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1 PART 1.] REVIBW.-Preservation of Lives. Freemasonry. 617

reflecting on our vanity and presumption, exists, whole nations take the field, to think of our conceit and self-importance, and extermination

The We frequently pretended to lecture on points wretched philosophy of fanatics may of which we had scarcely any knowledge, and to discuss subjects which overwhelm the clination to spare thieves; nor do we

excite mutiny in the army, and an inintellect of men and angels. Reed's lectures were on the Introduction of moral Evil

: dity in such doctrines, because they

see any thing but mischief and absured in where angels dare not tread." Vol. I. preclude man from the justifiable exer.

cise of self-preservation. We warmly recommend Mr. Bar. Hr nett to consuli some learned and ami

124. The Antiquities of Freemasonry, &c.&c. iable divine of the Church of England, By George Oliver, Vicar of Clee, County

and be no longer the dupe of wretched of Lincoln, P. G. C. for the same County I. quacks in sacred matters.

8vo. pp. 366.

THAT the admirable art of Archi121. An Appeal to the British Nation on the tecture was professed by a body of

Humanity and Policy of forming a Na- men, who united with it a collegiate tional Institution for the Preservation of institution, practising various fraternal Lives and Property from Shipwreck. By and social virtues, is attested by writ

Sir William Hillary, Bart. 8vo. Pp. 25. ten documents of the Middle Age. 122. The Forty-ninth Annual Report of the That also the customs, then and now

Royal Humane Society for the Recovery observed, were, mutatis mutandis, acof Persons apparently drowned or dead. cording to the alterations of the times, 8vo. Pp. 113. 1823.

borrowed from the most remote pe129. The Herald of Peace for the Year 1822. riods, cannot reasonably be questioned 8vo. Pp. 256.

by those who have only a superficial WE have classed these publications knowledge of classical antiquity; and together, though the two first are very of the commonness of secret mysterious different in high reason and character institutions ; nor will the profound from the last, because they have all scholar deny that from Asia, India, one laudable object, prevention of the and Egypt, have emanated numerous waste of life; a principle which has rites and ceremonies, of which no furalways a grand operation upon legisla- ther history or explanation can reasontion and morals.' The proposal of Sirably be produced. As to the particular William Hillary seems us one Society inder our notice, we can safely which may be well grafted upon the say, that it is very religious, harmless, excellent Humane Society, by enlarge and benevolent; and various parts of ment of its object, and bounties from its secret rites sublime. We who have the County Rates to fishermen and assisted in the consecration of a Lodge other maríners on the sea coasts, for know, that in grandeur and solemnity saving lives.

it

surpasses the finest theatrical efforts; As to the “ Herald of Peace," we and is yet so chaste, so pious, and so peremptorily deny, that, in the lan- glorious, that, one interesting part exguage of p. 9, “ defensive as well as of- cepted (which we know was practised fensive war is Antichristian, and that among the Druids,) it would be a beauthe military profession is incompatible tiful model even for a Protestant Liwith the Christian character.' We turgy; because the Genevism of our solemnly believe, that such a fancy Reformers has, in our opinion, gone as that recommended, would render rather too far, in regard to things of all the good part of society slaves to show and effect. They allow us clean the wicked; and that in the end op- table-cloths and clean body linen; but pression would compel the former to in all other matters, are rigid as Quatake up arms, and a bellum internum kers.--Mr. Oliver's work is an enlarged civum follow, of ten times more slaugh- disquisition upon Freemasonry, in its ter than now ensues in the bitterest · modern sense, as an ancient and geconflicts. Under the present system, nial institution, not an operative art, a small body of citizens devote them- but a system of piety, wisdom, and selves to the profession of arms, that philanthropy, symbolized by Architecthe rest may live in peace; and in all iural Emblems, and supported by Hiscountries where no such profession torical Traditions. We warmly recomGent. Mag. Suppl. XCIII. Part. I.

mend

to

P

618 REVIEW.Society for promoting Christian Knowledge. XCII. niend the Book to the Craft. It con- the truth of this sentiment, the Committee curious things.

may confidently appeal to the page of History." p. 16.

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125. Report of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge. 8vo. pp. 19.

126. The Fourth Report of the Committee of

the Society for the Improvement of Prison THE Society continues with un

Discipline, and for the Reformation of Juremitting zeal to prosecute the laud venile Offenders. 8vo. Pp. 172. able objects of its Institution. One new thing of high moment appears,

THIS excellent Society reports prothat is, a translation of the Scriptures gress in a most satisfactory form, and into Irish (see p. 25). That such a promises ultimately to place Prisonmeasure did not accompany the es discipline in a state of perfection. We tablishment of a Protestant Church in have no room, however, for general Ireland, is to us astonishing. Reli- remark; the particulars being of great gious matters in India are progressive,

instructive moment. God be praised; for Superstition, and

1. It appears that men who have of course the most serious defects in been taught a trade in a jail, have been ideas and principles, there lord it su

since industriously at work, maintainpreme. Of the importance of religious ing a good character. p. 22. instruction we are happy to bear the

2. That where the Prisoners are not following testimony from the fourth classed, the corrupt association occaReport of the Society for the Improve- sions a quick return of discharged criment of Prison Discipline.

minals. (p. 25.) The following inci

dent is curious. “For the last twenty months, the Ladies have kept an account of the number of con “ Two men were lately apprehended for victed women, who, on being placed under robbing their master; one of whom, on his their care, were found to have received some entrance, was admitted as king's evidence. degree of education. From this useful re He associated indiscriminately with the other gister it appears, that of 119 prisoners— prisoners; and when the trial came on, he being the whole number who were able to refused to recapitulate his testimony; his read not one had attended a school on the accomplice escaped, and justice was defeatBritish systein, and one only had entered a ed." P. 25. National school: in the latter case, the individual confessed, that she had remained

3. By judicious regulations of labour, there but two weeks, so that it may be fairly the average cost of each prisoner to a excluded from the account. It also appears county has been reduced to little more that but three had been in the habit of at than 5d. per man per week. p. 26. tending at Sunday schools. These simple 4. That the Tread-wheel has receivfacts speak volumes, and furnish incontest- ed considerable improvement at Edinable proof of the supreme importance of re burgh. ligious instruction.” p. 43.

« Each wheel is in a separate compartWe are able to attest this from per- ment, and the machinery strikes å bell every sonal knowledge of the good effects of minute and a quarter, as a signal for the the religious instruction indefatigably changes, one man on the right extremity of pursued in the Forest of Dean, by the each wheel coming off, and another on the Rev. Henry Birkin. We shall notice left stepping on at each stroke of the bell. this subject in our Review of the Re- By these means, all have an equal portion port, which we have quoted; but can

of labour : on a wheel, containing eight not forbear adding one more extract, persons, each man works ten minutes at a which will place the diabolical exer

time, and where the relays are four in numtions of the friends of Paine and Car- ber, has a rest of five minutes." p. 29. lisle in their true light, viz. the ten

that this automatical predency of such exertions to fill our cision is essentially important, for, prisons.

“ If the revolutions of the wheel are per“ Religious instruction forms in fact an formed too slowly, or if the number of priindispensable brauch of prison discipline: soners, as relays, form too large a proporIt is a component part of the system. With- tion to those on the wheel, the labour to fout reformation, the object of prison disci- every prisoner may become so slight as to pline cannot be attained : without religious fail entirely of its intended effect. With reimpressions, reformation is utterly hopeless. gard to the motion of the wheel, the rate The prevention of crime will never be ef- imposed on a prisoner at Brixton is about fected by the influence of fear alone. For from forty-five to fifty steps per minue.

The

It appears

P: 37.

purpose. See

P. 38.

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PART 1.] RBVIEW.-Society for Improving Prison Discipline. 619 The proportion of prisoners resting, to those As to the Church, we are of opion the wheel, ought not to exceed one, nion, that it received some very imthird.” p. 33.

portant repairs in the reign of Henry 5. That the use of fetters is illegal,

. and has a tendency to relax the vigi Sepulchral Monuin. vol. II. p. 28) lance of Prison-officers, and that they that 110 County Historian thought of are only allowable under attempts to describing Churches before Mr. Blomeescape.. p. 30, seg.

field, and the same Author adds (p. 6. That no share of earnings should 53) that in the Church of Stoke Albe allowed to prisoners during confine- bany, co. Northampton, was the fiinent, because

gure of a man in armour, with this “These earnings are generally expended inscription, as given by Mr. Bridges, in food; and thus the efficacy of restricted vol. II. p. 340. diet-a punishment of the highest value,

“ Hic jacet Johannes Ross le bonne is counteracted, and frequently wholly lost.'

compagnon ; supposed to refer to John,

grandson of Robert Ross, first Lord of that 7. That Prisoners, who have behaved Manor ; but the destruction of the monuwell during confinement, should on ment by the express direction of the present their discharge have pecuniary aid; and Rector, puts it out of our power to ascerhere we are glad to observe that the tain him with exactness.' Chapter of Durham, so shamefully aspersed, because they are loyal men, way of Theses, for our subsequent re

We quote these two remarks by raise, among other good institutions, a marks. fund for this 8. That schools and religious in- Notes are but of recent invention

First then, it appears, that Churchstruction have been attended with in- and, of course, that prejudice is not finite advantage. p. 43.

established in regard to them, by the A great many prisoners, who when first

appearance of an unimproveable oracommitted (at Abingdon] were ignorant of cle, on the particular subject. We the alphabet, have, at the time of their dis- therefore hint, that it is impossible, charge, been able to read, and of many of (fresh facings excepted) so to amalgathese the gaoler states, that he has received

mate new and old courses of Masonry, good characters, especially of the younger that junctions and alterations shall ones, since they have left the prison.”, App. 8. Similar instances are reported from monstrated the necessity of this ob

not appear. A particular instance deIreland. p. 80, &c. gone through the sub- Castle of Berkeley, a fine exterior, was

servation in a striking manner. The Having thus stantials of this gratifying Report, we built at a period, when the Keep was have only to state our deep,, regret the only family habitation, that is to that its funds are exhausted." We hope not, and we think not, that such say, it was the family fortress, as the

Church-tower was the Incumbent's, an appeal can be made in vain. If under danger to the owner and his esby moral and religious education so

tablishment, and such fortresses were ciety is vaccinated against the small annexed to British Settlements for the pox of vice, the next merit is that of Lord of the Clan, his household and stopping the contagion of it; and as the

vassals. This was necessary if they advantage of this excellent Institution resided in the country. The problem is prominently conspicuous, the good was this. Contrary to all precedent; and the opulent ought to need no other the Keep is open, roofless: and in exhortation to induce them to support substitution of the grand vaulted guard it. We strongly recommend that sup- room, is a side-range of rooms, of port to Magistrates in particular, who which the windows are in the style of may derive much valuable information Henry VII. to Edward VI. all facing from its labours, and to Philanthro- the interior. By examination of the pists in general.

courses of Masonry, stair-cases and

arches appear half-stopped up, 127. Dr. Robinson's History of Enfield. rious other changes. At Godrich Cas(Concluded from p. 538.)

tle, water-tables show where pendicu

lar roofs have been raised upon sloping WE here commence the Second Volume, which includes the Church * This was a most essential quality to a and Parochial concerns.

Gentleman of Antiquity.--Rev.

and va

ones ;

620

Review - Dr. Robinson's History of Enfield. (XCII. ones; and so de cæteris. In the same often applied to a Church, as would manner, it is necessary to investigate be to a-scullery. the courses of the Masonry on the

“ There was formerly over the South walls with regard to Church-Notes.

pier, & shield supported by angels, which The second point is the licence taken bore three escallops, and some patere, and with Church-Monuments. Under the over the North stairs several ornaments population of certain parishes, it is ut were painted in black arch-work, but they terly impossible that the deceased of are now whitened over.” vol. II. p. 4. continuous generations should find Whitened over !-in

p.

6. we find room. The rich should have Mau

again. solea, regularly consecrated, which

“During this last repair (1789) on the might be made ornamental to the

outside of the East battlements of the vescountry.

try, a stone was found covered with plaster, In the repairs of Churches, through on which there was (in capitals) [we add want of interest in the minds of the

Lombardick] the Inscription “ Á. Domini, refined laity, the same vulgar taste is 1531," thus :

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We shall make only short index re ed as the mouth of a Monster *. It is marks. Whitened over ! Covered with treated largely by Hone in his “ Ancient pluster! Barbarism and havock! For Mysteries” (p. 173), as well as other the delection of superstitious legendary forms of Hell. Of the Mediæval detrash in a bad style, as were wall- scription of Hell, all in abstract (See paintings, there may be a fair excuse.

Lindwood's Provinciale, p. 7. n.g: in The painting is not worth preserva- anima) it was impossible for the Painttion, as to the general execution; but ers to make a figure, though the reprethe carving and sculpture in Churches sentation accompanying the Bridge of are often matters of high curiosity, or Dread in Matthew Paris, was perfectly fine execution, or both. Why plas- suitable to the ideas of the

age; and ter over an innocent unoffending date? the lake of fire and brimstone in the Why not grey-wash the interior of Revelations. To represent a bottomChurches ? Nature abhors white, and less pit was equally impossible; and always destroys it as fast as possible. if it had been so, there would still We only make these remarks, because have been no vestibule. Professor we seriously wish that the Gentry Vince could have told them, that there would superintend the repairs of Pac are enormous regions of darkness and rish Churches. They are always im- vacancy, between several pre-eminent portant relics of antiquity, often great celestial worlds, for which Astrononational ornaments. No man should mers can give no reason, and which be utterly devoid of public spirit; and must be bottomless and interminablet; in that which costs him nothing, there but of this the ancients knew nothing, can be no excuse for his withholding and therefore prudently substituted the an interest.

whale of Jonah for the mouth of Hell. In p. 9 we have a wood-cut of an an Then Jonah prayed unto the Lord cient painting of the Resurrection, executed certainly about 1531 (see oppo * So in Steevens, with regard to the resite page), when the Church, from the presentation upon the old Stage. date quoted, appears to have undergone of There is therefore no physical obstagreat alterations. Here Hell is represent- cle to Seripture Heavens or Hells. Rev.

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