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yet too sorely at the indignities to which he had been compelled to submit by the haughty and obdurate Becket, to be willing to confer so much authority on one who scarcely yielded in inflexibility to that proud prelate. He had also other reasons for his refusal, and owned to his more confidential servants that he so thought it not safe to place a person so nearly related to Prince Rhys, and to almost all the nobility of Wales, at the head of the See of St. David's; and that the pride and pretensions of the Welsh would be heightened by the promotion of so able, worthy, and resolute a man.'

Every attempt to persuade the King to accede to his election proving vain, Giraldus returned to Paris, where he acquired “ prodigious fame” by his eloquent declamations in the schools, and having remained about three years, he came back to England. On his way through Canterbury, he dined with the prior and monks of Christ Church in that city by invitation; and in describing his entertainment, he inveighed with much severity against their luxurious manner of living : “ their tables," he observes, “ abounded with numerous and savoury dishes, and with such a variety of the choicest wines, that ale and beer were not allowed to be introduced." Proceeding to St. David's, he found that diocese in great confusion, through some disputes between the Bishop, Peter de Leia, and the Welsh : and on the advice of the Archbishop, he was appointed administrator of that Church, and managed its concerns for a considerable time with much prudence and success. He was afterwards invited to court, and deputed as a pacificator to Wales, in which situation his conduct so highly pleased the King, that he declared that “If Giraldus had not been born in Wales, and so nearly allied to its Princes and Chieftains, he would have loaded him with ecclesiastical benefices, and preferred him to the highest honours." In 1185, IIenry appointed him preceptor to his son John, whom in the same year he accompanied to Ireland as secretary, and who successively offered him the Bishoprics of Fernes and Leighlin, and the Archbishopric of Cashel, all which he refused, from a latent hope of obtaining .the See of St. David. Whilst in Ireland he was extremely assiduous in collecting materials for his two works “ De Topographia Hibernia” and “ De expugnatione Hibernie;" several copies of which still exist in manuscript in our different libraries.

The most busy period of his life was now approaching. King Henry with many of his nobility had assumed the badge of the cross, and were preparing to engage in the grand Crusade against the infidels that was then convulsing the European world to its centre. Baldwin, Archbishop of Canterbury was deputed to preach the “ holy mission" in Wales, and was attended by Ranulphus de Glanville, Chief Justiciary of the Realm.. At Radnor, they were met by Rhys ap Gruffydh, and many illustrious chieftains of the country to whom and to the surrounding multitude the Archbishop explained the object of his journey. Giraldus was the first person that inlisted under the consecrated banners, and his example was followed by Bishop Peter de Leia and many others. His powerful oratory was also of great use in promoting the endeavours of Baldwin, whom he accompanied throughont his whole journey, the records of which are contained in the Itinerary now before us. His enthusiastic fervour made so many converts, that King John is said to have bitterly reproached him for “ draining his county of Pembroke of men, by persuading such numbers to take ile cross, and repair to the Holy Land.”-But "although thus zealous and successful,' says Sir Richard, “in preaching the cause of the Crusade; yet on the death of King Henry, at whese instance he had taken the cross, he applied to the Cardinal Legate, John of Anagni, on behalf of himself and Peter de Leia, Bishop of St. David's, for absolution from the vows which cach had made to go to the Holy Land; and which they obtained on the plea of age and poverty, but on condition that they should attend to the reparation of the Cathedral Church of St. David's, and give every assistance in their power to the crusaders who undertook the journey to Jerusalem.”

On the departure of Richard Coeur de Lion for the Holy Land, that monarch appointed Giraldus, with whose zeal and fidelity he had been highly satisfied, “ coadjutor to William de Longchamp, Bishop of Ely, in the regency of the kingdom.” Whilst in this office he refused both the Bishopric of Bangor and that of Llandaff; alledging as his motive, that “ he was unwilling to accept any situation that would divert him from his studies.” His own avowal, however, and the following anecdote which he has recorded of himself, evince that the real ground of his refusal was his strong desire to seat himself at St. David's.

A priest wino was deranged in bis mind, and who following the court of the justiciary, was accustomed to amuse the young men by ludicrous and ridiculous sayings, feigned a conversation with Giraldus. - Master Giraldus, will you accept of the Bishopric of Guiseford ? —No. Will you accept the Bishopric of Ossory?

No.'--'The Bishopric of Leighelin?' — No.'—The Archbishopric of Cashel ?'--'No' - But do you choose the Bishopric of St. David's?' Then, replying with a loud and clamorous voice, yes!' be burst into a fit of laughter,"

All the endeavours of Giraldus to procure the preferment he so much wished for proving fruitless, he retired to Lincoln, where he passed nearly seven years in retirement, pursuing his studies with indefatigable ardour. Once more, however, a vacancy in his favourite See drew him from his pursuits, and he was nominated with three others, to succeed to the Bishopric of St. David; but the all-powerful opposition of Archbishop Hubert impeded his election, and in a letter to the Archbishop, Giraldus thus describes his feelings at his repeated disappointments.

“ Hitherto I have unfortunately sacrificed too much time to fruitless ambition : let me, therefore, be allowed to retire and indulge without further molestation my favourite pursuit of books and literature. Let others anxiously covet the high honours attached to a court, as I myself, labouring under the same vice, once did, and became an useless and unprofitable follower of it. Having more than sufficiently experienced the vicissitudes and vexations resulting from an attendance upon the high and mighty, I desire to be in that situation in respect to them, as if I had never been in their service. May the Holy Father and merciful Cod grant, that far from the cares and ambition of a court, which always wound, and never heal and satisfy the heart; and far from the clamorous bustle of the world, by lamenting and redeeming. my heavy loss of time, I may be able to pass the moderate remaining portion of my life in peaceful ease and tranquility."

The wish for complete retirement, which Giraldus here expresses, had not however yet become sufficiently powerful to govern his desires; and we very shortly afterwards tied him engaged in an obstinate contest to secure his election, he having been chosen Bishop of St. David's by a convocation assembled for the purpose in June 1199. He now appealed to the Pope, Innocent the Third, in support of his claim, and by persisting in it was involved in a tedious litigation of nearly four years; during which time “ he took three successive journies to Rome at a considerable expence, but was at last defeated in his hopes, for the Pope passed a definitive sentence, and declared his election null." Still, his right was deemed so unquestionable by many, that in Wales he was usually styled the Bishop elect; and « although he does not appear ever to have assumed that tiile himself, yet King John issued several mandates and letters against him for presuming to take upon himself that character.” During the struggle he was persecuted in various ways, and different attempts were made to frighten him into silence, but all these were rendered abortive by his determination and firmness. He even sustained i temporary alienation of his benefices at Brecknock; yet when the Pope had finally decided against him, he still possessed so much influence, that the chief justiciary consulted him as 10 the nomination of a proper person to fill the See. Soon afterwards he resigned his archdeaconry and prebend in favour of his nephew Philip de Barri, whose welfare had been recommended to him by his brother, when on his death bed. This was about 1204. The last seventeen years of his life he spent in retirement in Wales, " employed in revising his former literary works, and in composing others.” In the midst of these employments, he had the pleasure to receive and the virtue to refuse an offer of that cpiscopal dignity which had pointed his ambition for so many years.

He refused it because the terms on which it was proffered were dishonourable! He died in the scventy-fourth year of his age at St. David's, and was there buried in the Cathedral Church. Sir Richard, with all the partial fondness of an author for the hero of his own writings, has summed up his history with these words.

“ Noble in his birth, and comely in his person; mild in his manners, and affable in his conversation; zealous, active, and undaunted in maintaining the rights and dignities of his church; moral in his character, and orthodox in his principles; charitable and disinterested, though ambitious; learned, though superstitious;

SUCH WAS GIRALDUS. And in whatever point of view we examine the character of this extraordinary man, whether as a scholar, a patriot, or a divine, we may justly consider him as one of the brightest luminaries that adorned the annals of the twelfth century."-P. xlix.

In his “ Introduction to the History of Cambria,” Sir Richard has proceeded to a far greater extent than was necessary, when considered in reference to the Itinerary of Giraldus. In theinselves, however, his observations are very interesting ; though we strongly suspect that the routes which he has traced for the expeditions of Cæsar and Ostorius into the interior of the island are liable to various objections. For instance, DiTorernum, or Canterbury, however strongly it might have bcen fortified by art, cannot be said to be fortified by "nature, and is therefore a very improper situation to be assigned as that to which the Britons retreated after their first repulse by Cæsar in his second expedition. The most likely spot is now occupied by the castle and woods of Chilham, about five niles south-westward from Canterbury. Cæsar, during his marcb

towards the territories of Cassivelaunus, had several skirmishes with the Britons, one of which,” says Sir Richard, was probably at Newington, near London.” Now thc Newington here meant, is not near London, but full thirtyseven miles distant; we only notice this to prevent its being nistaken for Newington Butts, as in the accompanying plan the name is rightly inserted. The conjectures on the campaign of Plautius are ingenious and most probably correct; but not so we believe the assignment of the station Forum Dianæ to Dunstable, and that of Cæsaromagus to Chelmsford. It may indeed be justly questioned whether there ever was a station at either of these places. The strong encampBent called Maiden-Bower, which if it did not originate with the Romans, was certainly occupied by them, is a full.mile and a half from Dunstable, on the edge of the Chiltern hills, overlooking Totternhoe and the low grounds towards Buckinghamshire. Here, then, was the real site of the Roman station, to which, with Ward, we should rather give the name of Magiovinium than Forum Dianæ, even though the latter be supported by the authority of the Bishop of Cloyne*. The situation of Chelmsford is equally as inappropriate as Dunstable itself for the site of a Roman fortress; and, according to Gough, in his additions to the Britannia, there was not even a road here till Maurice, Bishop of London, had one made in the reign of Henry the First. Before that time the road run through Writtle, a vilJage two miles to the west. The inscription alluding to the conquest of Britain by the Emperor Claudius, of which Sir Richard has given a copy from the original marble in the wall of the courtyard of the Barberini palace at Rome, has been printed already in Wright's Travels. Some years ago, before the French eagles waved their baleful plumes over the glories of the Capitol, this inscription was pointed out to a friend of ours by the Prince himself, with this remarkable comment :66 What transitions there are in this world! You that were in those days looked upon as savages placed at the extremity of the globe, are now the first nation on the face of it; and Italy, once its sole mistress, is now among the very lowest of its subdivisions !That this may be properly understood, it is requisite to repeat the inscription, which is on a stone three feet six inches high, and nearly three feet broad, having a plain border ; about half the words have been restored.

• See Lysons's Magna Britannia, vol. I, p. 26, 27,

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