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the Pope, whilst the other, rejecting the authority of Rome, recognizes as its head the Patriarch of Echmiadzin, who takes the title of the Catholicos of the Armenian churches. This catholicos, on whom all the other Armenian patriarchs depend, and from whom they receive their ordination, is elected by the synod of Echmiadzin, and was confirmed by the shahs of Persia and the sultans of Turkey. Peter the Great in 1724, Catharine I. in 1726, Catharine II. in 1766, and Paul I. in 1798, gave diplomas to the patriarchs of Echmiadzin, confirming their spiritual authority over the Armenian churches of Russia. This was a very natural and lawful proceeding; but in 1800 the Emperor Paul granted to Prince Argootinski a diploma confirming him in the dignity of the patriarch of Echmiadzin, although Russia could not establish any claim to the sovereignty of that see, either de jure or de facto. The Emperor Alexander also gave, and with no better right, a similar confirmation ; but since the treaty of Turkmanschay, Russia possesses an undoubted right to the exercise of this power, and she certainly will take good care to turn it to the best advantage; for the great influence which the patriarch of Echmiadzin exercises over all the Armenians dispersed throughout Asia, converts them at once into the most useful agents of Russia.
We now leave our readers to conclude, from all that we have said, whether Russia possesses sufficient materials for establishing her dominion, or at least an extensive influence, over the fairest portions of Asia ; and whether our interests in those quarters are exposed to some danger or not; and we more especially recommend these data to our Foreign Minister. He has now the book which we have received, in his own office, to read : let us hope that he will know how to profit by its revelations.
Religious Persecution in Germany.
PRUSSIA, the classical soil of learning, has been made the scene of a very curious controversy. The thesis was the following: “ If a Protestant marries a Catholic, and vice versa, what is to be the religion of the child which may spring from such marriage?” The king of Prussia said, “ The child shall follow the religion of the father ;" and the archbishop of Cologne said, “The children shall all be Catholics.” The two antagonists being equally convinced of the indisputable truth of their respective responsa, it was difficult to foresee an end to the controversy, till the archbishop practically decided it in his own favour, by forbidding all priests under his jurisdiction to bestow the blessing of the church upon all couples that would not pledge themselves to bring up the children in the Catholic faith. The king then issued orders to his own priests, commanding a regiment of dragoons and a detachment of artillery, to go to Cologne, to seize the archbishop, and to bring him to Minden. As the king said, so was it done. Two non-commissioned officers received the archbishop at Minden; and the king ordered further, that the archbishop should neither read nor write letters without their passing through the hands of the authorities, and being examined by them; and that no man, clerical or lay, without distinction of rank, should be allowed to see him, unless provided with a ticket from the president, Von Bodelschwing. Thus as the archbishop had no one to speak or write to with respect to the point in dispute, and the censorship, on the other hand, took the same view of the question as the king, it might be supposed that the controversy ended here.
Such, however, was not the case; it was now that the controversy really began. Three of his majesty's ministers, Von Altenstein, Von Kamptz and Von Rochow, sent a long article of four columns, signed with their names, to the official gazette of Berlin; in which it was proved that the king was in the right, and the archbishop in the wrong. Neither the archbishop nor any living soul in Prussia wrote a single syllable against this; and, according to the rule, qui tacet consentit, the three ministers had obtained an undisputed victory. But, as the French say, l'appétit vient en mangeant ; not satisfied with a first, they were desirous of a second and greater triumph. The whole ministry then transformed themselves into another Council of Trent, and, instead of four columns, published two thick folio volumes, in which it was proved again that the king was right, and that the archbishop was wrong. Who could answer this ? Certainly, no one in Prussia; but the pope stood up and said: “Not so! the king is wrong, and the archbishop is right.” What were they to do with him? They could not send him to Minden, and the Prussian censorship is not so powerful at Rome as at Berlin. In this time of need they selected a man very learned in Protestant theology, and speaking Latin as fluently as the cardinals Mezzofanti and Mai, whom the king ordered to refute both the pope and his cardinals, and, if possible, to persuade them to turn Protestants. This man was Dr. Bun
It is difficult to say what he might not have obtained through his solid learning in matters of Protestant divinity from the pope and his cardinals, if the latter had consented to listen to him. But whenever Dr. Bunsen knocked at a door, there. was nobody at home to him. Such behaviour was, to say nothing more, uncivil on the part of the pope and his cardinals; and the king of Prussia, who is not a man to pocket an insult, immediately dismissed—the pope or his cardinals ? No!- Dr. Bunsen, for not having spoken to them as he ought to have done.
In this strain we might continue for a long while, without altering in the least the truth of the facts, but we hope we have already succeeded in showing our readers one side at least of the question; the blunders and the utter neglect of all forms of justice which characterized the proceedings of the Prussian cabinet. The archbishop was first condemned and thrown into prison; and then they tried him ;-before a tribunal? By no means !- the king's ministers sent several quires of foolscap, filled with Hegelian casuistry, into the world,--and this was the trial which followed the judgement.
The negociation with Rome very appropriately crowned the whole. They have excellent schools and universities in Prussia; and have they still to learn the character of the Romish church? Have they yet to learn that it is a fundamental doctrine of that church, that the pope can never be wrong, and that what he says must be right? Dr. Bunsen, no doubt, is a man of merit and estimable erudition ; but if they had sent a second Cicero to Rome, he would not have convinced the pope, because the pope decides, dictates, and never argues in matters of religion. They had an example in the archbishop, an aged man of upwards of seventy, whom they bullied and threw into prison to no purpose; and how could they hope for a moment to succeed with the pope, whom they could neither bully nor throw into prison? It was, on the contrary, the pope, who not only bullied, but actually insulted the Prussian cabinet.
The crown prince of Prussia had lent a sum of money to the duke of Cafarelli, on the security of his palace at Rome. As soon as the pope heard of it, the duke of Cafarelli was punished with confinement in his own house, for having borrowed money from a Prussian prince; and, lest the Prussian cabinet should be mistaken as to the meaning of this measure, a note was sent to their ambassador at Rome, in which he was dryly told to take back his prince's money from the Papal treasury, which would advance it. And, lastly, by an edict, dated the 5th of May, the duke was declared unfit to administrate his private fortune, which was all taken from him and placed in the hands of a prelate, who was appointed his guardian.
A native of Rome, of the name of Rubiconti, who had been an officer in the army of Napoleon, fixed himself, on the retreat from Russia, at Königsberg in Prussia, where he married a Protestant, by whom he had two girls, who were brought up in the religion of the mother. The officer, who had a father living at Rome and possessed of some fortune, went with his family there. When arrived, his father said to him, “ Your wife and girls must become Catholics.” The wife would not consent, and the son was disinherited. During the presence of Dr. Bunsen at Rome, the two children were taken by force from their mother, and, by the pope's order, conveyed to St. Michaels, where they are to be brought up in the Catholic religion. This was certainly an act of shocking injustice perpetrated against a Prussian subject, but it was also an insult wantonly put upon the Prussian cabinet, and committed under the eyes of their ambassador. What can they do? Prussia is a powerful country, with a numerous well-disciplined army, and the pope is scarcely strong enough to stand upon his legs, and defend himself from his own subjects. Yet the laughter will certainly not be on the side of Prussia, for her position very much resembles that of Gulliver when he fenced with the flies and struggled in the milk-pot.
The Government began boldly: perhaps with rather too much decision and heroism. The archbishop was arrested in the month of November last year, but what have they done since ?-All they could to hush up the matter. Prussia has covered herself with ridicule if we look to the mere surface of the matter; but what is still worse and of far greater importance, the king has involved himself in dangerous quarrels with five millions of his subjects. He has five millions of Catholic subjects, who see in the imprisonment of the archbishop an attack
upon their faith. In Münster and several other places, the intervention of the armed force became necessary; blood has been shed, and the king is at daggers drawn with his Catholic subjects in the east as well as in the west.
The dispute between the king and the archbishop is a question of law and right. The king is not master at home with respect to the Catholic church, whose rights are contained in the law of the Germanic Confederation, and in a concordat which the Prussian cabinet voluntarily concluded with the pope in 1821.
On the 25th of February 1803, not long before the dissolution of the German empire, the Imperial Diet resolved, with respect to the bishoprics, chapters and other clerical corporations possessing votes at the Diet, and secularized at that time, that their properties should be employed as an endowment for the Catholic church and Catholic schools. This resolution was received into the legislation of the new Germanic Confederation (8th of June 1815, and 15th of May 1820), and the archbishoprics and bishoprics created afterwards in Baden, Wurtemberg, Bavaria, &c. received such an