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1823.] OBITUARY.-Edward Alexander, M.D.-John Aikin, M.D. 85 functions only: rising above every selfish classical education at Hipperbolm school, consideration, he carried into his prac which then was, and still is, under the tice the most exalted christian virtues. superintendance of the Rev. Richard He was not merely the able physician, Hudson, who for more than half a cenbut the sympathizing friend and com tury has officiated as afternoon lecturer forter of his patients ; he listened to at the parish church in Halifax. their wants and sorrows, was prompt Dr. A. possessed the advantage of to aid them by bis advice, to pour in the being well initiated in the various balm of consolation, or to relieve their branches of bis profession during his necessities, as their respective situations early youth. At the usual period, he and circumstances might require. In went to London to pursue his anatomical the performance of his professional du- studies, and there became a pupil of ties he was strictly conscientious. No Sir William Blizard. Having accom

respect of persons ” did he shew ; the plished his object in the metropolis, he rich and the poor partook impartially of repaired to Edinburgh, and finally took his care and assiduity. To the latter his degree at Leyden, with the highest his services were gratuitous; and like. honour, in October 1791. wise, in a considerable degree, to others, In the year 1793 he married his first wbo could not, without difficulty, afford cousin Ellen, the eldest daughter and to make him a suitable remuneration. cu-beiress of the late Samuel WaterHis bountiful hand was ever open to house, Esq. of Halifax, one of the Justhe claims of the indigent and the op tices of the Peace for the West Riding of pressed ; and in all the relations of life, the county of York, and a Deputy Lieu. the same ardour, the same uprightness tenant for the same district. and integrity, the same unwearied ac Dr. A. fixed at Stafford, and was ditivity, distinguished his conduct. A re rectly appointed physician to the county markable sweetness of disposition, and infirmary. He removed into the neighstrong intellectual powers, were in bion bourhood of Leicester Oct. 1797, where combined with uncommon “singleness he continued to reside till his deeply of heart." His ruling principle was love lamented death. All who knew him to God, displayed in a warm and disin must regret him, and to his immediate terested love of man, wholly free from friends his loss is irreparable. party spirit and narrow distinctions. Devotion was his delight, studying the

DR. JOHN AIKIN, Scriptures his dearest employment, and John Aikin, M.D. &c. (wbose death was his hope rested on the mercies of God in noticed in our last vol. p. 572), was born Christ. Perhaps Dr. A. did not entirely Jan. 15, 1747, at Kibworth in Leicesteragree with any denomination of Chris- shire, being the younger child and only tians; but serious reflection, and patient son of T. Aikin, D.D. a dissenting minisinvestigation, led bim to a full convic ter, and the master of a respectable and tion of the truth of the leading tenets well frequented boarding school. Till his of Unitarianism; and from the time of eleventh year, he received a domestie his settling in the vicinity of Leicester, education, but at that time, his father he joined the congregation assembling being appointed theological tutor in the at the “ Great Meeting" in that town. dissenters' academy at Warrington in In politics he embraced the liberal side Lancashire, he was admitted to the beof the question, and was always the nefits of the more extended plan of infirm and strenuous advocate of civil and struction opened by that institution. In religious freedom. “ Every project for the autumn of his 14th year, having made the benefit of his country, and the ado choice of medicine as a profession, he vancement of knowledge, liberty, and was apprenticed to Maxwell Garthshore, truth, obtained his zealous support *.” at that time surgeon and apothecary at

His judgment of those who differed Uppingham in Rutlandsbire, but who from him was uniformly candid and afterwards graduated and settled in Longenerous ; and never did he retain the don. The three years that he continued slightest malevolent or unkind senti at Uppingham were occupied in profesment against persons from whom besional studies, and apparently with more had experienced undeserved or injurious than usual success, since, before their treatment.

conclusion, he was intrusted with the The subject of this brief inperfect care of Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Pulteney's outline was the younger son of the late business at Leicester, during the absence John Alexander, M. D. of Halifax, was of that gentleman for a space of two or born Nov. 25, 1767, and received his three months.

In November 1764 he became a stu* See Leicester Chronicle, Nov. 30. dent at the University of Edinburgh,

where

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OBITUARY.-John Aikin, M. D.

[Jan. where he spent two winters and the in was shewn in his translation of Tacitus's tervening summer; but having at that treatise on the manners of the Germans, time no intention of graduating, he re and his Life of Agricola, being specimens turned to England in May 1766, and in of a projected translation of the entire September of the same year became a works of that historian, which was afterpupil of Mr. C. White, of Manchester, wards abandoned, to the loss probably of at ibat time rapidly rising to the highest the English scholar, from the circumrank as an operating surgeors. With stance of Mr. Murphy being engaged in Mr. White he continued for three entire a similar undertaking. It was at Waryears, advancing in professional know- rington also that his most valued friendledge and skill, and in the steem and ships were formed or consolidated; with confidence of his master, as may be in- Dr. Priestley, Dr. Enfield, Mr. Wakefield, ferred from an essay on the ligature of and the Rev. G. Walker, their common arteries, written by him at that time, connexion with the Academy first brought and published by Mr. White in his work bim acquainted, while the easy distance entitled “ Cases in Surgery.

between Warrington and Manchester alAfter leaving Manchester be went to lowed him occasional opportunities of London, and employed the winter of supporting the friendships previously 1769-70 in attending the lectures of Dr. formed by bim with Mr. White, Dr. Per. Hunter.

cival, Mr. Henry, and other residents of His professional education being now

that town. His acquaintance at Livercompleted, he settled in Chester as a pool included Dr. Currie, Mr. Rathbone, surgeon, but remained in that city little Mr. Roscoe, the Rev. J. Yates, and many more than a year, being induced to re other cultivated and estimable chamove in Nov. 1771 to Warrington, where racters; and his excellent and confidenhis parents continued to reside, and tial friend Dr. Haygarth, one of the few where his prospects of success were less who survive him, at that time resided at obstructed by competition. Here he Chester, and professional or other incicontinued till 1784, and here all his dents now and then brought about a children were born, his marriage having meeting. taken place the year after his removal. The dissolution of the Academy, which

His first work, entitled “ Observations took place not long after the death of on the external use of preparations of his father in 1780, and the inadequate Lead, &c.was published at Chester; encouragement offered to the practice of and this was succeeded, during his re- surgery as distinct from pharmacy, desidence at Warrington, by three other termined bim to take a physician's deprofessional works, viz. “ Thoughts on gree: for this purpose, in the summer of Hospitals ;" “ Biographical Memoirs of 1784, he proceeded to Leyden, and there Medicine in Great Britain to the time of graduated; bis former residence at EdinHarvey :” and a very enlarged edition of burgh during two sessions being not suf6 Lewis's Materia Medica." His ap ficient to entitle him to an examination pointment as lecturer on chemistry and for a degree. On his return from the physiology at the Academy, induced him Continent he removed with his family to to print a “ Sketch of the Animal Eco Yarmouth in Norfolk, and early in the nomy,” and “ Heads of Chemistry,” for succeeding year took up his residence in the use of his classes; and a translation London. Scarcely, however, had be of “ Beaumé's Manual of Chemistry.” settled himself in his new situation, beThe intervals of his professional labours fore he received an invitation from the were assiduously devoted to elegant lite- inhabitants of Yarmouth and its vicinity rature and to Natural History, sources to resume bis professional duties at that to him at all times of exquisite delight, place. Although bis stay there had litand in after years beguiling the languor tle exceeded a year in duration, yet such of sickness, and soothing many an hour had been the effect produced by the few of anxiety. The “ Essays on Song- opportunities afforded him of exercising writing ; " " Miscellaneous Pieces in his professional skill, combined with his Prose," consisting of the joint contri- scientific and literary aequirements, and butions of his sister, Mrs. Barbauld, and his amiable and cultivated manners, that himself ; “ An Essay on the Application the invitation was quite unanimous. He of Natural History to Poetry;" “ An accordingly returned to Yarmouth, not Essay on the Plan and Character of more than two months after he had Thomson's Seasons ;” and “The Ca- quitted it, well pleased in baving been lendar of Nature ;” were all published spared the anxious uncertainty of during this period, and evince at the attempt to establish himself in th same time the elegance of his taste, and tropolis. The three principal the activity of his mind. His correct men in Yarmouth and its knowledge also of the Latin language time, were the Cn

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1823.]
OBITUARY.-John Aikin, M. D.

87 senters, and the Clergy of the Esta- senter, and subsequently as a friend to blished Church ; the two former, inha the French revolution on its first breakbiting the town, and not upon any cor ing out; and although he never bedial terms with each other, were chiefly longed to a political club (not choosing devoted to commercial pursuits. The to submit his own reason and sense of Clergy, liberally educated, and therefore equity to be overborne by the clamour capable of appreciating Dr. Aikin's ac and violence of party credulity and party. quirements, formed the most agreeable injustice), was yet made to suffer severely part of bis society, and the principal ac for his political principles. Dr. Girdlequaintances that he here made were stone was encouraged to settle at Yaramong them. For some time circum- mouth, and Dr. Aikin escaped from the stances went on favourably; be enjoyed impending bitterness of a personal conthe moderate emoluments of his profes- troversy, by removing to London in sion without rivalry ; he instituted a March 1792. literary society; and in bis library, and During his residence at Yarmouth, in the bosom of his family, be sought Dr. Aikin published (besides the pamand found those gratifications the dearest phlets already mentioned) an excellent to his heart.

system of English geography, called The time for trying the spirits of men « England Delineated," which has passed was, however, drawing near. The Dis- through several editions ; a volume of senters, having been repulsed in a former “Poems ;” and a “ View of the Character endeavour to obtain from the legislature and Public Services of J. Howard, esq." the repeal of the Corporation and Test No person was perhaps so well qualified Acis, mustered all their strength for a to estimate the moral worth and public new attempt, vainly trusting, that their services of this illustrious individual as acknowledged great inferiority in num Dr. Aikin, both on account of bis sound bers, wealth, and influence, might be and unprejudiced judgment, and his supplied by strength of argument, and personal intimacy with Mr. Howard ; in by an appeal to the equity of their coun consequence of which, the notes and obtrymen. Dr. Aikin, although not agree- servations collected by Mr. H. during his ing in religious opinions with any class various journies, had always been placed of dissenters, felt strongly the iniquity in the hands of Dr. A. for arrangement of excluding from civil duties and offices and correction. all those who were not members of the Although the connexions of Dr. A. Church of England. Too honest ever in London by family and acquaintance to disguise his real sentiments, although were considerable, yet he never obtained sincerely regretting and reprobating the much professional employment, being intemperance of each party, he published little fitted by temper or babit to engage two pamphlets on the occasion, the in the incessant struggle nécessary to one, “ The Spirit of the Church and of success; he therefore the more willingly the Constitution compared;" the other, followed the bent of his disposition, and « An Address to the Dissidents of Eng. occupied himself chiefly in literary purland on their late Defeat.”

suits. The first work which he published Immediately on the heels of the Test after leaving Yarmouth was the two first Act controversy, and while the feelings volumes of “ Evenings at Home." of the nation were yet agitated by that these, though not to the four succeeding event, occurred the French Revolution, ones, Mrs. Barbauld contributed several which for a time opened an impassable pieces; the third volume appeared in gulph of separation between parties al 1793, the fourth in 1794, and the two ready exasperated. The declaration last in 1795. The work became immemade by the National Assembly in favour diately very popular, and still continues of the perfect equality of civil rights so, offering a copious and varied store among the members of every political of amusement and instruetion to the community, naturally conciliated the

young, and by its good sense and sound good will of those wbo had been con morality commanding the approbation tending without success for this very of parents. To those acquainted with object, while the merciless and undis its author, it possesses an additional tinguishing confiscation of church pro- interest, as being highly characteristic perty, and the atrocious massacre of of him, exhibiting not only his various the priests which soon followed, gave acquisitions, but representing his opithe alarm, as might well be expected, to nions on a variety of topics. the English elergy, and very naturally The most important and interesting induced them to attribute similar inten- work, however, of which Dr. Aikin was tions of violence and injustice to their the author, is his “ Letters from a Father political adversaries. Dr. Aikin had de to a Son on various topics relative to cidedly taken his party first as a dis. literature and the conduct of life.” The

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88
OBITUARY.-John Aikin, M. D.

[Jan. first volume was published in 1793, the bookseller interposed, materially impedsecond was written in 1798 and 1799. ing the success of the work by retarding The subjects embraced by these Letters its regular progress, so that the 10th and are very numerous, critical, and scientific; last volume was not published till 1815. and discussing some of the most import It is not necessary farther to detail ant questions of morals and of general the literary occupations in which Dr. politics. The candid, equitable, and in Aikin was engaged during his residence dependent spirit which pervades the at Stoke Newington. While the infirmwhole, renders them extremely valuable, ities of age pressed only with a ligbt not only as materials for thought and hand, the greater part of every day was rules of moral conduct, but as examples devoted to writing or reading. Painful of the temper with which subjects of and trying was the period when the desuch high 'importance ought to be cay of the mind, in consequence of a treated.

paralytic attack, began to precede that In 1796 he accepted an offer made to

of the bodily frame, when the memory him by Mr. Phillips of undertaking the became less and less capable of recalling editorship of a periodical work at that the past, and the intellect of receiving time projected by him. This work, the

the impress of the present : one ray, Monthly Magazine, was accordingly su however, still enlightened the gloom, perintended by Dr. Aikin from its com

and when all besides was dark, conjugal mencement ; and the numerous papers love still connected him with the exfurnished by the Editor and his friends, ternal world, He died Dec. 7, 1822, as well as the general spirit in wbich having nearly completed his 75th year. the Magazine was conducted, contri

Dr. Aikin was endowed by nature buted greatly to establish it in the pub with a good constitution ; and this orilic favour. The connexion of Dr. A. ginal advantage he was always careful with this work was in May 1806 abruptly to preserve by strict temperance and and unceremoniously dissolved by the abundant exercise : to this was united proprietor, from dissatisfaction with an

an intellect of great activity in acquiring, award in a dispute in which be was one and facility in communicating ideas; of the parties and Dr. Aikin one of the and a temper calm, well-regulated, and arbitrators.

cheerful, though far from sanguine. In the same year in which the Monthly Hence he possessed, in a very eminent Magazine was commenced, Dr. Aikin, degree, the inestimable blessing of a in conjunction with his dear friend Dr.

sound mind in a sound body. The abEnfield, agreed with Messrs. Kearsley stractions of mathematical investigation and Hamilton to undertake a general and the minute dissection of almost Biographical Dictionary, to be com evanescent ideas, which characterizes prized in about ten quarto volumes. He the metaphysician, either were not did not engage rashly in so serious an

adapted to his faculties, or did not agree occupation. From his long unreserved

with his taste, which was strongly atintimacy with Dr. Enfield, he felt assured

tracted to the useful in morals, in polithat he possessed a coadjutor of similar tics, and in the general conduct of life, views with himself, and of indefatigable and to the agreeable, the barmonious, industry ; and he anticipated great and the elegant in objects of amusesatisfaction in the execution of the ment. Hence his stores of knowledge work. His own health, however, began were all produceable in the intercourse to be impaired in 1797 by residence in of society, and this gave him a wide London, and his indisposition rapidly range of subjects for conversation. These increasing, and assuming a very serious were communicated in simple and easy aspect, obliged bim in the ensuing year though flowing language, and regulated to quit the Metropolis. He retired for by a goodness of temper, a decorum and some months to Dorking in Surrey, and practical politeness not often equalled, in the pure air of that delightful valley, never excelled. The ruling principle of aided by gentle horse-exercise, and an his conduct in great as in small affairs unusually fine summer, made some pro. was equity, that equity which is best gress towards recovery. In the winter expressed by the Christian maxim of he took a bouse at Stuke Newington, in doing to others as we would wish others which henceforth be continued to reside. to do to us. Kind, generous, compasIn the mean time he had lost by death sionate, to all with whom he was conhis friend and coadjutor in his great nected either by ties of kindred or acwork, the first volume of which was quaintance, or in the exercise of his published in the spring of 1799. Some profession, he had no personal enemies, time elapsed before a successor to Dr. and the love and attachment of his Enfield could be found, and then com friends was in proportion to their intimercial difficulties on the part of the macy with him; for there was nothing

tenance.

1923.) OBITUARY.C. G. Gray, Esq.-M. Delämbre.-W. Hey, Esg. 89 in bis moral character (using the ex rack of boding fears, while wishing to pression in its widest extent) which re alleviate his pangs by a cheerful counquired to be managed, to be kept out of view, to be glossed over.

His funeral took place on the 21st of Fare thee well, revered and beloved, August last, and on the arrival of the till we meet in the eternal world!

procession at the cemetery of the Père A. A. de la Chaise, several orations were pro

nounced by Members of the Scientific Charles GORDON GRAY, Esg.

Academies in Paris. Dec. 19. At Stratton House, near

Mons. Delambre has not only done Chilcompton, Somerset, aged 63, Charles practical astronomy service for the preGordon Gray, Esq. a Vice President of sent and future, by freeing it from the the Bath and West of England Agricul- confined limits of arithmetic, and uniting, tural Society, to which Society his scien- instead, the various elements which contific knowledge of stock, and of hus

cur in the result of observation, by the bandry in general, is well known. He laws of their algebraic dependance; has left a widow and a family of children. thus giving to Mayer's tables a degree of

He was of the Grays of Sutherland- perfection before thought ideal; but he sbire. His grandfather, Mr. Hugh Gray, has also placed the past history of the of Helmsdale in that county, was a gen- science in a clear point of view, giving tleman farmer, well skilled in farming to each progressive discovery its due and farming-stock, whose eldest son, praise. In all intercourse with his conRobert G. went out an adventurer to temporaries, his pure love of science, Jamaica, and became a respectable and elevated above any prejudice of party successful planter, was particularly fa

or country, has been evinced in a inanmous for his skill of cattle, and for

ner that will ever reflect splendour on having the best pen of them in that his character. This benevolence of mind Island; so that their skill in farming- he extended to the most humble stustock and husbandry might be said to

dents. The language of Mons. Delambre, be hereditary in the family. He was

both to his numerous disciples, and in very much esteemed in Jamaica, and general society, was ever that of kind was father of the deceased.

encouragement, and obliging instruction All the Grays of Sutherland were de

when required. scended from a son of Lord Gray, who having killed the constable of Dundee,

WILLIAM Hey, Esq. in revenge for an injury done to his Lately. At Leeds, William Hey, esq. father, fled there and concealed himself.

He was an early and zealous supporter They spread into many branches, ob of the Church Missionary Society. His tained large possessions, and were,

for earnest desire of the salvation of his the space of about 200 years, among the fellow creatures excited him to co-opemost respectable families in that county.

rate with various societies, which had for Of late only they have become nearly their object the civilizing and evangeextinct, except in the female descend lizing of the heathen, by a more wide ants. William Gray, Esc. late Provost diffusion of the Gospel; but as a memMarshal, was a native of this county. ber of the Church of England, he reHe has left a large family of sons and garded it as his more immediate duty to daughters, none of whom are ever likely assist and cherish the Church Missionary to reside in Sutherlandsbire.

Association at Leeds.

LIEUTENANT GEORGE PACE.
CHEVALIER DELAMBRE.

Lieut. G. Pace, of the Royal Navy, Aug. 18. At Paris, at an advanced whose death was noticed in vol. xcii, ii. age, the Chevalier Delambre, Member 475, was an officer of roany years standand Perpetual Secretary for the Mathe- ing, and was born in 1767. His father matical Sciences of the Royal Academy was also in the navy, and served in the in Paris. After devoting a long life to American war, under the command of the most useful studies, and the practice Admiral Lord Shuldham ; during which of the most amiable virtues, the decline period he was employed in bis Lordship's of his health was hastened by his intense office, in conjunction with the late Right application. During nearly two months, Hon. George Rose, and the late Right bis numerous friends, and above all his Hon. Sir Evan Nepean, Bart. ; and alever attentive and attached wife, a lady though the smiles of Fortune did not distinguished for every female excellence, accompany him through life so benefiand who for five and twenty years had cently as the fickle goddess did those been his constant companion, felt the gentlemen, yet he obtained, as a reward Gent, MAG. January, 1823.

for

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