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1823.)
Sacred Chronology.

405 in the month Nisan, in the 20th year, And having occasion to refer to this and therefore the 20th and 32nd would commission, in the 14th verse of the be coincident. How this could be ac fifth chapter, he says : " from the counted for I was at a loss to say, in time that I was appointed to be their the two volumes I laid before the pub- governor in the land of Judah, from lick in 1817. But on defending the the 20th year even unto the 32nd year book of Daniel against Count Volney, of Artaxerxes the king," i. e. he had noticed in vol. xci. ii. p. 335, from hav- from the Persian authority at Babylon, ing in getting out a history and gene- under the title of Artaxerxes, been at alogy of the Widdrington family, been that period twelve years governor : perplexed with the two epochs of be- when Hannaniah arrived in the ninth ginning of Charles the Second, the month, the usurper Smerdis would one in 1648, when his father was be- have the authority, and this may acheaded, and the other in 1660, when count for Nehemiah's not using the he took to the kingdom; it occurred term Artaxerxes, in the first verse of to me that Nehemiah's two epochs his book, merely mentioning the 20th might have a similar origin. On year. Within three months Darius closely looking at the history and chro- obtained the kingdom, and the circumnology, I saw Darius Astyages suc stance of his making a grant of leave ceeded Belshazzar in the kingdom of to Nehemiah, on condition of his reBabylon, in right of his wife, and as turn by a certain time-of providing the famous solar eclipse determined for a quick passage, and a guard of the ending of his 35 years in 3454, horse to attend him, together with the Cyrus in right of his wife, the only great haste he made in getting up the daughter of Darius, would then take walls, intimates that Darius had upon the kingdom. But being opposed by his mind the great feast he intended to Nabonides, and not getting it by force make the following Nisan, which in of arms till 3466, there would, as in the Divine providence fell in with the the case of Charles the Second, be close of the seventy years captivity, twelve years between these two epochs when the grant of Cyrus became conof beginning. The kingdom was given firmed to Zorobabel. This Darius it at the death of Belshazzar, first to the appears became Artaxerxes at the Medes, whose title was Ahasuerus, and neighing of his horse at sun-rise, which then to the Persians under the title of seems alluded to by Isaiah, when he Artaxerxes. Cyrus did not make his says, “ from the rising of the sun he grant till 3468, the period I suppose shall call upon my name," chap. xli. he took Nabonides, who fled 'from v. 25; for that the Jewish nation had Babylon, which grant was reversed as great regard to this peculiar circumit respected the temple, &c. in his stance, is evident by the attention paid third year 3471, by his son Ahasuerus, to it by Josephus. And this connectwho then began a joint reign. Nehe- ed by Darius confirming the grant of miah after this, it appears, was appoint- Cyrus, whom Isaiah calls by name, ed governor in the 20th year, reckon- distinguishes these two kings by name, ing from 3454, when Cyrus became higher than the Persian title Artaxerxes. king of Babylon by right, who return The son of Cyrus, Cambyses, took ed to Babylon, and acted at Jerusalem the title of Ahasuerus on becoming a by a deputy. Twelve years from the partner with his father, and is so date of his commission, Hannaniah styled in the whole book of Esther. visits himn in the ninth month, in the But Esdras (for it seems Josephus 20th year, reckoning from 3466, when knew nothing about a book called Babylon was taken by arms. In the Ezra in the Hebrew Bible when he month Nisan, the same year, Nehe- wrote), when he tells us the temple miah obtained leave to visit the holy was finished in the sixth year of Da-, city, which would be in 3485, the 32d rius (3489), notes it as done by the year from 3454, and 20th from 3466. command of Cyrus and Darius, and This is plain from his calling the 20th Artaxerxes king of Persia, by which it year, in the first verse of the second seems the names of the two former, chapter, the 32nd year, when he has from the regard God had to them, occasion to refer to it in the sixth verse was more honourable than the Persian of the 13th chapter, where he has title Artaxerxes, by which the son of regard not to the date of his leave, but Cyrus is distinguished. The seventh to the date of his original commission. year of this Artaxerxes, when he made

Ezra

406
Sacred Chronology.

[May, Ezra his grant, would be coincident at rest to all capable of understanding, with his thirteenth year as Ahasuerus, and disposed to bow down to the truth, and as this would fall in 3483, it may Let but the Jewish Messiah be consibe considered Hannaniah was sent to dered as typical of our Messiah, and Nehemiah at the instance of Ezra, the devastation by Antiochus typical of and the latter have been sent under Jerusalem's final destruction, and it the great alarm by Artaxerxes, at the will make every thing our Lord said defeat of Haman's party, This view easy to be understood. For so sure as of the chronology in Esdras, Esther, the 62 weeks ended with Antiochus, and Nehemiah, is not only fatal to so sure every new view in applying Mr. Bellamy's hypothesis, but to all them to Christ and the destruction of others who extend the weeks in Daniel Jerusalem, which came upon the Jews to Christ.

for rejecting him, will, like every new There is no doubt on my mind but Messiah the Jews have since set up, that our Lord suffered in his 35th be found a delusion. year, in the 4th of the 202nd olym Since I printed my thoughts on the piad, and that the darkness of Phlegon Chronology of the Apocalypse, with and the Evangelists was the same; an Appendix, I have seen Dr. Lighthence Mr. Benson, who makes his foot's works. And though in some age 32 and a half, is also erroneous. things it may be said of him as it apFor the sake of preserving Dean Pri- pears to have been of Sir Isaac New. deaux's application of the weeks to ton, “ unheard-of frailties cheat us in Christ, it was (if I mistake not) that the wise,” he nevertheless was a learnthe testimony of Phlegon was struck ed, valuable writer, and am glad to out of Boyle's Lectures. Bishop Wat see a new edition of his works, under son, in connecting them together, as the sanction of so many of our Bishops. evidence, met with a severe censure Hebrew readers are too often not only from Dr. Francis.

indifferent to the Greek books after A Hebrew critic, in the British Re- the captivity, but also often disposed view, No. 34, apparently conscious of to apply much that the prophets have injury done to the Christian cause, in said of the righteous stale of the extending them to our Messiah, labours Church during the seven jubilees that for a reading of 77 sevens sixty and Zorobabel's line, in connection with two years, amounting to 601, which the high priests, to a supposed fùture applying to 3468, the grant of Cyrus, restoration and return of the Jews, and he extends them to the destruction of the fancied thousand years they supJerusalem by Titus. But leaving this pose will follow. But this fallacy, so critic as well as Mr. Bellamy, by listen- much admired in the present day, that ing to the voice of reason and common are more disposed to govern than to be sense, they sound strong in my ears, governed, the wise and pious Dr. that as the authority at Jerusalem was Lightfoot reprobates by sound reason taken to Babylon for seventy years, till and solid argument. the land had enjoyed its Sabbaths, Your long standing and valuable agreeably to the word of the Lord, as Miscellany has been the source by it went forth by Jeremiah, the seventy which many truths have been deveyears penance was for a seventy weeks loped ; and as sacred Chronology can transgression. And as the word of the only enable us to transpose what is Lord made known to Jeremiah that a out of due order, both in the history righteous Lord from a righteous branch and prophecy of the Old Testament, of David should reign, such Jewish should it, through your indulgence, at Messiah would be born seven weeks length set at rest such points as matefrom the word being read. And as rially concern the well-being of the sixty-two weeks from such word being religious community, it will show the read the last time in the temple, in eye of that Providence to whom you the ninth month 3398 (Jer. xxxvi. v. 9), are so much indebted, still over you was to be followed by one week of de- for general good. solation, the circumstance of the au I intended saying much more, but a thority at the end of such 62 weeks want of time on the one hand, and a bung sold by Antiochus, and a fresh fear of trespassing too far on your family dedicating the altar in the ninth

pages,

bids me close. month 3839, it becomes to me demon Yours, &c. John OVERTON. stration, and for ever to set the matter

Mr.

COMS

1823.] Compendium of County History-Somersetshire.

401 Mr. URBAN,

March 31. advance as a more probable reason, his YONSIDERABLE time having absence from this country, or else that

elapsed since the last communi he has quitted for ever this world. cation of vs Byro's Compendiuin of The frequent repetitions of these doubts County History,” several of

your Cor at length induced me to attempt to respondents have expressed their doubts supply the deficiency of his reas to his intention of sending any searches. more communications ; while others

Yours, &c.

S. T.

SOMERSETSHI RE.
“ Ah! sad the reflection--scenes lovely as thine *

The hand of the Tyrant will frequently mar;
Will disseminate hemlock, and root up the vine,

And sully such glens with the horrors of war!
Not far from this spot have such scenes of disgust

(In ages absorb’d) been observed on the plain :
The blood of the Soldier has tinted the dust,

And LANSDOWN been covered with wounded and slain.
There stands a remembrance, a COLUMN of stone

Erected by man, as a record of fame :
But it seems to the optics of Fancy to moan,
While it proudly exhibits the Warrior's name.”

Rural Pieces, &e. By W. R. T.
SITUATION AND EXTENT.
Boundaries, North, the Severn Sea, and part of Gloucestershire: East, Wilt-

shire: South, Dorsetshire and Devonshire: West, Devonshire. Greatest length 68; greatest breadth 47 ; square 1520 miles. Province, Canterbury; Diocese, Bath and Wells; Circuit, Western.

ANTIENT STATE AND REMAINS. British Inhabitants, Belgæ. Roman Province, Britannia Prima. Stations, Aquis Solis, Bath; Ischalis, Ivel

chester. Saxon Heptarchy, Wessex. Antiquities. Druidical Temples of Chew Magna (the stones forming a circle

of a reddish colour); Stanton Drew. British Earthwork, Wansdike (the boundaries of the Belgæans, and the Aborigines). Roman Encampments of Blacker's hills ; Bowditch; Brompton Bury Castle; Burwalls ; Cadbury; Camalet; Chesterton ; Chew Magna; Cow-castle; Doleberry; Douseborough; Godshill; Hawkridge-castle; Hampton-down ; Masbury; Mearknoll; Modbury; Moanceaur-castle ; Neroche; Newborough ; Norton Hautville; Stantonbury; Stokeleigh; Tedbury; Trendle-castle ; Turks-castle; Wiveliscombe and Worleberry. Roman Temples at Bath (dedicated to Minerva), a very superb one (supposed to have been dedicated to A pollo, or the Sun), a Sacellum (dedicated to Luna). Saxon Earthwork, Salisbury-hill (thrown up at the siege of Bath in 577). Saxon Encampment of Harold at Porlock. "Danish Camp, Jack’s-castle, Kilmington. Abbeys of Athelney Isle (built by King Alfred); Banwell (in the time of Alfred); Bath (built in 1137, by Oliver King, Bishop of that diocese); Bruton (founded by St. Algar, Earl of Cornwall, in the reign of Ethelred); Cliff (founded by William de Romare, before 1188); GLASTONBURY; Hinton (founded by the 1st Earl of Salisbury); Keynsham (founded by William Earl of Gloucester); Muchelney (founded by King Athelstan, now a barn); Wells (first founded by King Ina, re-erected by Bishop Joceline de Wells in 1239; the palace of the Bishop is like a castle). Priories of Barlinch ; Barrow; Bath (built by King Osric in 676); Berkley (founded in the reign of Johu, by one William a Norman Baron); Buckland Sororum (founded about 1167, by William de Erleigh, Lord of the Manor of Durston); Cannington (founded by Robert de Courcy, sewer to the Empress Maud): Chewton; Dunster (built by William de Mohun, temp. Wm. I., now the parish Church); Frome (erected by Aldhelm, * The Wick rocks, which border on this county.

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408 Compendium of County History - Somersetshire, [May,

Bishop of Sherborne, before 705); Hinton Charterhouse (founded by Ela, Countess of Salisbury, in 1227, finished building 1232) ; llchester

(founded temp. Edward II.); Kew Stoke (founded by William de Coury tenye, about 1210); Montacute (erected by the nephew of William I.);

Portbury; Stavordale (founded temp. Henry III., now a farm-house and barn); Stoke Courcy (cell to the Abbey of Lonly in Normandy); Taunton (erected by William Giffard, Bishop of Winton, temp. Hen. 1.); Woodspring; and Yeanston. Nunneries of Nunney; Walton; and Whitehall (founded about 1226, by William Daius). Churches of ALLEN; ASHILL; Axbridge (on the tower of which are two statues, supposed to have been set up, under the Kings of Wessex); Barton David (the North doorway is composed of a fine Saxon arch); Bath, St. James's (a curious specimen of ancient architecture); Bath Easton; CADBURY, North (built in 1427); CAMBRTON; Chew MAGNA; Crewkerne; Dunster (built by Hen. VII. in gratitude for the inhabitants having assisted at the battle of Bosworth field *);

GOATHURST; ILMINSTER; Keynsham; LANSDOWN; MARTOCK; NUNNEY; Taunton, St. Magdalen, and St. James ; Walton (in ruins); Wincaunton; and Yeovil

. Chapels of Burrough: Chard (an ancient Gothic building, now used as the Town Hall); Glastonbury (erected in 1246, by Abbot Michael); Hanging Chapel at Langport; Hardington ; Hatrow ; Hinton; Holloway (built by John Cantlow, prior of Bath from 1489 to 1495); Ilchester, 2 (upon the bridge, and at its foot, now dwelling-houses); Orchard (built by John Sydenham about 1490); Ranehill (dedicated to St. Ranus); Rowdon ; Stoke-underHambden; and Widcoinbe (founded in the 12th century)., Fonts of Beckington; Corfe (very ancient), East Camel (curiously decked with sculpture); and Pendomer. Stone Pulpit in Wells Cathedral (erected by Bishop Knight). Castles of BRIDGWATER; CADBURY (built by the Romans); Castle Cary in which Charles II. sheltered himself after the battle of Worcester); Douseborough ; Dunster (built by the Moions Earls of Somerset); Ilchester (built by the Romans) ; Inglishcombe (the seat of the GOURNAYS); Kenn ; Montacute (built by the Earl of Moreton, brother of William I., on this spot there is now a tower 60 feet high); SOMERTON (built by the Kings of Wessex, no remains); Stoke-under-Hambden; Stowey; Taunton (built by King Ina, now in ruins); Trende; Turk’s; Walton; and Wiveliscombe. Mansion of Combe Sydenham (the ancient seat of the Sydenhams). Caves at Wokey (the most celebrated in the West of England).

GLASTONBURY Abbey is said to contain the bodies of Joseph of Aramathea ; King Edgar; and King Arthur. The body of Arthur was searched for by order of Henry II. when a leaden coffin was discovered with a Latin inscription in rude Gothic characters, which was thus translated : “ Here lies the famous King Arthur, buried in the isle of Avalon.” Beneath was found a coffin hollowed out of a solid rock, wherein were the bones of a human body supposed to have been those of Arthur, which were then deposited in the Church, and covered with a sumptuous monument. In Wells Cathedral lies the body of its founder, Ina King of Wessex.

PRESENT STATE AND APPEARANCE. Rivers. Avon ; Axe; Barl; Bey; Brent; Brew ; Cale; Car; Chew; Duns

brook; Ex; Frome; Ivel or Evil; Ordred; Parret; Severn; Thone; Tor;

Wessitire; and Yow. Inland Navigation. Canal from Frome to Stalbridge (branches to Wells and

Bradford); Avon river (through Báth to Bristol); Parret river (to Bristol, Bridgwater, and Langport); Tone river (from Frome to Bridgwater); Canal

at the bottom of Hampton Down. Lakes. Culbone; Camely brooks. Eminences and Views. Ash Beacon (655 feet high); Blackdown (bordering on

Devonshire); Bradley Knoll (973 feet high); Brendon-hills, near Quantock; Broadfield-down; Camalet Mount; Dundon-hill (360 feet high) ;-Dundry

* Most of the Churches in this county exhibit fine specimens of the Florid Gothic ; so prevalent in his reign; which makes it probable that they were re-built by order of that Prince, in gratitude for their attachment to his house.

1823.) Compendium of County History-Somersetshire. 409

hill (700 feet high); Enmore-castle (a fine view of Mendip-bills); Hel. ston round-hill (rises to a vast height above the bed of the river); HinTON St. GeorGE; Lansdown-hill (513 feet high; the summit of this hill is attained by a steep ascent of 3 miles); Leighdown; Mendip-hills (extend from Frome on the East to Axbridge, and from Bedminster on the North to Glastonbury); Moorlinch (330 feet high); North-hill; Poultonhill; Prior Park; Quantock-hills (an extensive ridge which runs from East Quantoshead, through a rich country, as far as the vale of Taunton; a fine view of the Welsh coast); Taunton; Thorney-down (610 feet high); and

White-down. Natural Curiosities. Alford mineral spring; Ashill mineral spring; Castle

cary mineral spring (resembling that at Epsom); Bath bitumen, nitre, and sulphur springs; Chard spring (conveyed by leaden-pipes to four conduits which supply the inhabitants with water); Chedder Rocks (about a mile and a half long); Culbone ; DunkerRY MOUNTAIN (the base of which is 12 miles in circumference, rising 1770 feet above the level of the sea); Dundry hills (produce Cornua ammonis, and Echinis); East Chenock salt spring (20 miles from the sea); Enmore (the source of the river Ex); Glastonbury mineral spring (near the Chain-gate); Langport (the source of the river Parret); Mendip-hills (the source of the river Frome); Neroche forest ; Nether Stowey spring (running from a hill above the Church, covers every thing it meets with a stony crust); Queen's Camel mineral spring; Selwood forest (beginning at Frome and extending near 15 miles); Vallis Rocks (near Frome); Wellington mineral springs ; Wells mineral spring; WOKEY HOLE

(the source of the river Axe). Public Edifices. Avon river, stone bridge over from Keynsham to Gloucester,

of 15 arches. Bath General Hospital, foundation stone laid July 6, 1738 ; Guildhall, foundation stone laid Feb. 11, 1768 ; in Queen’s-square an obelisk 70 feet high, erected by Rich. Nash, Esq. Master of the Ceremonies, to the memory of Frederick Prince of Wales, who visited Bath in 1738; in a grove near the Abbey Church, since called Orange grove, an obelisk 30 feet high, to the memory of the Prince of Orange, who here recovered froni a dangerous sickness; Free GRAMMAR School, founded by Edward VI. in 1553 ; King's Bath, handsome building; Parade; St. John's Hospital, built in 1728, by Mr. Wood the Architect, upon the site of an old hospital erected temp, Elizabeth : St. Catherine's Hospital, founded on the site of an ancient Alms-house, built by two sisters of the name of Bimberry; Bellott's Hospital, founded by Thomas Bellott, temp. Jac. I.; Casualty Hospital, founded by a few inhabitants in 1778 ; Puerperal Charity, established'in 1792; Charity School, founded by Robert Melson in 1711; Bath West of England Society for the encouragement of Agriculture, Arts, &c. established 1777 ; Philosophical Society, established 1799. BRIDGEWATER Free-School, founded by Queen Elizabeth in 1561; Church, the spire the loftiest in the county: Town Hall ; Bridge over the Parret, commenced by William de Briovere in the time of King John, and finished by Thomas Trivet, a nobleman of Cornwall. Bruton Cross; Free Grammar-school, founded by Edw. VI. Crewkerne Free Grammar-school, founded by Dr. Hody, temp. Edw. VI. Exford Charity-school, founded by Mr.Cox and Mrs. Musgrave. Frome Church, 150 feet long, and 54 broad, from the towers rises an octagonal spire, 120 feet high; Free School, founded by Edw. VI. ; Almshouse for widows, erected by subscription in 1720. GLASTONBURY cross; St. Michael's tower or tor (where the last Abbot of Glastonbury was executed), stands on a high hill North-east of Glastonbury; Glastonbury pump-room, opened Aug. 12, 1753 ; Ilminster-Free-school, founded by Edward VI. At Kilmington, 2 miles from the Church, is Alfred's Tower, erected by Hen. Hoare, Esq. of Stourhead; stone bridge. Langport Grammar - school, founded by Thomas Gillet in 1670. Martock Grammar-school, founded by William Strode in 1661. Mells Charity School. Shepton Mallet Church ; Cross ; Bridewell for the county: Almshouse founded 1699. Somerton Free-school; Almshouse. Taunton Free Grammar-school, founded temp. Hen. VII. by Richard Fox, Bishop of Winchester ; Almshouses, one founded by Robert Gray, Esq. ; Hospital ; Bridewell. Wellington hospital, founded by Lord Chief Justice Popham, temp. Jac. I. Wells Charity-school, founded in 1714; Town Gent. MAG. May, 1823.

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Hall,

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