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105. Th of William Davison, Secretary Reformer had acquired friends and

of and Privy Counsellor to Queen consequence, nothing but a subsequent Èlizu-uh. By Nicholas Harris Nico interposition of Providence could have las, Esq. of the Inner Temple. 8vo. Pp. established the Protestant Religion. Eli355. Nichols and Son.

zabeth so sensitively felt the fears of WHIS is a valuable piece of histo- treason, that she even punished the in

rico-biographical information, and sane and futile attempt of Essex with merits minute attention, as being of death, merely because she thought, acstandard character.

cording to Robertson's state principle, The inference to be drawn by philo- that where such an insurgent had any sophers from the reign of Elizabeth, is support from party or popularity (as the extraordinary influence of charac- was the case both with 'Essex and ter. By means of uniting wisdom and Mary), the sacrifice was essential for popularity, her Government was abso- her own preservation. It is to no Lately arbitrary. If there were circum- purpose talking of moral and conscienstances in the times favourable to such tious considerations, where the influa state of things, the chief was the ence of fear is predominant. A man preceding unpopularity of Mary, under who is in danger of being drowned whose tremendous discipline Elizabeth will lay hold of the leg of his father or had been providentially educated in the mother, without any proper scruples best school, that of adversity. She how very unjustly and cruelly he is

a as a Princess endured, not acting, by saving himself in a manner flat. Attachment she could only so utterly inconsistent with heroism, com'a by conciliating esteem. Loy. sentiment, and principle. Elizabeth alty of principle and feeling (for she had great qualities, and probably would was not apparently a rising Sun) could have headed her troops, and died in alone operate in the attentions paid to battle with the Spaniards (if they had her. Elizabeth was obliged to be landed in the Armada Expedition); wise. A system of art was forced up. but she had no inclination for petty on her by necessity; and, as in all assassination. Wycherley justly obother persons to whom such a conduct serves, there is a feeling which will has become habitual, it induced a re- prompt submission to fortune in a field gard to self-interest and self-preserva- of battle, but none in being killed with tion, at the expence of principle, where a pot-de-chamber thrown out of a garret measures could not be carried by any window. In our judgment the perpeother means.

Elizabeth had been an- tual plots of the Papists had produced noyed by perpetual plots from the Ca- a sensitive irritability and fear in Elitholicks. 'Treason was the only source zabeth, which occasioned the decapiof danger, and from that religious sect tations of Essex and Mary, and withshe had only to fear either, because out which stimulus the greatness of with that party only she was unpopu- her mind might have prompted only lar. There could be on her side no milder measures. Now let

any confidence wherever the parties pro- suppose, that once a month during his fessed that creed. Proverbs, notwith- whole life, he is in danger of losing standing Lord Chesterfield, are not that life by a conspiracy of any kind, questions of manners, in the use of and then judge whether he will not, them, by all persons. They are com- within a short period, wish to get rid pendious rules of the best wisdom.- of such a horrible annoyance. But he * A burnt child dreads the fire.” Trea- ought to act like a hero, and treat it son she knew inust be crushed in the accordingly, with Cæsar-like clemency. bud; and that she thought correctly is What such forbearance cost him, we manifest, from the wise remark of Ro- know well; but even if it had been a bertson, that if Leo X. had not held safe rule to act upon, as under circumLuther in contempt, but issued the stances it is, the case was different with writ de hæretico comburendo, before the regard to Elizabeth. “Religious feuds GENT. MAG. June, 1823.



Review.-Nicolas's Life of Davison.

[June, (says Gibbon) are implacable;" that den, who lived in the age, observes is, they are the vilest human passions (p. 453) of the courtiers and preachers made a part of the nature of God, the of the day, that they considered it perDevil dressed up in the habiliments of fectly right that the Royal Family the Almighty, and nothing but a com- should murder one another, as a nemon danger and suffering can hu- cessary and summary process of libera manize such fanatical feelings. Men ating themselves from difficulties enof opposite religious thinking may fra- suing through the molestation of internize, when storming a fort, or starv- convenient relatives. For this puring in a boat after shipwreck, but no- pose, they quoted the precedents of thing less than a common feeling will Hen. I. towards Robert Duke of Norproduce a common principle of con- mandy, of the wife of Edw. II. toduct. In short, the fanaticism of the wards her husband, of Hen. IV. toPapists produced, in our opinion, the wards Richard II., of Edw. IV. tofeelings in the mind of Elizabeth, wards Hen. VI. and Geo. Duke of which occasioned the events consider- Clarence, and of their successors Hen. ed as the greatest blemishes upon her VII.and VIII.; with which last King, grand and glorious character, viz. the decapitation was only cutting aspavictimation of Mary, and the base ragus. treatment of Davison. But much is Thus far we have gone, because we to be said in palliation. Commisera- sincerely believe, and justifiably think tion for fallen Sovereigns is so great, (as Mary was a Papist of a Protestantthat nothing short of the impossibility burning æra), that the Royal exile of executing plots will prevent them. would have dispatched Elizabeth as Even in the present day, though the being a heretic, with a far less show lives of thousands have been saved by of decency and feeling than Elizabeth the anachoretical seclusion of Buona- dispatched her; and that her sister of parte at St. Helena, and the wise vigi- England being the wiser of the two, lance of Sir Hudson Lowe; yet num- anticipated Mary and her party in the bers think that such an unnecessary execution of a similar project. We risk ought to have been incurred, in affirm further, upon the authority of order that a constitutional deposed Camden (pp. 451, 452), that the sucSovereign might again act the part

of cess of Mary, and the downfall of Elia Military despot. We do not like ab- zabeth, would have revived the marstract condemnations of Elizabeth. tyrdoms of the preceding reign; and To her we owe the establishment of that the decapitation of the former, the Protestant Religion; the grand vi, though not a faultless act, was one by talizing germ of freedom, the very soul which Providence extracts good out of which generates abhorrence of civic evil. Of this more hereafter. slavery, a regard for common sense If History be the science proper for over prejudice, and a foundation of conveying the most useful instruction, law and conduct upon that useful ba- it must be clear that the wiser is the sis, the best form of reason, in legisla- administration of a reign, the greater tion and action. Conceiving as we is the stock of valuable precedents, do that our obligations to Elizabeth and the more attractive the examples. are incalculable, we see with pain un- Wise people are, per se, studies; casts candid (as we think it) oblivion of her for political and philosophical artists. glorious merits, because a State neces- Minuteness there becomes interesting, sity ensued (see Camdeni Annales, pp. and always points a moral. That be452, 453) of one or other being the fore us is the necessity in a Statesman victim, Elizabeth or Mary. We do of never letting zeal or alarm overrun not pretend to understand the inten- discretion, or doing serious things in a tions of Providence; but this we af- hurry. firm, that there was never yet safety The readers of English history know to a reigning Sovereign, where one that a Secretary of State named Dadeposed was existing in the same vison, was made the tool for effecting country; and though Mary was not the execution of Mary, by the instigaQueen of England, yet she and her tion of his Royal Mistress to be prompt son were the heirs to the Throne, and upon the subject, and that she afterElizabeth stood in the way of the wards saddled him with the odium of greatest earthly blessing which Mary the transaction. It has been errocould expect. 'Add to this, that Cam- neously said, that he was merely put

his over

REVIEW.--Nicolas's Life of Davison.

523 into office to be made the dupe described, action is detailed at large, from pp. 78 and fell into the trap, by

10 94. From this it appears, that Burdiligence" (such is the phrase of Well- leigh put the warrant ready drawn into wood, Memoirs, 16). In short, mat- Davison's hands, by her Majesty's comters are thus represented by Camden, mands, that it might be presented to p. 445*. The Queen, in great dis- her for signature; that upon his first tress of mind, “delivers to Davison, doing so, she declined it, " because the one of her Secretaries [of State), let- French and Scotch Ambassadors were ters signed ly her own hand; that a then interceding for the life of Mary," warrant for the execution of Mary but that afterwards, might be made out under the Great

Her Majesty demanded if the Lord AdSeal, in order to be in readiness, miral had not ordered him to bring up the should any danger ensue in that peril. warrant for the Queen of Scots' execution? ous time, and orders him not to com- and on Davison's replying that he had spoken municate the transaction to any person with his Lordship in the Privy Chamber; But the day after, while fear made her and understood from him, that it was her dread even her own counsels, having pleasure that he should bring the warrant to changed her mind, she commands Da- her to sign, Elizabeth asked for it, and imvison, through William Killigrew, that mediately after reading it, called for pen and

ink, signed it, and laid it down by her upon the warrant should not be made out. He afterwards goes to the Queen,

the mats, and explained to him that the moand

tive which had induced her to delay it so informs her, that the warrant was

long, was her regard for her own reputa completed, and confirmed with the tion; and in conclusion, absolutely forbade Great Seal. She then more angry re- him to trouble her again on the subject, or bukes the man for his great haste ; and to let her hear any thing more about it, unhe notwithstanding communicates the til it was executed, as she had now done all warrant and affair to the Privy Coun- that either in law or justice could be expectcil, and easily persuaded them, readily ed of her.” pp. 80–83. believing what they wished, that the This was on February 1st; and DaQueen had ordered the execution. vison accordingly puts the business in Without delay, Beale, who was parti- progress. Very soon after, Killigrew cularly hostile to Mary upon religious brought a message from the Queen, grounds, together with one or two directing him, that if he had not been other executioners, and letters by to the Lord Chancellor, he was not to which authority is given to the Earls go to him until he had again spoken to of Shrewsbury, Derby, Kent, Cum- her Majesty. (P. 88.) Davison then berland, and others, to act according proceeded to the Queen, who asked to the warrant, is sent without the him whether the warrant had passed knowledge of the Queen. And altho' the Seal, and finding that it had, deat that very time she had signified to Da- manded why he had made such haste? vison that she intended to adopt another Darison then mentioned her Majesty's method, yet he never recalled Beale.'' commands for his so acting, and then

Now the passages which we have asked her whether it was still her inmarked in Italics, are absolutely false, tention to proceed with the affair, acand the story in the whole is a garbled cording to her former directions? She misrepresentation. Elizabeth had tried replied in the affirmative; but added, every method, so far as hints and sug. that she thought a better mode (name

go, to procure the assas- ly, assassination) might be adopted. sination of Mary, by under-hand Any concern with this the Secretary means t. Though none of her cour- honourably declined; but, from the tiers were base enough to comply with conversation, was reasonably alarmed, her wishes, they saw plainly the de- “ lest she should disavow her orders sire which she entertained of getting for the death of the Queen of Scots, sid of Mary, and therefore were will- and throw the responsibility of it from ing to encourage the execution of the herself.” (P.91.)Accordingly, he rewarrant, provided that they, like their solved not to act singly in the matter, mistress, could be exonerated from the and laid it before the Privy Council. odium. Accordingly, the whole trans- The result was this :

" Each of the Members of the Council * We translate it from the Latin edition immediately offered to bear his part in whatof 1615.

ever censure might arise from an act so im† Andrews, we think, says, that poison- portant to the public safety, both in Church ping was common in those days.

and State ; and it was finally agreed, that


gestions could

524 REVIEW. Carey and Lea's Geography, &c. of America. (Jane, the warrant should be dispatched, without 106. The Geography, History, and Statistics again applying to the Queen, because it was of America and the West Indies; exhis thought that she had already done every liting a correct Account of the Discovery thing which was necessary, or could be ex- Settlement, and Progress of the various pected, by signing the warrant, and by com- Kingdoms, States, and Provinces, of the manding Davison not to let her hear any Western Hemisphere, to the year 1822. more of the affair until it was concluded. By H.C. Carey, and J. Lea, Philadelpbia. They also expressed their imwillingness to With Additions relative to the New States trouble her Majesty on the subject, from the of South America, &c. &c. Ilustrated fear of the dangerous consequences which by Maps, Charts, and Plates. 8vo, pp. might ensue, if, upon wbat they deemed 477. Sherwood and Co. so unnecessary an appeal, she should capri- OUR geographical knowledge of the ciously delay the execution.” P. 94. New World has been of late years

Now, in our partiality for Elizabeth, considerably extended; the journals of however we must give up the assassina- recent travellers have opened new tion plan, which, it seems, was probably sources of knowledge, and we have, in suggested by that worthy Leicester

consequence, become better acquaint(p. 99), who was an adept in such ed with the wealth, resources, and popractices, we must think, that after litical state of America, and its vast her revocation by Killigrew, Davison importance to the industrious and enand the Council, because proceeding terprising population of Europe. The contrary to orders, were actually guilty of publications of the most celebrated that “intolerable presumption” which writers, however, on this subject, are she laid to the charge of Davison, and in general bulky and expensive, and put it out of the power of Elizabeth from their involving a discussion of tv retract or repent, if such, upon se- abstruse and scientific matters, they cond thoughts, had been her resolu- are quite unfit for the mass of readers. tion (see p. 313). At all events, Da- Without taking into account the many vison, by his alarm and haste, had alterations which modern changes have been the occasion of this precipitation introduced into different parts of the in the Council, and as Elizabeth could Western hemisphere, the British pubnot conveniently quarrel with them lick has hitherto been destitute of any all, though the actual perpetrators of good general work of reference relating the disobedient act, she snuffed out to them: a tolerable Gazetteer and a Davison, and let the rest remain light- few indifferent Maps have been all ed. He was severely fined in the Star- the authorities to which those in want Chamber, and (Burleigh wanting his of information could turn. We were place for his own son) died in ob- happy to find, therefore, that Messrs. scurity

Carey and Lea, of Philadelphia, had Such is the chief incident in the published an Atlas of America, on the work before us, which is a truly valu- plan of Lavoisne's; the accompanying able accession to the historical library; letter-press affording the best account inasmuch as it is compiled from cu- of the history, geography, and statistics rious and authentic State papers in of America yet extant, brought down MS. and thus places important trans- to the close of the last year. The exeactions upon the only sound basis of cution of this work is highly creditable History-Truth. The remarks which to the taste and talents of our transenrich the work are logical and judi- atlantic neighbours, and holds out cious. We shall only add one by our- favourable auspices of their progress in selves, viz. that, as we before hinted, Literature, Science, and the Arts. the Council, in our opinion, appre- But as the high price of this valuable hended in sincerity the possible ulti- Atlas must prevent it from being ex. mate success of the Queen of Scots, tensively diffused in England, a spirited and with that the murder of their publisher of the metropolis has reMistress, the extinction of the Protes- printed, in a thick octavo volume, the tant Religion, the ruin of themselves, whole of the information contained in and the revival of the sanguinary reign Lea and Carey's Atlas, with some exof our Mary

tremely valuable additions, particularly No Portrait of Davison is known to as it regards the new States of South exist; but in the work before us are America, and the late Spanish domifac-similes of his hand-writing, and nions in Mexico : these have been those of several other eminent charac- furnished by a gentleman well known ters who figure in the work.

for his geographical acquirements, and


1848.] REVIEW.Carey and Lea's Geography, &c. of America. 585 whose published works have already The inhabitants consist of whites, negroes; gained for him a distinguished reputa- and Indians. The negroes are generally tion in this useful branch of literature. slaves, and are principally confined to MaryThe most essential Maps are given in land and the states South of the Potomac the London re-print, and some correct

and Ohio rivers. All the whites are of views of remarkable places are added.

European origin, principally from the British We are at a loss how best to afford dominions. The New Englanders, Virgiour readers a specimen of this multi- British. Next to the British are the Ger

nians, and Carolinians are almost purely farious compendium of American Geo

mans and Irish, who are very numerous in graphy. The following extracts will the middle states, particularly in Pennsylgive some idea of the manner in which vania. Next to these are the Dutch, who the truly valuable information is con- are most numerous in New York. The densed. The style of the work is neat French constitute nearly half the population and perspicuous, and making allow- of Louisiana. Very little is known about ances for the occasional asperities which the Indians West of the Mississippi. The the undutiful Columbia uses towards four principal tribes on the East of the her parent England, exacerbated, Mississippi are the Creeks, Choctaws, Cheperhaps, by the severe castigations rokees, and Chickasaws. These tribes live which she has received from the Quar- within the limits of Georgia, Alabama, Misterly, Review, it offers a favourable sissippi, and Tennessee.” specimen of American literature.

The following account of Havannah, s« Climate. The territory of the United the capital of Cuba, an island of so States, extending over 24 degrees of lati- much commercial and political imtude, presents, of course, a great variety of portance to the Spaniards, and equally climate. A general remark, however, way the object of cupidity to French and be made, that the whole of the country English, may be found interesting at East of the Rocky mountains is much colder the present moment. than in the same parallels in Europe ; and the difference has been commonly estimated “ Havannah, the largest town in Cuba, as equivalent to eight or ten degrees of lati- is on the North side of the island, about tude. The country between the Alleghany eighty leagues from Cape San Antonio. Its mountains and the Mississippi, is generally harbour is one of the best in the world, more temperate than to the East of them. being deep enough for vessels of the largest By recent observations it appears that class ; sufficiently capacious to receive a South-west winds are most prevalent, which thousand ships of war; and so safe, that temper the climate, and render the weather vessels ride securely without cable or anchor. more mild and equable; although both heat The entrance is by a channel half a mile and cold occasionally go to great extremes. long, so narrow that only a single vessel can In the flat country of the Southern states, enter at once, and fortified through the the summers are hot and unhealthy; the whole distance with platforms, works, and months of July, August, and September are artillery. The mouth of this channel is here denominated the sickly season, but the secured by two strong castles, as seen in rest of the year is generally mild and plea- the annexed plate : one on the East side,

In New England, the climate is called the Moro Fort, built in the form of a healthy, but in the spring of the year bleak triangle, fortified with bastions, and mountand piercing East winds prevail, which are ed with 40 pieces of cannon, almost level very disağreeable. In Florida, the climate with the water. On the opposite side of is favourable to the production of tropical the channel lies another strong fort, called fruits : and it is supposed that coffee, cocoa, the Puntal, joining to the town, which is and sugar may be raised there abundantly situated to the westward of the entrance of The sugar-cane flourishes in Louisiana as the harbour, and is surrounded by ramparts, high as the parallel of 30° N. lat. The bastions, and ditches. Besides these fortivine is cultivated successfully in Indiana, fications, the city is surmounted with works, and it may also be cultivated in some parts all of them furuished with artillery even to of Virginia, the Carolinas, Kentucky, and profusion. A square citadel is erected near Tennesse. Beyond the Rocky Mountains the centre of the town, called El Fuerte : the climate is similar to that of the West this work has also heavy cannon, and here of Europe in the same parallel.”.

the treasures of the government are depoPopulation. The population of the sited. The shape of the town is semiUnited States in 1790, was 3,929,326; in circular, the diameter being formed by the 1800, 5,305,666 ; in 1810, 7,289,903 ; and shore. It contains 11 churches, all richly in 1820, 9,638,226, of whom, 1,581,436 ornamented, several monasteries and conwere slaves. The population increases very vents, ? hospitals, and numerous other regularly at the rate of about 3 per cent. public buildings. The commerce of the per annum, doubling in less than 25 years. town is more extensire than that of any



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