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116
On the Mutability of National Grandeur.

[Feb. superior genius, upon the astonished lence, had passed by, and were blotted senses of their countrymen, whom from the remembrance of mankind. they laboured to wean from the fri In the wanderings of reverie, I volous and unprofitable studies upon launched at once into the wide soliwhich they wasted the energies of their loquy which is frequently apt to overminds. I saw, in idea, the wonder take the individual who throws the which many of the discoveries of the rein on the suggestions of his fancy. latter excited in a dark and ignorant From the mouldering ruins of once age, and the dawn of intellectual light splendid establishments which meet of which his example was in soine the eye of the antiquary in our island, degree productive, and which, although I diverged to other climes and periods afterwards extinguished by a succes far more remote in the annals of time. sion of dark periods, were yet in their And here I could not but be struck faint traces for a considerable time with the superior affinity, with the discernible.

powers and exigencies of the human At a time when the pomp and cere mind; which subjects, combining monies of Popery were at their height, moral relations, have over things of and superstition had usurped an entire mere physical interest. The sublime and unbounded dominion over the in natural objects may be said, genehuman mind, it is reasonable to sup- rally, to yield in the intensity of its pose that the soleinn and gloomy excitement, when viewed intrinsically arcades, the vast painted windows, as such, to others far inferior in bulk dimly reflecting the light of heaven, or in majesty, if these last are accomand majestically striking their shadows panied with some unusual or brilliant over all inferior objects, were instru display of human energy, or associated mental in eliciting in the serious and with some fine trait of moral character. reflective mind, a disposition to study I glanced, in retrospection, at the hisand philosophy. But, unfortunately, tory and the state of those countries these studies, for want of sure and un which have long shone in civilization erring guides, who should curb the and in arts, or which, although now useless licentiousness of human thought, obscure, have yet witnessed past ages and direct its energies, too frequently of moral grandeur, and then adverted evaporated in empty and puerile spe to those extensive tracks of our globe, culations, which, after the lapse of a which, although peopled by myriads century of indefatigable exertion, left of human beings, had never emanciknowledge, just where it found it. pated beyond a primæval state,—where Bacon and Abelard, with the same the light of science had never chased advantages, happened to possess souls the glooms of barbarian ignorance, or of a more elevated cast, and had the opened the mind to thought or intelminds of their contemporaries been ligent design. England, France, and sufficiently prepared to have seconded Italy, Greece and Egypt respectively their views, would have gone far in occur to the mind as being those of all introducing a better state of things. others whose soils have at various pe

For many centuries did this and riods been the theatres of a race of other splendid establishments in our beings who have attained a high and island, of the monastic kind, beam in glorious distinction among the other the full tide of their splendour, from nations of the world, and whose fame the munificence of the wealthy and stands recorded in the numerous mothe ostentatious patronage of the great. numents of their taste, their skill, and Now, sunk in years, and dilapidated their thinking, so far as involved in through neglect, they are fallen to in the operation of any active energy: glorious decay, and are fast mingling In this survey, Greece and Egypt with their primitive dust. Exhibiting may be thought, of all others, to be considerable skill and knowledge in

the countries whose past æras of granarchitecture, although bearing withal deur would naturally call up in the many indications of barbarian taste, reflective mind the most signal remithese venerable temples, reared for the niscences, as their day has long passed most part by Gothic superstition, in by; and the Republick which once gave dubitably proclaim that ages of com birth to a Homer, a Phidias, and an parative civilization and arts in their Aristotle, or the latitudes which once various stages and degrees of excel witnessed the maturity of that genius

1823.] On the Mutability of National Grandeur,

117 which reared such structures, whether which have intervened between the of tombs, pyramids, or temples, as period of its most enlightened daysa have in every subsequent age elicited period when those historic records the astonishment of civilized mankind, upon which we are wont to dwell unfold images of teeming and mo with curiosity and delight, were written mentous interest.

-will naturally pass under review. There is, I resumed, a world of The melancholy reverses that this deep and legitimate enquiry, . well country, which has ever stood high in calculated to catch the inquisitive the history of human intellect, has mind, as it thus ranges through a sustained, and the long reign of desocountry whose soil bears upon its face lation which has since swept over its the disencumbered piles of stately and devoted head, has doubtless inspired majestic edifices, exhibiting consum- the imaginations of multitudes, and mate design, purity, and elevation of mụst still continue to occupy a place genius, and splendour of resource. The in the associations of the philosopher human sympathies have, in a thou- who witnesses the scenes of her fallen sand instances, been found to be pow. glory. erfully excited, upon the first view of What volumes, to the thinking those remains of Atheniau and Roman mind, will ever spontaneously crowd grandeur, which, both in their zenith upon the imagination of the traveller, and their decay, have employed so as he roams through a country which, many tongues to celebrate.

M. de under other dynasties, and at periods Chateaubriand's ideas seemed to echo grown grey with years, had brightened in unison to this simultaneous flow of in arts, and raised the empire of intelsensations, when upon susmounting lect to a very distinguished height ! the citadel which commands the an Multitudes of intelligent scholars from cient site of Lacedæmon, he broke every part of Europe, adopting the forth into sudden apostrophe :-"What habits of the recluse, have wandered a magnificent spectacle!” he exclaims, among these ruins of a former world, “ but how melancholy !—The solitary considered in a moral view, and whilst stream of the Eurotas running beneath surrounded by a wilderness of broken the remains of the bridge Babyx, runs columns, superb amphitheatres, and on every side, and not a creature to be richly sculptured mausoleums, whether seen among them. I stood motion- found in Italy, Greece, Egypt, or less in a kind of stupor at the contem- Asia Minor, have felt* their energies plation of this scene. A mixture of awakened by so invigorating a theme; admiration and grief checked the cur and have hence given to the world rent of my thoughts, and fixed me to many important and beautiful speculathe spot ;- profound silence reigned tions. around me." _Such sentiments have It has been observed by a speculator marked the first ebullitions of every upon the causes which hasten the detraveller, who since the revival of cline and fall of nations—" from the letters and of taste in Europe, have borders of the Persian Gulf to the been driven by curiosity, and a thirst shores of the Baltic sea;

from Babylon for knowledge, to survey the august and Palmyra, Egypt, Greece, and Italy, but fallen memorials of former gran to Spain and Portugal, and the whole deur, which diversify the classic soil circle of the Hanseatic League, we of Attica.

trace the same ruinous remains of anIn gazing upon these proud memo- cient greatness, presenting a melancholy rials, which declare, in the most un contrast with the poverty, ignorance, equivocal language, that a race of be- and indolence of the present race of ings incomparably more intelligent and inhabitants; and an irresistible proof active than the present had once trod of the mutability of human affairs." her cities--the long succession of years Another speculator of splendid abilities

It is well known that Gibbon first conceived the design of his elaborate History amidst the ruins of the Capitol.-Volney gave free and unbounded scope to his fancy, and embodied the glowing images of his wandering thoughts in the unlicensed speculations of scepticism. Denon, Chateaubriand, and a host of others, have felt a kindling enthusiasm rise in their bosoms upon expatiating amongst these fading monuments of ancient magnificence.

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118
Alarming Progress of the Cholera Morbus,

[Feb. has remarked, we have seen some cate mazes of getting fortunes, as well States which have spent their vigour as of saving their lives, would do most at their commencement; some have prudently to adopt this practice. Have blazed out in their glory a little before the goodness to go along with their extinction; the meridian of some applying this principle to the fatal has been the most splendid.--Others, epidemic of Cholera Morbus, which and those the greatest number, have threatens in its progress from the Auctuated, and experienced at different East to visit our 'United Kingdon ; periods of their existence a great va and I call upon medical men, while riety of fortune.” If, in imagination, they have time, to become masters of we look abroad over our globe, we this disease, that as its approach is disshall perceive that, although during covered, they may be ready at their the long line of history we have re post to protect us from its ravages, cords of numerous States which have from our beloved monarch to the risen to eminence, and glory, and arts, poorest labourer of our land :they have, after all, formed compara- especially too, if it should be deemed tively but an inconsiderable portion of necessary for us

to send out our mankind-like fertile and cultivated sons and nephews in the fleets and spots surrounded by vast wastes of armies of our Union, lo defend the sánd, destitute of verdure, or yielding cause in which we may be engaged, a no vegetable production of any size or timely preparation to meet this deadly beauty. The greater and preponderat- and silent foe may prevent our ranks ing aggregate of mankind may be said from being thinned, before their manly to have remained in a savage state

prowess is tried. so far as any positive intellectual It is said that the Cholera Morbus energy has been elicited from the has sprung up in the Eastern parts of Creation. A reason, hence, may be the globe, and has already passed into found, perhaps, why Historians and British India ; thence across Persia Philosophers have dwelt with such and the shores of the Caspian sea, animated interest upon the signal vicis- has traversed a great part of Asia, and situdes of several nations which, in penetrated into Syria, compelling the their decay and total extinction, have wretched inhabitants of Aleppo to quit left to posterity indubitable marks of the ruins of their last asylum ! and if pristine grandeur, that no mutila- it should proceed in the same diagonal tions of time or unsparing hostilities line, its course will as rapidly stretch of barbarisms have succeeded in wholly over the Northern parts of Europe, effacing

Germany, France, and thus to Great (To be continued.)

Britain. I have looked for the truth

of this story into some of the present Mr. URBAN,

Fel. 10.

correspondences, and also of those oftraresting columns are devoted in and I regret to find it verified in the general to medical subjects, nor am I private and public letters from Hina practitioner, or have any experience in dostan and Ceylon, of the date of 1821, the science of medicine, still, I beg to and from Constantinople in December claim your attention to some remarks last. I have, from some relative on the ground of public good. All mo connexions on both sides of that Peralists prescribe, and all worldly men, ninsula, gathered the information on who scarcely listen to them, unite in al- which I can rely, that the prevalence lowing, that preparation to meet cer of this disease has been so great, as to tain or probable evils is an act of pru- be justly deemed an epidemic, as dence sanctioned by the calls of self-in- general as the plague, and as our forterest, and the blessings of Religion. mer epidemics of small-pox in London. What the medical practitioners deno- The suddenness of the attack is not minate their prophylactic system, would more surprising than its almost instant be of infinite benefit, could it be in- fatality--a patient of full vigour and troduced in every concern of human strength in the morning, becomes a life-to prevent rather than to punish corpse before noon ;-whole families, is the profoundest plan of all legislative in the enjoyment of perfect ease, have and political wisdom-and those who in two days been swept into the same busy themselves in the great waters, grave together. Schools and Temples, and in the crooked depths and intri- and places of public resort, have been

deserted

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1823.] Cholexu Morbus.-Characters of Nations.

119 deserted through fear, and private and the fatal visitation has been fell dwellings have also become the seats of the medical Practitioners in the armies equal misery and devastation.

of the British settlements have been In the last Church Missionary Re- very active in their efforts--and it is port, the journal of the Rev. Joseph hoped that the more recent returns of Knight, from Vellore in Ceylon, states the state of the respective battalions several instances of the ravages of this will shew some abatement of the epifatal disease. In the same year (1821) demic. the danger was apprehended in the The progress, therefore, of the disease night air the schools were on this Northward, next claims the serious account closed at an earlier hour than attention of every friend to mankind usual—the places of worship were less its approach is to be deprecated as a attended, and the ministers improved plague-and no measures ought to be the visitation for a serious exhortation relinquished that can in any degree to forsake sin. Among the idolatrous tend to alleviate or prevent its dire heathens and Brahmins, their temples fatality. Rules of living, diet, daily were sometimes filled with offerings habits, customary associations, and to appease the anger of their offended evening resorts, cloathing, habitation, deities—their goddess " Amma” was weather, medicine, &c. should be the most zealously propitiated in this stated under the authority of medical manner, by singing verses to her, and men of the college for the government by prostration and prayer, morning and of every individual—what should be evening. On these they had more re done, and what should be omitted and liance than on the medicines which foreborne—so as to repel the contagion were offered to them, although two of and preserve the climate pure, and the them were thereby recovered; but in fire-side healthyand above all, the one village a house, which had contained mercy of God invoked, not only by sixteen persons, was left uninhabited, humble and devout supplication, but all having died. In some places the also by reformation of life and mansick have been carried to their temple, ners !

A. H. where they fancied that the deity would work a miracle for their restoration, Mr. URBAN,

Feb. 11. and were averse to any medicine, or *HE following characters of nations, advice to return home; they even treated these with contempt, and called Doctæ Nugæ Gaudenții Jocosi*, it“ Amma's sickness,” and “ Amma's may interest such of your readers as medicine.” Mr. K. says, he never are accustomed to theorise upon

human witnessed so much distress as in this

However national pride may visit, and he felt powerfully impressed be offended, no one can deny justice to with the duty of interceding with God some of the attributes, thongh it is to for these people, that the plague might be hoped that the writer has judged either be stayed or sanctified: the visi- hastily of Britain, or, to speak logically, tation was truly awful. “ Some," he the induction has been made without adds, “ whom I found at the Kykooler sufficient investigation. Temple to-day, were dead; others

« Nationum Proprietates et Regionum. who were there were somewhat recovered ; and their friends, who were

Hispani, consulti, bellicosi, graves.

Itali, ingeniosi, vindictæ cupidi. attending them, boastingly exclaimed Galli, inobiles, intemperantes. of their idol, · Poothrarayer has been Britanni, versipelles negotiatores. gracious to us'!” A small temple to Belge, delicati, negotiis et linguis dediti. the Devil Viraven being in a ruinous Germani, bellatores simplices, benefici : Ex state, the people were urged by the his craft of the Brahmins, and through Francones, fortes, robusti, vini et veritatis fear of this sickness, to rebuild it.

The activity of this missionary, in Bavari, sumptuosi conviatores. his earnest efforts to console them, and Suevi, leves, timidi, loquaces, gloriosi.. to call them to a better knowledge of

Misnenses, munifici, locupletes. God, has been truly exemplary and Rheni, accolæ, frugi, hospitales, aperti.

Saxones, versuti, contumaces. the epidemic afforded ample occasion

Bohemi, inhumani, prædatores, seditiosi. for the exercise of his Christian zeal.

Across Hindostan, from Calcutta to * Solisbaçi, Impensis Johannis Leonardi Bombay, the alarm has been spread, Buggelii, Anno 1713, 18mo.

Pannones,

nature.

amantes.

Feb. 19.

120 Epitaph on J. Symes, Esq.-On Debts due to the Crown. (Feb. Pannones, vulgo Hungari, asperi victds in of Somerset, Esq.), and when he was full aureo solio.

of days and honour, having lived 88 years, Poloni, omnium nationum venenum, quia 7 months, and 17 days, and seen the safe nylli favent.”

return of his Prince to his crown and kingBuonaparte, it will be remembered, doms, after a long and most horrible exile, called us a nation de boutiques

. The and State, having finished his work on

and the flourishing condition both of Church following jingling lines are from the earth, he chearfully resigned his soul to same miscellany: harsh as they may God that gave it, the 21st day of October, sound, their truth cannot be devised.

Anno Domini 1661, in full assurance of a « Vir benè vestitus, pro vestibus esse peritus joyful resurrection." Creditur a mille, quamvis idiota sit ille : I observe the frequent mention of Si careat veste, nec sit vestitus honestè,

Colonel Carlos in your later volumes. Nullius est laudis quamvis sciat omne quod By Chainberlayne's “ Angliæ Notitia," audis.”

1073, it appears that he was one of These epigrams characterise not a the Gentlemen in Ordinary, of the single nation, but a profession in all : Privy Chamber, for_the midsummer “ Jurisconsulti verè prudentes. quarter.

BODUNIENSIS. Juris prudentes, prudentes jure vocantur, Tam benè cum studeant provideantque sibi. Mr. Urban, Jurista præcedit Medicum.

SALOPIAN wishes to know

A Non facies furtum, legem hanc Jurista

whether the act of Elizabeth, or notabit:

any other Act of Parliament, gives to Sex non occides, pertinet ad Medicum."

the Crown a priority and a preference Yours, &c.

Talpa. on a common bond, over other bonds

or assigned securities of previous date : Mr. URBAN,

Feb. 12. He makes this query from the follow"HE following epitaph is inscribed ing circumstance. A surety for an brass, in a niche in the wall of South penalty, for which the Crown took his well's aile, in the parish-church of bond, payable at his decease. The Frampton-Cotterel, Gloucestershire. surety hesitated granting such bond,

“ Reader, thou treadest on the sacred fearing other bondholders, or assigned ashes of John Symes, Esq. who in the late

securities would be injured, in case unhappy times of Rebellion, was forced (for any priority or preference was claimed his signal loyalty to his prince) to leave his by the Crown; and writes to a friend former habitation at Poundesford, in the (which letter can be produced) " after parish of Priminster in the county of So- I sign the new bond to Government, merset, and to seek a repose for his old age all my creditors antecedent to that are in this parish. He was a man greatly re safe, and this I am assured of by the nowned for wisdome, justice, integrity, and Government Solicitor.” Notwithstandsobriety, which talents he did not hide in a ing this, a Government Solicitor, on napkin, but religiously exercised in the the decease of the surety, has seized whole conduct of his life, especially in the

on the premises ; ordered every thing government of that county wherein he bore all the honourable offices incident to a

to be sold and paid to the Crown, country gentleman, as knight of the shire employed a country attorney to carry (elected nemine contradicente) for the Par- the same into execution, who has liament held at Westminster in the 21st frightened the tenants under assignyear of King James, High Sheriffe, Deputy ments, from paying the arrears and Lieutenant for many years, and Justice of last half-yearly rents, due previous to the Peace for 40 years and upwards. And the decease of the surety, into the as he was careful and solicitous to discharge hands of the receiver, setting up, that his duty to God, his Sovereign, and Coun- he has a priority and preference even try, so God was pleased to bestow on him to such arrears and rents; and they several badges (also) of his special care and are now using and urging every posfavour, as length of days, accompanied with sible means to seize and get all monies a most healthy constitution of body for immediately into their hands, if not above 80 years, and of his mind

to the total exclusion, at least, in prioAs also a numerous posterity, even of children and childrens' children, to the number rity and preference to all other bonds of 100 and upwards, descended of his loyns men or assigned securities. Can this (by his only wife Amy, the daughter of be maintained as legal and right? Thomas Horner, of Cloved, in the county Yours, &c.

BE.

Mr.

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