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the assembly of such city to that of the province, and from that of the province to the National Asşembly.' Thus by this mode of rotation, the Deputies of the National Assembly may exhibit to the Sovereign all his subjects in succession, just as the Earth présents to the Sun all the parts of her circumference.
S. I here proceed on the supposition that the as-semblies of the villages, of the cities and of the provinces, shall take place all over the kingdom, that they shall be at once permanent and periodi: cal, in other words, that they shall be every year renovated in a third part of their members, and that the same rule shall be applied to the National Assembly, which ought to be the centre of all those, assemblies : for there should exist complete harmony in all the parts of the State. To grant permanency to the assemblies of villages, of cities and provinces, and to withhold it from the National Assembly, would be the same thing as in a watch whose minute, middling and great wheels are all in motion, to withdraw the main spring.
From this permanency of the National Assembly the result will be, that no one aristocratical body will have it in it's power henceforward to interpose itself between the King and the Nation, and that from the periodical rotation of it's members, it will not be possible for itself to degenerate into an aristocratic juntó. As the King possesses of right the executive power, no law could pass in it but what had received the sanction of his authority; and as he has likewise the moderating power, this Assembly being composed of two powers which have opi Vot. IV.
posite interests, he will always possess the power of maintaining the equilibrium of it. Neither therefore by it's operations, nor hy it's duration, would it be able to make any encroachment whatever on the Royal authority. : It may be further alleged, that it alone can faci. litate the operations of a good Government; and, by it alone the interests of the King and of the People, which are one and the same, can be found in perfect' union. The King, in committing to the Deputies of the Commons the power of defending the interests of the People, commits to them at the same time that of defending the interests of royalty, which differ in nothing from the prosperity of the People themselves, and should there happen, as in times past, any disorder in Administration, the People could not accuse the King of it, who has given them the perpetual power of watching it's motions and of proposing ito him the proper remedies
May this order so simple, so natural and so just, be admitted into all the Governments in the World, for the happiness of the Nations and of their Princes ! The tastes, the manners, the fashions, the discords and the wars of one kingdom communicate themselves to another. Wherefore might there not be a mutual intercommunication of concord and good Laws? May Louis XVI. then receive for ever the applause which he shall merit for it from his own People! May be obtain it from the gratitude of all Nations, and fulfil the glorious device transmitted to him from his ancestors, but which he alone shall have deserved to wear; a Sun illuminating various Worlds, with this inscripfion : "Sufficient for many,” Nec pluribus impar.
WISHES FOR THE CLERGY.
IT were most devoutly to be wished that the Clergy had never separated their interests from those of the People. However well endowed the Clergy of a State may be, the ruin of the People speedily involves theirs likewise. The example of the Greeks of Constantinople is a proof of this, whose Patriarchs intermeddled in the functions of the Emperors, and the Emperors in those of the Patriarchs. The People, drained by their Clergy and by their Princes, who had seized every species of property, even that of opinion, lost all sense of patriotism: What do I say ? During the siege which terminated in giving the Turks possession of Constantinople, this was the general cry, “ would rather see turbans among us than a car6 dinal's hat:" I must here observe that the religion of a State is not always it's firmest support, as has been so frequently advanced; for the Greek Empire of Constantinople fell, and it's Religion remained. The same thing happened to the Kingdom of Jerusalem. On the other hand, many religions have changed in different States, the Gavernments of which has continued to subsist: Such were the ancient religions of several Kingdoms of Europe, of Asia and of Africa, to which have succeeded the Christian and Mahometan Religions, whereas
of those States have not so much as changed a dynasty. The happiness of the People is the only immoveable basis of the happiness of Empires, it is likewise that of the happiness of their Clergy. The Greek Clergy of ConstantiS 2
nople is reduced, under the Turks, to live on alms, in the very places where they once had the power, under their national Princes, to rear the superb Temples in which at this day the religion of an enemy triumphs. An ambitious Clergy impoverishes it's People, and an impoverished People sooner or later renders it's Clergy miserable. * Not only is the Clergyman united to the People by the bond of interest, but by that of duty. He is the national advocate of the miserable, and obliged to relieve them out of his own superfluity. Most part of the property of the Church' has been bequeathed, expressly under those conditions | I could have wished therefore that the superior Clergy had been at the head of their flocks to defend their interests, as in the ancient times of our Monarchy, during which' the People themselves elected their own Pastorst expressly for this purpose. But since those ancient forms so respectable in themselves have changed, even in a body of men so tenacious of their conservation, I wish at least that the Clergy would instil into the National Assembly the evangelical máxims which it is their business to announce in our Churches. I do not speak of the penny paid to Cesar by St. Peter, in obedience to Jesus Christ himself; for I will observe on this occasion, from the question put by Jesus to Peter, and his answer, that it was not customary among the Romans to exact tribute of citizens but of strangers. It is clear indeed from History that the Roman People, so far from paying imposts, was frequently supported by largesses of corn, and the tribute of the conquered Provinces.
Among the Turks, the carach or 'tribute is paid only by the Greeks. . This custom appears to me to have been generally prevalent over Asia. Jesus Christ seems to extend it to all the Kingdoms of the World, as founded on natural justice. The question after all perhaps referred to personal, and not to territorial imposts. Be this as it may, seeing that from one abuse to another the financial Government has with us succeeded to the feudal,' it is now impossible to meet the exigencies of the State without levying contributions on all it's members. The greatest part of our Clergy has sacrificed in this respect their ancient prerogatives in a very generous manner: nevertheless the interest of truth obliges me to add, that they have likewise in this only done an act of justice, as a great deal of property was formerly conferred on them by the State, as well as on the Nobility, to the burthening of even the military service.
But the People at this day demands of them other contributions, to a considerable extent, of property bequeathed to them by individuals, for the benefit of the still more sacred service, that of the miserable. In this undoubtedly must be comprehended many of the rich Ecclesiastical Commendams, once destined to the relief of the leprous, and of wretches shut up in Hospitals. Let the Clergy then transfuse themselves into this Law of Nature, which is the basis, and the ultimate object of the Gospel ; of that Law which is the source of every virtue, of justice, charity, humanity, patriotism, concord, beneficence, politeness, and of every thing which renders man amiablé, s