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1823.] Significations of Christian Names.- Origin of some Surnames. 33 “ Justice Shallow," since the immor Susan, Hebrew, a Lily. Susiana, tal Bard has introduced much punning an antient province of Persia, is by about luces.

some supposed to have been so called Louisa is most probably the femi- from its being a country abounding in nine of Louis or Lewis.

lilies; the Persian name of that flower Lydia is a country of Asia Minor, assimilates to the Hebrew. said to be so called from Lud the son The Ladies having extended so far, of Shem; its inhabitants were very the Gentlemen must be deferred till effeminate, and it might be therefore my next.

Nepos. considered an appropriate name for a female, or very probably the women Mr. URBAN,

Jan. 8. of Lydia were remarkably beautiful. FEEL much astonished when I

I The name occurs in Horace.

look around me, and consider the Margaret, Greek, a pearl. We find very different and curious names of in Mr. Archdeacon Nares's “ Glos, individuals. sary,” that Margarite or Margaret was The mixture of Saxons, Danes, formerly used to signify, a pearl in the Gauls, Normans, Jews, and other English language (as in Latin and foreigners with us, at various periods French); and in Drummond's of our History, has caused the dif“Poems, 1056, p. 186, is the follow- ference; but the good and bad quaing epitaph on one named Margaret: lities of persons, or their peculiarities, “In shells and gold pearles are not kept have caused the singularity of them; alone,

and many, either by ignorance, caprice, A Margaret here lies beneath a stone, affectation, or some other means, have A Margaret that did excell in worth been corrupted, and often thereby their All those rich gems the Indies both send original signification has been hidden forth."

and concealed. Martha, Syriac. The mistress of a My present object is, as far as lies in family ; such was the character of my humble power, to show some exMartha, the sister of Lazarus.

amples of this :--for instance, few are, Mary is derived from the Hebrew, I ain persuaded, acquainted how the but it is of doubtful signification; it name of the Northuniberland family may mean either the bitterness of them, has been corrupted; for it was first as Mary the sister of Moses was so Pierceye, then Piercey, and now Percy; named during the bitter Egyptian cap- and by this alteration its original meantivity, or a drop of the sca, or even be ing is hidden from inany. So the synonymous with Martha.

name Alwine, which is as inuch as to Phæbe was the Greek name for the say beloved by all, has been changed moon, the sister of Phæbus the sun, into Allen; Bearnhart into Barnard, supposed to mean the light of life. Everhart into Everard, Garhart into

Let no parents name their daughter Gararı, Broadlrook irito Braybrook, Priscilla, if it be derived from the de Newton into Newton, Hartman Latin, unless they mean to call her a into Harman, Herebert into Herbert, little old woman.

Heughe into Hugh, which signifies Rebeccu, Hebrew, Fat. Belzoni re- joy in the Saxon tongue, Humfrid lates in his Travels how great a beauty into Humfrey, Lambhart into Lambert plumpness is still considered in the East. and Lambard, Leofhold into Leopold, Rose, the flower of Sharon.

Leonhart into Leonard and Lenard, Sarah, Hebrew, a princess. Sa- Manhart into Manard and Mainard, rah, the wife of Abraham, was called Osmund, signifying in the Teutonick Sami, till her name was changed by language, the mouth of the house, into the express command of the Almighty. Osmond, Radulphe into Raphe or And God said unto Abraham, as for Ralph, Reinmund, which being interSarai thy wife, thou shalt not call her preted, is pure mouth, into Raymond name Sarai, but Sarah shall her name and Reymund, Reynhart (denoting a be.” Gen. XVII. 15. Sarai means pure and clean heart) into Reynard, my princess; Surah, the princess not thereby implying quite a different sense of one family, but of many nations, as from its original. So Rugard or Rouwe read in the next verse : “She shall gur is now written Roger, and meaneth be the mother of nations."

keeper of quietness, and may be well Sophia, Greek, Wisdom.

the name of a watchman. Many Gent. Mag. January, 1823.



St. Nicholas ad Macellum.--Mermaid defended. (Jan. others might be adduced to show the p. 386, by " an old Correspondent,” change that the revolution of ages has who makes inquiry on this subject. caused in the names of persons.; but it An intelligent friend of mine, more is deemed these are sufficient; and conversant than perhaps any other certainly it reflects honour on any fa- person with the affairs of the parish of mily, whether in a high or low station St. Olave in Hart Street, has directed of life, if it can trace its name, through his attention to the said inquiry; and its various corruptions, so as to prove, if successful in discovering any new that it was originally given for some matter, he will, I doubt not, commudeed of valour, probity, or magnani- nicate the result, through the medium mity. Therefore no person can couple of your pages.

J. B. G. the names of Longshanks, Hogsflesh, Smallbones, and such like, with such

ON MERMAIDS. names as Alwine, Leonhart, and Rein


London, Jun. 15. inund, or their corruptions, without first considering the superior origina- ( BEG to trouble you with a few such as the latter, over those whose per, p. 548, of your last Number renames are such as the former.

specting the Mermaid, taken from the

Hereford Journal.
Yours, &c.


Mr. Murray begins by telling us, Mr. URBAN,

that “on his arrival in London, he

Jan. 10. JEWCOURT, in his “ Reperto

hastened to see the Mermaid," but his mind had been made up on the

subject.presses, under the head of “ Christ

That such an impartial investigaChurch Vicarage," as follows: “This Church then [at the Dissolution] was

tor of natural history should dispossess by K. Hen. VIII. in the 38th of his himself, by ocular inspection, of an reign, bestowed on the Mayor, Com- opinion thus previously riveted in his monalty, and Citizens of the City of mind, is not at all probable ; for, as

Pope observes, London, to make a parish church thereof, in the place of the two

“Convince a man against his will, churches of St. Ewen in Newgate

He'll hold the same opinion still." Market, near the North corner of In proof of the weight of prejudice Eldeness (now Warwick] Lane, and under which Mr. Murray laboured, St. Nicholas in the Shambles, situate he proceeds with his narrative, by on the North side of Newgate Street, styling the animal a compound orwhere there is now a Court; which ganic form,” before he has furnished were thereupon both demolished, and us with the least argumentative deducthe respective parishes thereto belong- tion of the fact, and unhesitatingly ing, with so much of Sepulchre's pa. asserts that the upper part is that of rish as then lay within Newgate, laid the “long armed baboon.” Indeed, to this new erected parish church, he says he considers it the “Discordia which was, then ordered to be called rerum non bene junctarum,” because by the name of Christ Church, found- the fish part should have been quaded by King, Henry VIII.” I have ruple the size it is, for such a superreason to believe that the said parish structure." of St. Nicholas ad Macellum (or the What kind of “nondescript" we Shambles) was at one period an ap- should then have had to investigate, I pendage to the parish of St. Olave in submit to the candid consideration of Hart Street: but this connexion must those persons who have inspected it; have been at a remote period; and but I may be permitted to observe Newcourt, whose work was published that the upper part, down to the termiin 1708, does not notice the circum- nation of the chest, is in exact proporstance. The characters MAC, with tion with the same parts in the huor without a flourish over them, will man subject; and then the fish porreadily be admitted as an abbreviation tion only very gradually tapers smaller of “Macellum;" and as the said Aou- in that regular and distinct order, rish frequently supplies the place of which we have been taught to believe, the letter N, this explanation will and which reason and science tell us perhaps account for the expression must necessarily occur when we reflect * St. Nicholas ad Manc," made use of that there are no abdominal ribs, no. in your Magazine for November last, pelvic bones, no lower extremities to



pur- disputed.

1823.] The Mermaid defended.--On Mermaids. preserve a continuative distention of perstitious notions and belief of the the body.

fabulous stories which we have read Had Mr. Murray contented himself of this race, still, before we can disin stating his own objections, without credit their existence, we must not questioning the opinions of such men only presume to set a boundary to the as Dr. Philips, Dr. Rees Price, and works of the great Creator of the uniSir Everard 'Home, his observations verse, but also question the veracity,– would have been entitled to as much nay, even insult the ashes of some of attention as their pertinacity demanded; those great Navigators who have iinbut I conceive he has gone a little too mortalized their names by the services far in questioning the judginent of they rendered to the world; amongst these accurate observers, without op whoin I may mention Columbas, posing to them more satisfactory argu- Hudson, &c. whose accuracy in dements than his paper contains. in- tailing the objects they discovered, deed, in the conclusion of his Letter, has never been questioned. he acknowledges his doubts, by sug That a regular gradation of animals gesting the propriety of a reference to from the sublime master-piece of the other highly respectable professional Creator-man, down to the brute gentlemen, " to ascertain definitively creation, exists on land, cannot be whether this Mermaid is what it

Why, then, should we ports to be, a maid of the ocean. doubt the preservation of the same or

For my part, I conceive this “hasten- der in the ocean particularly when it ed” inspection of Mr. Murray's, taken is known that duplicates of most other under circumstances of strong preju- land-animals exist in the sea. E. L. dice, and at a time too when the animal was “encased in glass,” entitled With respect to the difference of to little consideration, in comparison opinion existing betwixt Mr. Murray with the many deliberate, minute, and and our intelligent Correspondent, we impartial examinations which have can only exclaim, been taken of it, out of the glass ; “Non nostrum, tales componere lites." amongst them were those by the gentlemen whose names he has quoted.

As the subject of Mermaids has reI will, moreover, venture to asseri

cently acquired a more than usual dewithout the fear of contradiction, that duce a few inquiries respecting their

gree of interest, we propose to introif Mr. Murray really did “ two or three of the stitches by which carly history; previously referring the

reader to the following accounts reit had been sewed together," says " he is mistaken if he did not ; vol. xxv. 504 ; vol. xxix. 560; *XXII.

corded in our pages--vol. xix. 428 ; he has seen that which no man in the

254; XLV. 216; LXXIX. 829, 1016, kingdom besides himself has been able

1190. to discover.

The probable origin of the various I have myself repeatedly and most minutely inspected this animal in my ticed by our learned Correspondent

stories about Mermaids, has been nohands, in a chosen light, with no other

S. R. M. in our last vol. p. 516. One bias on my mind than a wish to inves

of the earliest records we meet with tigate the truth, and I am compelled

respecting the existence of these mato avow, that neither with the naked eye, or with the aid of the most power: sage, cited in French, in Lary's His

rine wonders, is the following pasful glasses that myself and others in my

toire d'Angleterre, tom. i. company could procure for the purpose, were we able to discover any of “In the sixt yeare of King John's raigne, Those artificial conjunctions which at Oreford in Suffolke, a fishe was taken by many have been induced to suppose,

fishers in theyr nettes, as they were at sea, and I am most firmly persuaded that

resembling in shape a wild or savage man, the whole objections with which the whom they presented vnto Sir Bartholomuo public journals have teemed, have ori

de Glanuille, knt. that had then the keepginated in motives of prejudice.

ing of the Castell of Oreford in Suffolk.

Naked he was, and in all his limmes and Does such an animal exist? is the

members resembling the right proportion fact sought after by the naturalist and

of a Hee had heares also in the vsval the curious? If it does, there can be partes of his bodie, albeit that on the crowne no question of that in dispute being of his head hee was balde : his beard was one of the tribe.

side and rugged, and his breast very hearie. Dispossessing ourselves of the su The Knight caused him to be kept certayne

as he

p. 403:

a man.

On Mermaids.

[Jan. days and nightes from the sea ; meat set In the year 1560, near the island of afore him he greedily devoured ; and eate Manaar, on the Western coast of Ceyfishe both rawe and sodde. Those that lon, some fishermen brought up, at were rawe hee pressed in his hande tyll he

one draught of a net, seven Mermen, had thrust out all the moysture, and so then and seven Mermaids, of which sevehee did eate them. Hee woulde not or

ral Jesuits, some of whose names are coulde not utter any speeche, although to trye him they hung him uppe by the heeles, preserved, were witnesses. Dinas Bosand miserably tormented him. He woulde quey, physician to the Viceroy of Goa, gette him to his couche at the setting of dissected one or more of the bodies, the sunne, and ryse again when it rose. One and found all the parts, external and day they brought him to the haven, and suf- internal, conformable to those of the fered him to go into the sea ; but, to be human species. The foregoing is exsure hee shoulde not escape froin them, they tracted from the Hist. de la Compagnie sette three ranks of mightie strong nettes de Jesus, p. II. t. iv. no. 276. before him, so as to catch him aguyne at There is extant an account of a their pleasure (as they imagined), hut hee Mermaid seen near the great rock, strayte wayes dyuing downe to the bottom

called the Diamond, on the coast of of the water, gotte past all the nettes, and

Martinico. The persons who said coming vppe, showed himself to them agayne, that stood wayting for him, and they saw it

, gave a precise description

before a notary. dowking dyuers times vnder water, and

Among other things, coming vppe agayne, hee beheld them on

they affirmed they saw it wipe its the shore that stood still looking at him, hands over its face, and even heard it who seemed as it were to mocke them for blow its nose. that he deceived them, and gotte past their The following account is extracted nettes. At length, after hee had thus play- from a book of Voyages, by a Captain ed him a great while in the water, and that Richard Whitbourne : there was no more hope of his returne, he

" Now also I will not omit to relate came to them agayne of his owne accorde, swimming through the water, and remayned something of a strange creature which I with them two months after. But finallie, first saw here in the year 1610. In the when hee was thus negligently looked to, morning early, as I was standing by the and nowe seemed not to be regarded, he

river side in the harbour of St. John's, in fledde secretlye to the sea, and was never

Newfoundland, a surprising creature came after seene nor hearde of.”

very swiftly swimming towards me, looking Parival, in his Délices de la Hol- by the face, eyes, nose, mouth, chin, ears,

cheerfully in my face ;. it was like a woman lande, relates, that in the year 1430, neck, and forehead; it seemed to be as a tempest having previously occasioned beautiful, and in those parts as well proporthe sea to break down the dikes, and tioned. Round the head it had many blue flow into the meadows, some girls of streaks resembling hair, but certainly it was the town of Edain in West Friesland,

not hair.

Yet I beheld it long, and another going to milk their cows, found a of my company also yet living, that was Mermaid which was embarrassed in

At its approach I stepped back, the mud. They took the animal into for it was come within the length of a long their boat, and carried it to Edam, pike of me, supposing it would have sprung where they dressed it in woman's ap; and other great fish, spring a great height

on land to me ; for I had seen huge whales, parel, and taught it to spin. It fed

above water, and so might this strange crealike one of them, but did not speak.

ture do to me, if I had stood still where I After some time, it was taken to Haer

was: by its actions I verily believe it had lem, where it lived soine years, but such a purpose; but when it saw that I always betrayed an inclination for the went from it, it did thereupon dive a little water. It acquired some knowledge under water, and swam towards the place of the existence of God, and made de where a little before I had landed, often vout reverences whenever it passed a looking back towards me, whereby I beheld crucifix.

the shoulders and back down to the middle, A Mermaid is said to have been to be as square, white, and smooth, as the caught in the Baltic, in the year 1531 hinder part it was pointing, in proportion

back of a man, and from the middle to the and sent as a present to Sigismund, King of Poland, with whom it lived something like a broad-hooked arrow. How three days, and was seen by all the shoulders downwards,

it was in the fore part, from the neck and

could not well disCourt. A very young one is related

cern. It came shortly after to a boat in by Damian Goes to have been taken the same harbour (wherein was my servant, near Rocca de Cintra.

Wm. Hawkridge, since Captain of a ship to


near me.


On Mertraids.

37 the East Indies). This creature put both formed, with webs between the finits hands

the side of the boat, and did


surgeon of the island, who strive much to come into him and divers others then in the same boat, whereat they largest man; that its skin was white,

went to see it, says it was as big as the were afraid, and one of them struck it a full resembling that of a drowned person; blow on the head, whereby it fell off from

that it had the breasts of a full-chested them; but afterwards it came to two other boats in the same harbour: as they lay

woman; a flat nose; a large mouth; near the shore, the men in them for fear the chin adorned with a kind of beard, filed to land. This, I suppose, was a Mer- formed of fine shells; and over the man, or Mermaid. As there are others whole body, tufts of sinilar white that have written of these creatures, I have shells. It had the tail of a fish, and presumed to relate what I have seen, which at the extremity of it a kind of feet. is most certainly true."

“As I am no naturalist (says the anonyA Mermaid, shewn at Exeter in

mous transcriber of the above), I neither 1737, is noticed in our last vol. p. 516.

pretend to affirm or deny the truth of these Our Magazine for September 1749, things; but this much 'I can aver for cercontains a statement, that “ at Ny- tain, that about fifteen years ago, I myself koping, in Jutland, was lately caught saw what was called a Sea Monster abroad, a Merinaid, which, from the waist the upper parts of which, quite down to the upward, had a human form, but the navel, resembled those of a child, exceps

was like a fish, with a tail that the fingers of both hands were webbed, turning up behind; the fingers were

and the hair of the head rather coarser and joined together by a membrane; ic more weedy, than that of an infant. Be

Death the navel it terininated into a fish. struggled, and beat itself to death in the net. Pontoppidan, in his Natural

The account given of it was, that it was

taken on the coast of Manilla, in New History of Norway, has some account

Spain, where it was discovered sporting in of Mermaids.

the water, in company with its dam. The In our Magazine for Dec. 1759, iş

mariners who caught it preserved it alive in an Engraving of a Syren or Mermaid,

sea-water for a few days, but still pining afsaid to have been shewn at the fair of ter the dam, it soon expired. When I saw St. Germain's the year before, where it, it was in a glass vase, filled with spirits, the drawing was made by the Sieur about two feet long, and had all the appearGautier, who described it as being ance of being no imposture. I have been about two feet long, alive and very

further told, as a proof of its reality, that it active, sporting about in the vessel of was examined by the Royal Academy of water in which it was kept, with

Sciences at Paris, who, on opening the great seeming delight and agility. body, found part of the entrails still reIt was fed with bread and smali inaining in it, which those who had been fishes; it looked earnestly at the spec

employed to embowel it before, had left, it

seems, behind.” tators, but it was evidently the attention of mere instinct. Its position, In 1775, a Mermaid, said to have when it was at rest, was always erect.

been taken in Aug. 1774, in the Gulph It was a female, and the features were of Stanchio, in the Archipelago or hideously ugly. The skin was harsh, Ægean Sea, by a merchantman trading the ears very large, and the back parts to Natalia, was exhibited in London. and tail were covered with scales. At It is described, but badly figured, in the time of this exhibition, two other our vol. xlv. p. 216. The same Meranimals of the same kind were said to

maid was also exhibited in London in have been shown about four years be- 1784 and 1796, and the date of its before, but they were dead and dried. ing taken in the Gulf of Stanchio was

The Mercure de France, for April then brought down to a later period. 1762, relates, that in the month of It is also better represented in vol. iv. June 1761, two girls of the island of of the “General Chronicle” for March Noirmontier, seeking shells in the cre 1812 ; and a model of it, executed in vices of the rocks, discovered, in a kind 1796, is said to exist, in the

possesof natural grotto, an animal of a hu- sion of an eminent sculptor. The seman form, leaning on its hands. One cond representation and the model are of the girls, having a long knife, stuck minutely described in the “General it into the animal, which, upon being Chronicle.” wounded, groaned like a human per We are now arrived in chronologi

The two girls cut off its hands, cal order at those accounts of Merwhich had fingers and nails quite maids which are of more recent



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