works in general. verse 4. "To him who alone doth great wonders; for his mercy endureth for ever." The works of creation in all its parts." Ver. 5-9. "To him that by wisdom made the heavens; for his mercy endureth for ever. To him that stretched out the earth above the waters; for his mercy endureth for ever. To him that made great lights; for his mercy endureth for ever. The sun to rule by day; for his mercy endureth for ever. The moon and stars to rule by night; for his mercy endureth for ever." And God's works of providence, in the following part of the psalm.
9. That expression in the blessed sentence pronounced on the righteous at the day of judgment. "Inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world," seems to hold forth thus much, that the fruits of God's goodness to them was his end in creating the world, and in his providential disposals that God in all his works, in laying the foundation of the world, and ever since the foundation of it, had been preparing this kingdom and glory for them.
10. Agreeable to this, the good of men is spoken of as an ultimate end of the virtue of the moral world. Rom. xiii. 8, 9, 10. "He that loveth another hath fulfilled the law. For this, Thou shalt not commit adultery, Thou shalt not kill, &c.-And if there be any other commandment, it is briefly com
prehended in this saying, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself. Love worketh no ill to his neighbour; therefore love is the fulfilling of the law." Gal. v. 14. "All the law is fulfilled in one word, even in this, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself." Jam. ii. 8. "If ye fulfil the royal law, according to the scripture, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself, thou shalt do well."
If the good of the creature be one end of God in all he does; and in all he requires moral agents to do; an end by which they should regulate all their conduct; these things may be easily explained: but otherwise, it seems difficult to be accounted for, that the Holy Ghost should thus express himself. The scripture represents it to be the spirit of all true saints, to prefer the welfare of God's people to their chief joy. This was the spirit of Moses and the prophets of old: the good of God's church was an end by which they regulated all their conduct. And so it was with the apostles. 2 Cor. iv. 15. "For all things are for your sakes." 2 Tim. ii. 10. “I endure all things for the elects' sake, that they may also obtain the salvation which is in Christ Jesus, with eternal glory." And the scriptures represent it, as though every christian should, in all he does, be employed for the good of the church, as each particular member is employed for the good of the body. Rom. xii. 4, 5, &c. Eph. iv. 15, 16. 1 Cor. xii. 12, 25, &c. To this end, the scripture teaches us, the angels are continually employed. Heb. i. 14.
Wherein is considered what is meant by the Glory of God, and the Name of God in Scripture, when spoken of as God's end in his Works.
Having thus considered what are spoken of in the holy scriptures, as the ends which God had ultimately in view in the creation of the world, I now proceed particularly to enquire what they are, and how the terms are to be understood?
1. Let us begin with the phrase, the GLORY of God.— And here I might observe, that it is sometimes used to signify the second person in the Trinity; but it is not necessary, at this time, to prove it from particular passages of scripture. Omiting this, I proceed to observe some things concerning the Hebrew word (2) which is most commonly used in the Old Testament, where we have the word glory in the English Bible. The root it comes from, is either the verb (2), which signifies to be heavy, or make heavy, or from the adjective (2) which signifies heavy or weighty. These, as seems pretty
manifest, are the primary signification of these words, though they have also other meanings, which seem to be derivative. The noun (1) signifies gravity, heaviness, greatness, and abundance. Of very many places it will be sufficient to specify a few. Prov. xxvii. 3. 2 Sam. xiv. 26. 1 Kings xii. 11. Psal. xxxviii. 4. Isa. xxx. 27. And as the weight of bodies arises from two things, density, and magnitude; so we find the word used to signify dense, Exod. xix. 16. (727 139 nubes gravis, Vulg. densissima) a dense cloud; and is very often used for great. Isa. xxxii. 2. Gen. v. 9. 1 Kings x. 2. 2 Kings vi. 14. and xviii. 17; Isa. xxxvi. 2. &c.
The Hebrew word () which is commonly translated glory, is used in such a manner as might be expected from this signification of the words from whence it comes. Sometimes it is used to signify what is internal, inherent, or in the posses sion of the person: and sometimes for emanation, exhibition, or communication of this internal glory and sometimes for the knowledge, or sense of these, in those to whom the exhibition or communication is made; or an expression of this knowledge, sense, or effect. And here I would note, that agreeable to the use of this word in the Old Testament, is the Greek word (doğa) in the New. For as the word () is generally translated by the just mentioned Greek word (ga) in the septuagint; so it is apparent, that this word is designed to be used to signify the same thing in the New Testament with the other in the Old. This might be abundantly proved, by comparing particular places of the Old Testament; but propably it will not be denied. I therefore proceed particularly to consider these words, with regard to their use in scripture, in each of the fore-mentioned ways.
1. The word glory denotes sometimes what is internal: When the word is used to signify what is within, or in the possession of the subject, it very commonly signifies excellency, dignity, or worthiness of regard. This, according to the Hebrew idiom, is as it were, the weight of a thing, as that by which it is heavy; as to be light, is to be worthless, without value, contemptible. Numb. xxi. 5. "This light bread." 1 Sam. xviii. 23. "Seemeth it a light thing. Judg. ix. 4. "Light persons," i. e. worthless, vain, vile persons. So Zeph. iii. 4. To set light by is to despise. 2 Sam. xix. 43. Belshaz zar's vileness in the sight of God, is represented by his being Tekel, weighed in the balances and found light, Dan. v. 27. And as the weight of a thing arises from its magnitude, and its specific gravity conjunctly; so the word glory is very commonly used to signify the excellency of a person or thing, as consisting either in greatness, or in beauty, or in both conjunctly; as
will abundantly appear by considering the places referred to in the margin.*
Sometimes that internal, great and excellent good, which is called glory, is rather in possession, than inherent. Any one may be called heavy, that possesses an abundance; and he that is empty and destitute, may be called light. Thus we find riches are sometimes called glory. Gen. xxxi. 1. "And of that which was our fathers' hath he gotten all this glory." Esth. v. 11. "Haman told them of the glory of his riches." Psal. xlix. 16, 17. "Be not afraid when one is made rich, when the glory of his house is increased. For when he dieth he shall carry nothing away, his glory shall not descend after him." Nah. ii. 9. Take ye the spoil of silver, take the spoil of gold; for there is none end of the store and glory out of the pleasant furniture."
And it is often put for a great height of prosperity, and fulness of good in general. Gen. xlv. 13. "You shall tell my father of all my glory in Egypt." Job xix. 9. "He hath stripped me of my glory." Isa. x. 3. "Where will you leave your glory." Ver. 16. "Therefore shall the Lord of hosts send among his fat ones leanness, and under his glory shall he kindle a burning, like the burning of a fire." Isa. xvii. 3, 4. "The kingdom shall cease from Damascus, and the remnant of Syria; they shall be as the glory of the children of Israel. And in that day, it shall come to pass, that the glory of Jacob shall be made thin, and the fatness of his flesh shall be made lean." Isa. xxi. 16. "And all the glory of Kedar shall fail." Isa. lxi. 6. "Ye shall eat the riches of the Gentiles, and in their glory shall ye boasts yourselves." Chap. lxvi. 11, 12. "That ye may milk out, and be delighted with the abundance of her glory.—I will extend peace to her like a river, and the glory of the Gentiles like a flowing stream." Hos. ix. 11. " As for Ephraim, their glory shall fly away as a bird." Matth. iv. 8. "Sheweth him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them." Luke xxiv. 26. "Ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and to enter into his glory?" John xvii. 22. “And the glory which thou gavest me, have I given them." Rom. v. 2. "And rejoice in hope of the glory of God." Chap. viii. 18. "The sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us." (See also chap. ii. 7, 10. and iii. 23. and ix. 23.) 1 Cor. ii. 7. "The hidden wisdom
* Exod. xvi. 7. and xxviii. 2, 40, and iii. 8. Numb. xvi. 19. Deut. v. 24. and xxviii. 58. 2 Sam. vi. 20. 1 Chron. xvi. 24. Esth. i. 4. Job xxix. 20. Psal. xix. 1. and xlv. 13. and Ixiii. 3. and lxvi. 3. and lxvii. 6. and lxxxvii. 3. and cii. 16. and cxlv. 5, 12, 13. Isa. iv. 2. and x. 18. and xvi. 40. and xxxv. 21. and xl. 5, and lx. 13. and lxii. 2. Ezek. xxxi. 18. Hab. ii. 14. Hag. ii. 3, 9. Matt. vi. 29. and xvi. 27. and xxiv. 30. Luke ix. 31, 32. John i. 14. an 11. and xi. 40. Rom. vi. 4. 1 Cor. ii. 8. and xv. 40 2 Cor. iii. 10. Eph. iii, 21. Col. i. 11. 2 Thess. i. 9. Tit. ii. 13. 1 Pet. i. 24. 2 Pet. i. 17.
GOD'S CHIEF END IN CREATION.
which God ordained before the world, unto our glory." 2 Cor. iv. 17.-" Worketh out for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory." Eph. i. 18. "And what the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints." 1 Pet. iv. 13. "But rejoice, inasmuch as ye are made partakers of Christ's sufferings; that when his glory shall be revealed, ye may be glad also with exceeding joy." Chap. i. 8. "Ye rejoice, with joy unspeakable and full of glory.”*
2. The word glory is used in scripture often to express the exhibition, emanation, or communication of the internal glory. Hence it often signifies an effulgence, or shining brightness, by an emanation of beams of light. Thus the brightness of the sun, and moon, and stars, is called their glory. in I Cor. xv. 41. But in particular, the word is very often thus used, when applied to God and Christ. As in Ezek. i. 28. "As the appearance of the bow that is in the cloud in the day of rain, so was the appearance of the brightness round about. This was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the Lord." And chap. x. 4. "Then the glory of the Lord went up from the cherub, and stood over the threshold of the house, and the house was filled with the cloud, and the court was full of the brightness of the Lord's glory." Isa. vi. 1, 2, 3. "I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up, and his train filled the temple. Above it stood the seraphimAnd one cried to another, and said, "Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts, the whole earth is full of his glory." Compared with John xii. 41. "These things said Esaias, when he saw his glory and spake of him." Ezek. xliii. 2. "And behold the glory of the God of Israel came from the way of the east.And the earth shined with his glory." Isa. xxiv. 23. "Then the moon shall be confounded, and the sun ashamed, when the Lord of hosts shall reign in mount Zion, and in Jerusalem, and before his ancients gloriously." Isa. lx. 1,2. "Arise, shine, for thy light is come, and the glory of the Lord is risen upon thee. For behold the darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness the people; but the Lord shall arise upon thee, and his glory shall be seen upon thee." Together with verse 19."The sun shall be no more thy light by day, neither for brightness shall the moon give light unto thee: but the Lord shall be unto thee an everlasting light, and thy God thy glory." Luke ii. 9. "The glory of the Lord shone round about them." Acts xxii. 11. "And when I could not see for the glory of that light." In 2 Cor. iii. 7. the shining of Moses's face is called the glory of his countenance. And to this Christ's glory is compared, verse 18. "But we all with open face, beholding as in
*See also, Colos. i. 27. and iii. 4. 1 Thes. ii. 12. 2 Thes. ii. 14. 1 Tim. iii. 16. 2 Tim. ii. 10. Heb. ii. 10. 1 Pet. i. 11, 21. and v. 10. 2 Pet. i. 3. Rev. xxi. 24, 26. Psal. Ixxiii. 24, and cxlix. 5. Isa, xi. 10.