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only following apostolic precedent. St. John wrote, “Howbeit • when he, the spirit of truth. . . . He shall glorify me' (orav δε έλθη εκείνος, το Πνεύμα της αληθείας ... εκείνος έμε

, dotáoel, John xiv. 14). This affords a perfect vindication of the rendering, “The Spirit himself (aútò IIveüra) beareth ' witness with our spirits' (Rom. viii. 16), and · Grieve not the * Holy Spirit of God, in whom ye were sealed' (Eph. iv. 30). Again, in another case, 1 Cor. xi. 27, the deliberate correction, Whosoever shall eat this bread or drink this cup, inserted by Protestant translators, shows, what is evident throughout the work, that the faults of this version are simply the faults of over-refinement in grammatical points. These scholars have the weaknesses of scholars, but they are far removed from the meanness of dishonest interpreters, SoloûvTES τον λόγον του Θεού.

In employing · Hades' to designate the place of the departed, the revisers have ventured upon a bold experiment which deserves to succeed. We shall be spared the sense of incongruity when we read concerning Christ, • Thou didst not leave his soul in Hades,' which formerly oppressed us on hearing the old version in hell;' and in Rev. i. 18, • I have the keys

of Death and of Hades,' is more majestic and accurate than the old rendering, which invested the Lord of Life with the functions of the keeper of the dread prison-house in the apprehension of the unlearned. There is one expression we are surprised to find unaltered, as we have always felt it to be a blot upon Tyndale's translation. Why un yévolto should be translated God forbid' is incomprehensible, especially as the occurrence of such an expression in arguments conducted by a pious Jew with his compatriots, who were all zealous for the law, is far more likely to convey a misleading idea to the minds of Englishmen than if they read of a deputy' where they ought to find a 'proconsul' (Acts xviii. 12), or, in accordance with the authority of Greek commentators, picture St. Paul as confined in the palace,' instead of in the barracks, of the • whole prætorian guard' (Phil

. i. 13). _The Greek expression is not so difficult to put into idiomatic English as to require a deus ex machina for its efficient translation.

It is at once a relief and a satisfaction to turn to the substantial benefits conferred on English-speaking people by this Revised Version. Our strictures are made in sorrow and with a keen sense of disappointment that the eminent scholarship and unparalleled assiduity of the New Testament Company of Revisers have been obscured and imperilled by their overdevotion to the mint, anise, and cummin of their task. We

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are anxious, therefore, to mark with emphasis the distinct advance made by this version over all its predecessors. It carefully renders cognate terms, and by skilfully apportioning the place to miracles and signs, for instance, it brings out the distinguishing trait in St. John's treatment of Christ's works. The Apocalypse is certainly improved by the distinction between the beast' (onplov) and the living creatures (fwa). It has endeavoured to restore to their proper place the equivalents for such exceedingly difficult words as é covoia, δύναμις, ισχύς, κράτος, and αρχή, which not only present original differences of meaning, but are liable to reflect the colour of the context, and therefore to test the ingenuity of the translators. We give an example of each word: John i. 12, * the right to become,' not power; Mark v. 30, the power

‘' proceeding fronı him,' not ' virtue ; ' 2 Thess. i. 9,' the glory • of his might, not power; ' Col. i. 11, “the might of his

glory,' not his glorious power;' Jude 6, angels which ' kept not their principality, not 'first estate. They also endeavour to discriminate between the various Greek words for see,' which are no less than thirteen in the Old Version; * look,' which are eight, including four translated ‘see;' and

behold,' which are twelve, and include nine translated 'look' and see.' Where the English idiom admits, a distinction is established between ειμί and γίνομαι; and though this may be carried too far, the gain in many places is undoubtedly great. The care expended upon the rendering of moods, tenses, and articles_is more than any version has ever professed to bestow. In some cases the English has been sacrificed to the Greek, as John xvii. 24, that which thou hast given me, I will that, where I am, they also may be with me;' and Rev. xi. 17, “We give thee thanks, O Lord God, the Almighty, which art and which wast, because thou hast • taken thy great power, and didst reign'—which in both cases exactly reproduces the Greek, but furnishes us with extraordinary English.

These passages, also, are literally and awkwardly translated :

Behold, I give of the synagogue of Satan, of them which say they are Jews and are not, but do lie; behold, I will make them to come.Rev. ii. 9.

Them that come victorious from the beast, and from his image, and from the number of his name.Rev, xv. 2.

But now hath he obtained a ministry the more excellent, by how much more also he is the mediator of a better covenant, which hath been enacted upon better promises.--Heb. viii. 6.

For you which believe is the preciousness.- 1 Peter ii. 7.

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It will also be a matter of discussion whether the strict rendering of the Hellenistic aorist by the English preterite has not been excessively adopted; but, subtracting from the version all these drawbacks, there remains, especially in the Pauline epistles, a very valuable contribution to our knowledge of the New Testament. A few verbal improvements are obvious : • They have received their reward' (Matt. vi. 15) brings out the meaning more clearly ; the lamp of the body is the eye' (Matt. vi. 22) enables us to realise the metaphor ; ' our lamps are going out' (Matt. xxv. 8) is more vivid ; “the fruit is ripe' (Mark iv. 29) is more idiomatic; 'guilty of eternal sin ’ (Mark iii. 29) is the result of a truer reading; ' arrayed ' in a white robe' (Mark xvi. 5) is more in keeping with the context; 'this was the first enrolment made when Quirinius' (Luke ü. 2) furnishes a clearer note of chronology; "and Jesus himself when he began to teach was about thirty years • of age' (Luke iii. 23) brings out the force of the original; • there shall be one flock, one shepherd' (John X. 16), and

during supper' (John xiii. 2), were required by the Greek ; so that there may come' (ottws âv) (Acts xii, 19) removes a serious error of the Authorised Version, which many have attributed to theological bias; "those that were being saved' (Acts ii. 47) renders similar service, as will the insertion of

bishops ' for overseers’ (Acts xx. 28), and · in the name of *Jesus' (Phil. i. 17). In your patience ye shall win your • souls' (Luke xxi. 19), only required the majority to have yielded to the minority and inserted lives,' and the meaning would have been clear. The same result would have followed had the same alteration taken place in Heb. vii. 6, and ' seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God,' would have been displaced by the while they crucify,' &c. The craft of the unrighteous steward is more evident now that he tells his lord's debtors to take their · bond' and sit down quickly; and the simple addition of the pronoun, ‘his lord commendeth the

unrighteous steward,' will prevent much misconception. The insertion of • daughter’in 1 Cor. vii. 36, is a gain to morality, and the verse would have been still clearer had it concluded, let her and her suitor marry,' the supplied words being italicised; and the large letters' (in Gal. vi. 11) suggest the probable infirmitybecause of which (Gal. iv. 14) the apostle first preached the Gospel to the Galatians, while the last verse affords a striking example of the fervent manner

of him who 'bore branded on his body the marks of Jesus. But we cannot attempt to trace the improvements effected by the removal of archaisms, the uniform rendering of proper names, the cor

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rection of mistranslation, and even the altered punctuation that breaks up some of St. Paul's involved sentences. We must, however, pause on the decided advantage of the uniform rendering of aióvios. It is well known what barbarisms are suggested as equivalents for this adjective; but by resolutely adhering to 'eternal, all such unsatisfactory words as 'age

long' and 'æonian’ are avoided; while by rendering po xpóvwv aiwviwv before times eternal' we have a phrase worthy

a of the Authorised Version in its happiest moments.

There are certain difficult passages in our version to which we turn almost instinctively to see how they are rendered. In the celebrated speech of Paul at Athens, the exordium presents

such difficulty. Our revisers render “Ye men of Athens, * in all things I perceive ye are somewhat superstitious (Acts xvii. 23)—a rendering which will not remove the objection that no one with the Apostle's tact would be likely to adopt such an opening. The advocates for any change here would most likely be dissatisfied with every alteration that left that objection unmet, and would maintain that the only alteration worthy of the occasion would be in the direction

of are excessive in religious reverence.' In Acts xix. 2, a thoroughly satisfactory and grammatical alteration is effected. We now read, 'Did ye receive the Holy Ghost when ye be• lieved ? ' and they said unto him, “Nay, we did not so much

as hear whether the Holy Ghost was given. In a more famous passage one rendering we think unidiomatic (Acts xxvi. 24): • Paul, thou art mad; thy much learning doth * turn thee to madness ; ' but in Agrippa's reply (v. 28), With .but little persuasion thou wouldest fain make me a Christian, we believe a very difficult passage has been very efficiently rendered. In Gal. iv. 17, we have another good rendering instead of a weak passage in the Authorised Version : They

• * zealously seek you in no good way; nay, they desire to shut you out, that ye may seek them. But it is good to be zealously sought in a good matter at all times.' This combines the excellent points in many suggested improvements, and gives a good sense to the ordinary reader. The Epistle to the Philippians contains a passage in which the conflicting emotions of the writer's mind are but slightly reflected in our version, which lacks life in this case. The Revised Version cannot be said to labour under this defect, for it now runs, • For me to live is Christ, and to die is gain. But if to live in the flesh-if this is the fruit of my work, then what I shall choose, I wot not '(Phil. i. 22). In the same epistle we have another passage that taxes the skill of a translator, and the rare

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word sprayuós renders this enigmatical passage still more difficult. There are two distinct lines of interpretation, both ancient, both avoiding one part of the objections and falling under the condemnation of the remainder, that make Phil. ii. 4-7 a place where no certainty can be demanded. The weight of modern interpretation inclines to the line adopted by the revisers-reviving the most ancient view, and one that seems on the whole to best agree with the context and the instinct of Greek-speaking Christians-so that 'counted it not a prize—a

a thing to be grasped at—to be on an equality with God,' puts the English reader in possession of the results of the most recent scholarship. In the Epistle to the Colossians we have several such obscure passages, beginning with i. 19, where the revisers have practically maintained the meaning of the Authorised Version and remained true to the interpretation represented by the ancient versions and the bulk of modern expositors. A few verses further on (ii. 15) there is another of these passages on which much learning has been expended, but which is now translated in accordance with St. Paul's own usage of απεκδυσάμενος, having put off from himself the principalities • and powers,' which is better than the marginal alternative, ' having put off from himself his body,' a rendering that was much affected by the Latin fathers. The conclusion of the chapter furnishes a very intelligible meaning, but it may be doubted whether the translation is not too perspicuous. We owe the chief improvements here to Bishop Lightfoot, who has defended the adopted rendering by apposite quotations, especially from Galen. If this can be permanently maintained, he will have the honour of clearing up a most obscure passage, which we quote entire--Col. ii. 20–24. Revised Version.

Authorised Version. If ye died with Christ from the Wherefore if ye be dead with rudiments of the world, why, as Christ from the rudiments of the though living in the world, do ye world, why, as though living in subject yourselves to ordinances, the world, are ye subject to ordiHandle not, nor taste, nor touch nances, (all which things are to perish (Touch not; taste not ; handle with the using), after the precepts not; and doctrines of men ? Which Which all are to perish with the things hare indeed a show of wise using;) after the conimandments dom in will-worship, and humility, and doctrines of men ? and severity to the body; but are Which things have indeed a not of any value against the in- shew of wisdom in will worship, dulgence of the flesh.

and humility, and neglecting of the body; not in any honour to the satisfying of the flesh.

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