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Hints for moderate Reform.

[Feb. Capulets;" but not so, as it is again positively requisite, as the only means proposed as a sure recipe for rendering of introducing the monied interest inevery rogue an honest man. It would to the House of Commons; and withbe a mere waste of words to repeat out this, such property would not be what has been so often and so ably secure, because unrepresented. Indeurged against such visionary and ab- pendent and wealthy characters of insurd tenets. If any thing more irra, formation and talents are averse to purtional than another could be proposed chase a seat; and much more so, to to keep the people in state of un bribe the electors of open boroughs, ceasing confusion, idleness, drunken- in order to serve their country in Parness, riot, and immorality, it would liament. To obviate this illegality of be this precious doctrine carried into admission, a certain number of the mia law. This is not all; as from the nor boroughs might be purchased with imperfection of human nature, bri- the public money on Mr. Pitt's plan, bery and corruption, in numberless and fairly and openly sold to qualified shapes, and artfully masked to elude persons, the purchase-money going als detection, would become fearfully pre- ways into the public purse. This would valent; and if oaths were had recourse be an honourable and unobjectionable to, perjury would add to the dreadful procedure; and the corrupt electors magnitude of crime. It is to be hoped, paid for their borough, would still have that the wisdom of Parliament will their personal vote in their counties: scout this demoralising doctrine as Again, it is allowed on all sides, that often as the criminal folly of proposing large and populous cities ought to be its adoption is obstinately persevered represented in Parliament. To meet in by needy adventurers, who have this exigency, it would be no hardship founded expectations of personal ad. on wealthy owners of numerous bovanlage on dangerous innovations. roughs to part with some of them at

The question of rational reform, as a value of iwenty, or more years' purit is called, is now more than ever sup- chase. The cities on which these priported; and yet no specific plan has been vileges to return members would be suggested, because the political machine conferred, would repay into the pubis found to work sufficiently well for lic treasury the original purchase-moall purposes of public utility. It is an ney. As for the duration of Parlia. ascertained fact, that the Opposition ments, Mr. Urban, it may be a mat (and a temperate Opposition is constitu- ter of indifference whether the period tional) have actually a greater number of be seven or five years. The former constant supporters than the Ministry: was adopted at the time as a security but there are known to be 195 inde against 'Popish danger. That being pendent members, from among whom now merely nominal, the latter pearise the excess over even numbers, riod might be more eligible; more esand consequently the majorities requi- pecially as it would establish a better site for carrying on the business of the reciprocal feeling of obligation between country. There are many members the electors and elected. There is an who seldom vote. From this it ma- inconvenience amounting to a positive vifestly follows, that though favours evil in county elections, to be obviated conferred have their effect, it is still by a very simple remedy. Instead of by the influence of public opinion that having the election at only one place, the system of Government is conducted. the voies, on the same day, might be

There may be above 400 boronghs, taken, either parochially, or at three or and it would be a question of indeli more specific places. This would exnite inquiry in what manner they be- clude much expense, trouble, and discame, what they positively are, indi. sipation. vidual property, which cannot be ta Reform, Mr. Urban, seems to be ken away, as flippantly proposed at pub- pressing forward more than hitherto, lic meetings, without as complete a and in such permanent works as yours, robbery as it would be to deprive the every well-wisher to his country should fundholder of a part of his interest or throw out such ideas as occur to him, capital. When the immortal son of because it is by temperate discussion Chathain formed the union with Ire- that the sentiments of intelligent and land, he felt and acted on this truth, reflecting men are elicited; and thus by the purchase of the boroughs nó safe and constitutional conclusions are longer necessary. The boroughs are arrived at, for qualified application,


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Origin and Purposes of Stonehenge. should present or future exigencies marks," why may, not these giants be supposed to require them.

(alluding to the appellation of Chorea Yours, &c. John MACDONALD. Gigantum, given to this monument)

be the Phænicians; and the art of

erecting these stones, instead of the STONEHENGE.

stones themselves, brought from the "Thou noblest monument of Albion's isle,

furthermost parts of Africa, the known Whether by Merlin's aid, from Scythia's shore,

habitations of the Phænicians." To Amber's fatal plain, Pendraron bore,

Bishop Gibson, in his edition of Huge frame of giant hands the mighty pile, Tentomb his Britons slaio by Herguist's guile,

Camden's Britannia, 1694, after comOr Druid Priests, sprinkled with human gore, bating the opinions of preceding wriTaught 'mid thy massy maze their mystic lore;

ters, observes, one need make no Or Danish chiefs, enriched with savage spoil, To Victory's idol vast, an unhewn shrine, scruple to affirm that it is a British

Reard the rude heap; or, in thy hallow'd round, Monument; since it does not appear Repose the kings of Brutus' genuine line;

that Or bere those kings in solemo state were crown'd.

other nation had so much

any Studious to trace thy pond'rous origin,

footing in this kingdom, as to be the We muse on many an antient tale renown'd." authors of such a rude, and yet magAS

S the subject for the Newdigate nificent pile."

Prize Poem for this year is The attentive though credulous Au“STONEHENGE,” we shall, at the re- brey first hit on the notion of its being quest of an Oxford Correspondent, a Druid temple. With this notion devote a page or two to the considera- Mr. Toland agreed; and Dr. Stukeley, tion of the probable origin and pur- in his “ Stonehenge,” by accurate adposes of this extraordinary monument. measurements, confirmed it. He calls

This interesting assemblage of stones in the assistance of the Tyrean Heris distant two miles West of Ames- cules, to do greater honour to the bury, and six miles from Salisbury. structure. The name of Stonehenge is evidently Mr. Wood, in his “ Choir Gawr," Saxon, 9. d. the hanging-stones. agreed with Dr. Stukeley in attributing

Passing by the fanciful opinions and it to the Druids, with this additional conjectures of Nennius, Jeffrey of idea, that it had an astronomical as Monmouth, and Henry of Huntingdon well as theological use, and was a (alluded to in the above elegant Sonnet) temple of the moon. we shall first notice the celebrated William Cooke, M. A. in an enquiry Camden; who could see nothing but into the Patriarchal and Druidical Reconfusion and rudeness in this stately ligion, &c. supposes Stonehenge to pile.

have been a place held sacred by the Inigo Jones (who in 1655 first pub- Druids, and appropriated to great aslished any regular work on Stonehenge), semblies of the people. full of ideas of architecture, conceived Wood's opinion was further illusit to be a Tuscan temple of Cælum or trated in a brief and comprehensive Terminus, built by the Romans, as if manner by Dr. Smith, in “ Choir the rudest monuments of that people Gawr," 1770. The work is ably rewere not more regular than this. He viewed by Mr. Gough, in our vol. thought it was raised at a period when xli. p. 30, where Dr. Smith's opithe Romans “had settled the country nions may be seen; or in Gough's under their own empire; and by the Camden, 2d edit. 1806, vol. i.


155. introduction of foreign colonies, had That eminent antiquary, Mr. King, reduced the natural inhabitants unto in his “ Munimenta Antiqua *,” conthe society of civil life, by training jectures that it was constructed in the them in the liberal sciences.” very latest ages of Druidism, whilst

Dr. Charleton, in 1663, published that religion was yet struggling against an answer to Jones's work, in which the overwhelming tide of Christianity, he contends that Stonehenge was Mr. Davies, the learned author of erected by the Danes; but this could “ Celtic Researches," arid of the not be the case, as the monument ex “ Mythology, &c. of the British isted long before the Danes invaded Druids,” enters more profoundly thaii England. Jones's work was defended perhaps any other author, into the by his son-in-law and editor Mr.Webb, question respecting the origin and apin 1665.

Aylett Summes next published a trea * Reviewed by Mr. Gough in vot. lxxit. tise on Stonehenge; in which he re



p. 142.

Origin and Purposes of Stonehenge.

[Feb. propriation of Stonehenge. He sup name, as he was president and defender poses thắt this structure, and Silbury of the Ambrosial Stones.” hill, are two of the three works al This learned writer further menluded to in a Welch Triad, as consti- tions a passage in the Greek historian, tuting the greatest labours of the island Diodorus Siculus, describing a round of Britain : i. e. lifting the stone of temple dedicated to Apollo, which Ketti ;-Building the work of Emrys; Mr. Davies concludes to have been -and Piling the Mount of the As- situated in Britain, and to have been semblies.". That Stonehenge is really most likely our monument of Stone. a Druidical structure, the same learned henge. writer further remarks, “is evident Mr. Maurice, in his - Indian Antifrom the language in which it was quities, forms a similar conclusion described, and the great veneration in from the above passage, with Mr. which it was held by the primitive Davies, and further remarks, that in bards; those immediate descendants, his opinion the Celtic deity, Bel, is and avowed disciples of the British identified with A pollo, and says, that Druids. As the great sanctuary of the the first name of Britain, after it was Dominion, or metropolitan temple of peopled, was Vel Ynys, or the island our heathen ancestors, so-complex in of Bel. He also supposes,

" that the its plan, and constructed upon such a battle of Hen Velen, mentioned in multitude of astronomical calculations, the song of the bard Taliesin, alludes we find it was not exclusively dedi to one fought near Stonehenge. The cated to the Sun, the Moon, Saturn, massacre of the Britons in that neigh or any other individual object of super- bourhood is frequently alluded to by stition; but it was a kind of Pantheon, the Welch bards. In song XII. of in which all the Arkite and Sabine the Gododin, by Aneurin, we find the divinities of British theology were sup- stone cell of the sacred fire noticed ; posed to have been present: for here and in song XV. we find also the great we perceive Noe and Hu, the deified stone fence of the common sanctuary, patriarch ; Elphin and Rheiddin, the In the song of another Welch bard, syn ; Eseye, Isis; Kêd, Ceres, with Cuthelin, we also find allusions made the cell of her sacred fire ; Llywy, to Stonehenge, in the words Mawd, Proserpine, Gwyden, Hermes, Budd, Cor Cyvoeth, the great circle, or sancs Victory, and several others.”

tuary of the dominion." As to the precise date of Stone Sir Richard Colt Hoare*, coincides henge, Mr. Davies says nothing de- entirely with the opinions of Mr.Davies, finitively, but remarks it was inost from whom he has clearly derived the likely of later origin than the intro- etymology of the word Ambresbury. duction of the Helio-Arkite supersti- Its high antiquity, he adds, is corrobotion, which is traditionally said to rated by the fact, that many of the have been of foreign growth, and to barrows around must have been formhave come by the way of Cornwall, ed subsequently to the temple, though and therefore probably from the tin probably before the arrival of the Romerchants.

in Britain.

He thinks that Its being mentioned by the bard Stonehenge must have been to the Aneurin, in his poem of "Gododin," Britons what Mecca is now to the as existing previous to the massacre by Mahomedaris. Hengist, is justly remarked to be a The Rev. James Ingram, in his decided evidence of its not having been Inaugural Lecture on the Utility of erected to commemorate that event, the Saxon Literature," has suggested a « but that, on the contrary, it was a new idea relative to Stonehenge. He monument of venerable antiquity in considers it as the “ Heathen burial the days of Hengist; and that its place;" and the cursus adjoining, as peculiar sanctity influenced the selec- the Hippodrome on which the goods tion of the spot for the place of con

of the deceased were run for at the ference between the British and Saxon time of burial. princes. It is equally clear that the Another novel opinion relative to: sacred building did not receive its the construction of Stonehenge, is adname of Gwaith Emrys, from Emrys, panced by the late Mr. Cunnington, or Anubrosius, a prince who fought in the History of Ancient Wiltshire with Hengist; but that, on the other hand, it coinmunicates to him its own * History of Ancient Wilts, Vol. I. p. 137.


P. 707.

Origin and Purposes of Stonehenge.

129 It is grounded on the difference in imposts, and the mortices and tenons by quality and size between the stones of which they are secured to the standards, the great circle and ellipsis, and those are not only unlike every work of the Druids, of the smaller ones. In considering but incompatible with their principles. Add the subject, says Mr. Cunnington, “I to this, the discovery of Roman Coins bez have been led to suppose, that Stone- neath some of the larger stones, implies henge has been erected at different their position not to have been earlier than eras; that the original work consisted other hypotheses on the subject are totally

the date assigned by the tradition. All of the outward circle, and its imposts, conjectural, and to me they appear as imand the inner oval, or large trilithons; probable in themselves, as they are irreconand that the smallest circle and oval, cilable with each other. of inferior 'stones, were raised at a later “ It is, I believe, agreed by the best period; for they add nothing to the lithologists, that the larger members of grandeur of the temple, but rather Stonehenge are sarsens, similar to those gave a littleness to the whole, and called the Grey-wethers, which, in innumore particularly so, if, according 10 merable places, protrude above the soil, Smith, you add the two small irili- betueen Marlborough 'and Avebury, and thons of granite.".

therefore were probably transported thence." The next opinion relative to Stone Mr. Fosbroke, in his “Encyclopedia henge, we bave to notice, is some of Antiquities," p. 72, is of opinion what analogous to the last.

It is con

that the elucidation of Mr. Maurice is tained in the following judicious re the best; and that it is the Temple of marks, extracted from a letter of the the Sun in Britain mentioned by DioRev. Samuel Greatheed, addressed to dorus. It is (şays Mr. M.) circular, as Mr. Britton, and printed in the "Beau- were all Temples of the Sun and Vesta. ties of England and Wales,” vol. XV. The adytum, or sanctuin sanctorum,

is oval, representing the mundane egg, • Stonehenge has nothing about it im- in which the sacred fire perpetually:

after the manner that all those adyta, plying a higher antiquity than the age of Aurelius Ambrosius, but the circle and oval blazed, was constantly fabricated. The of upright stones, which perfectly reseinble situațiori is fixed astronomically; the our numerous Druidical temples, from Corn- grand entrance, and that of Abury, wall to Cumberland. These parts alone of being placed exactly North-east, as ali the structure, therefore, I consider as Drui- the gates or portals of the ancient dicul ; and I apprehend that these alone cavern temples were, especially those were standing, when the Saxons 'assassi- dedicated to Mithra, i. e. the Sun. nated the British chiefs, assembled with The number of stones and uprights in them on that spot, at a Council Feast. the outward circles, making together No authentic accounts of that period opposes exactly sixty, plainly alludes to that the probability that Ambrosius might erect peculiar and prominent feature of there a durable monument, in memory of Asiatick astronomy, the sexagenary his countrymen, and of the cruel treachery of their invaders. Nothing is more likely, cycle; while the number of stones than, that he would, if he had opportunity, forming the minor cycle of the cove, adopt such means of animating the Britons being exactly nineteen, displays to us to perseverance, in so wearisome a contest :

the famous Metonic, or rather Indian and certainly nothing could have been better cycle; and that of thirty repeatedly suited to the purpose, than such an erection occurring, the celebrated age or geneas Stonehenge, which might equally sustain ration of the Druids. Further, the the violence of enemies, and the lapse of temple being uncovered, proves it to ages. The zeal of his numerous followers have been erected before the age of would carry them through the requisite Zoroaster, 500 years before Christ, labour. The pattern of the Romans was who first covered in the Persian temsufficient to supply the mechanical powers ples. Finally, the heads and horns of which it demanded, and it is so obvious an imitation of their architecture, that. Inigo in the spot, prove that the sanguinary

oxen and other animals, found buried Jones, who had well studied the subject, sup, rites, peculiar to the solar superstition, posed it to be their performances. The plan was regulated by that of the original Druidi were actually practised within the cal structure; the outer stones of which

awful bounds of this hallowed circle. must have been partly removed, to admit

-Want of room prevents our quoting the Trilithons; but would, of course, be re

farther from Mr. 'Fosbroke's interestplaced. The rough squaring, the continued ing Encyclopedia ; we must therefore GENT. MAG. February, 1823.


130 Stonehenge.-Churchwardens' Rates.--Ladies' Handwriting. [Feb, refer to the work itself (p. 73, &c.) for It appears to me, that the power of farther observations on Stonehenge, appointing a Collector connects itself and on Stone Circles in general, as with the Churchwarden, whose duty well on Cromlechs, Rocking Stones, . it is to make the Levies; for the mak&c. &c.

ing a Rale would be useless, without Some remarks by Mr. Fosbroke on the power of collecting it when made. the æra of Stonehenge, may be seen Your Correspondent admits that all in vol. LXXXVI. i. p. 510.

reasonable expences must be allowed; Stonehenge has frequently been the then what expences, I ask, can be subject of discussion in our Magazine; more reasonable than those by_means and the reader may consult with ad- of which the Rate is levied ? For my vantage vol. xxii. p. 373, 374 ; LXVI. own part, I consider such expences 648 ; a good defence of Dr. Stukeley's not only reasonable, but necessary. opinion in vol. xliv. p. 199; Mr. Even were it the duty of the Sirutt's observations on Stonehenge, Churchwarden to collect the Rates, in vol. XLVIII. p. 268 ; Mr. Warner's there are many circumstances (such as opinion, in vol. lxxi. p. 916; Mr. illness, by which he might be incapaBigland's, vol. Lxxx. i. p. 344; and citated from personally collecting them), Mr. Marshall's, vol. LxxxvIII. i. p. under which it would be monstrous if 57. A very neat view of Stonehenge, he were held liable for the expences of drawn by William Hamper, Esq. collection; for it must be considered F.S. A. is given in vol. LxxvI. p. 600, that the office of a Church warden is before the last fall of the stones, in not an office of choice, but of neces1797; which fall is noticed in vol. sity. And further, I think, no ChurchLxvii. p. 75; vol. Lxx. p. 1062. Se- warden would be so inconsiderate of veral models of Stonehenge have been his own interest as to sue his predecesa made, one of which is deposited in sor for such an application of the Rates the Museum at Oxford.

as this; for such a proceeding would A very good large view of Stone- in all probability form a precedent for henge, taken in March 1796, by James his successor against himself. Malton, was published in 1800, dedi I cannot at present cite a case in cated to the Society of Antiquaries; point to confirm my opinion, but the but the most complete illustrations of basis of my argument appears so eviit are the Views and Plans, so accu dent, as not to need any authority to rately drawn by Mr. P. Crocker, in establish it; if, however, it appears to Sir Richard Hoare's splendid work on your Correspondent that I have drawn the “ Antient History of Wiltshire;' an unfair inference from it, I shall be which work all who wish to know obliged by his endeavours to remove more of this “ Wonder of the West,” my present impression, if fallacious, in may advantageously consult.



Doctors' Commons,


Feb. 14.


said to be

PEho has youice corresponder ob : 1, who am an old bachelor, and have

ERHAPS your Correspondent w. W ther Foquacious. IdNevertheless,

servations in page 2, can inform me, had the honour of corresponding with how a Rate can be quashed after its not a few of them, had never any reacollection? If a Church wardev ap son to make this remark. Often, to be plies the Church Rates to an iniproper sure, bave I had reason to wish, that purpose, he may be called to account their hand-writing was more intelligiby action at common law, by his suc ble. A great exception to this remark cessor, who alone has that right. I was the late Countess of Waldegrave, conceive the consequence of a Rate whose letters never puzzled, but always being quashed to be, that its collection convinced you. A Mrs. Pengelly, of is thereby prevented; which process Cornwall, 'long since deceased, merits would be useless, if applied to the the same compliment. Pray, Mr. Urcase of your Correspondent.

ban, advise all female correspondents, The office of a Churchwarden is to in penmanship to rival Lady Waldemake Rates and Levies for the repair grave, and Mrs. Pengelly, that so their of the Church; and I think the term correspondents may, without difficulty, “Levies” cannot be construed to im- ascertain their meaning. ply an actual collection.


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