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“ ward; the interests are so blended and so limited, that no "

person sees the particular advantage he would gain, and it “ is only by Government that this can possibly be done.”*

We have already mentioned that the Board of Public Works was enabled to make small grants for the formation of roads in Ireland. A portion of this fund was expended by Mr. Griffith in the counties of Limerick, Cork and Kerry Before the commencement of the works Mr. Griffith thus describes that part of the country.

“ The fertile plains of Limerick, Cork and Kerry are separated from each other by a deserted country, hitherto nearly an impassable barrier. This large district comprehends upwards of 900 square miles : in many places it is very populous. As might be expected under such circumstances, the people are turbulent; and their houses being inaccessible for want of roads, it is not surprising, that during the disturbances of 1821 and 1822, this district was the asylum for Whiteboys, smugglers and robbers, and that stolen cattle were drawn into it as to a safe and impenetrable retreat. Notwithstanding its present desolate state, this country contains within it the seeds of future improvement and industry.”[

The following is Mr. Griffith's report on the same district, after the execution of the works in 1829.

A very considerable improvement has already taken place in the vicinity of the roads, both in the industry of the inhabitants, and the appearance of the country: upwards of 60 new lime kilns have been built ; carts, ploughs, harrows and improved implements have become common; new houses of a better class have been built, new inclosures made, and the country has become perfectly tranquil, and exhibits a scene of industry and exertion at once pleasing and remarkable. A large portion of the money received for labour has been husbanded with care, laid out in the building of substantial houses, and in the purchase of stock and agricultural implements; and numerous examples might be shown of poor labourers, possessing neither money, houses nor land when first employed, who, in the past year, have been enabled to take farms, build houses, and stock their land.”

Mr. Williams states, in his evidence before the Committee on Public Works in 1835 :

“ In consequence of the expenditure of £160,000 in Public Works in Connaught in seven years, the increase of the annual revenue has been equal to the whole of that expenditure. I find also,” he adds, a correspond ing increase in the revenue of the Cork district, where Mr. Griffith expended £60,000 in seven years, and the increase of customs and excise has

* Report of Select Committee on Public Works, p. 94, 1835.
† Mr. Griffith in 1822.

been £50,000 a year, attributable mainly to the facilities of communication by which whole districts have been rendered available for productive purposes, and a miserable pauper population converted into a class of consumers..

In the Report of the Commissioners of Public Works in 1834, they state:

“ It is not for this Board to give an opinion on the degree of support which the legislature should bestow on public works of primary utility. We are, however, fully persuaded, not only of the great political advantage of such an expenditure of public money, but that it would be to a considerable extent repaid by the indirect returns made to the revenue, arising from an increased general prosperity. In England abundant sources of industry are struggling for vent, requiring only the stimulus of such additional facilities of intercourse to enable them to come into full and immediate operation. They are therefore, in themselves, fair sources of speculation for private capital. In Ireland, on the contrary, they are required to foster and encourage sources of industry which are yet latent; and though the consequences and advantages are not so immediately apparent, nor (except in a few instances) do they afford direct profits to induce the expenditure of private capital, they are not the less great objects of national interest.”

In their Report of 1835 they state:

“ These roads (constructed by Government aid) have been the means of fertilizing the deserts, and of depriving the lawless disturbers of the public peace of their place of refuge, affording them, at the same time, resources for an active honest industry, of which we must do them the justice to observe, they have not shown any indisposition to avail themselves. We cannot lose the opportunity of repeating the declaration of our firm conviction of the good policy of promoting these eminently useful works by the most liberal and extensive support.”

We have only room for one quotation from their Report of 1837, in which they bear witness to the industry of the Irish peasantry.

When roused by fair opportunities being laid before them and explained, we find that those who can profit by them are perfectly willing to do so, the earnings of labourers at low prices of task-work frequently being double those of the day labourer at the usual wages.

The Select Committee on Public Works, to which we have referred, reported that,

“ Among the remedial measures proposed for the improvement of Ireland, none can create less difference of opinion, or has been more universally urged by all parties and persons who have considered the subject,

* Report of Select Committee on Public Works, Ireland, 1835.

than the propriety of encouraging the execution of public works : and your committee fully coincide in the opinion, that there is every reason in justice and policy for extending, in that country, the public aid for such purposes, in a degree that does not admit of comparison with the consideration that would be the guide for other parts of the United Kingdom.”

Of this Committee the late and present Chancellors of the Exchequer were both members.

But notwithstanding this advice, and coming from such a quarter,-founded on the representation of the officers and commissioners of the Board of Works appointed by the Government, and strengthened by the evidence of the most intelligent persons of all parties, Ireland still remains in the state we have described.

We have shown that £2,423,608 12s. 3d.* have been granted by Government for inland navigation, and roads to Scotland and Canada; and to Ireland, during the same space of time, £21,023! That £4,500,000 have been placed in the hands of commissioners for loans in aid of Public Works in the United Kingdom, of which the share allotted to Ireland has been £200,000. And this is all that has been done for Ireland since the Union, to promote that great object, with the exception of the small funds under the management of the present Board of Workst.

The insular position of Ireland in the Atlantic, facing on the south and west France, Spain, Portugal, the West Indies and America, the wealth of her fisheries on the north and west, and England on her east, to which she has been united by means of steam navigation as by a bridge; her fine rivers, inland lakes, large population, and the wealth that lies hidden in her bosom, all point her out as a country which requires

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Highland roads and bridges.......

military
Navigation in Canada, &c., since 1826..

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£2,423,608 12 3 + Whatever cause Ireland may have to complain of the parsimony of England, to foreign powers this country has been sufficiently liberal. From 1793 to 1821 the loans and subsidies to foreign powers, of which nothing has been repaid, amounted to £77,751,944; and from 1821 to the present period, to £56,694,571, amounting to the enormous total of £153,868,470. Beside this sum, the twenty millions paid for negro emancipation appears trifling. Well might Mr. O'Connell exclaim, “Would that the Irish were blacks!” The Irish people might, in the like sense, exclaim, “Would that we were aliens !"

nothing but the fostering care of a paternal Government to become eminently prosperous. It only requires the aid of the Government to do that which all Governments of ancient and nearly all of modern times have considered it their duty to do, -to open great leading lines of communication by means of roads and canals in Ireland. This will lead to the reclaiming of waste lands; the first by affording means of conveying to them the materials necessary for reclamation, and the second by the drainage they will accomplish. This has been, as we have shown, recommended by all parties, and by none more strongly than by the Head of the Board of Public Works, Colonel Burgoyne.

Where would you apply the Government money, he was asked by the Select Committee we have alluded to. His answer was: “In opening very extensive uncultivated districts : I would provide one main thoroughfare of communication at the expense of Government; and for opening less extensive 66 districts, I would give the moiety grants as at present ; for “ those occasions they work very well.”

We trust that Government will adopt this wise counsel; and we hope soon to see in Ireland, by such assistance, labour employed,-industry promoted,-and

“Long canals and deepen'd rivers join Each part to each, and with the circling main The whole enliven'd isle."*

* Thomson.

ARTICLE V.

Plan of the English Historical Society. 1836.
Venerabilis Bedae Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum. Ad

fidem codicum manuscriptorum recensuit Josephus Steven

son. Londini. Sumptibus Societatis. MDCCCXxxviii. In a late number of this Review we took occasion to touch (slightly, we confess) upon the system of education pursued in the German universities, as contrasted with our own. The scope of our inquiry forbade our then entering into any detail; our business was rather with the mode of education in general, than with the peculiar management of any particular branch. The nature of our argument also led us to cast what, at first sight, may appear to be a slur upon the results attained by the German system. We trust, however, that those who have followed us in our career have little reason to accuse us of an overweening and arrogant habit of praising institutions merely because they are English; on the other hand, that they will acquit us of the pedantic coxcombry of praising institutions because they are not English. It is our especial object to point out that which is praiseworthy both here and elsewhere; to support that which is good in the forms of our own and foreign lands, and to attack only that which we believe to be mischievous and degrading to national morals, whether it be found at home or abroad. If, in this endeavour, we ruffle the prejudices of those who would rather be led than think for themselves,-if, owning no party, we prove so unfortunate as to find opponents among the men of all parties,-if, finally, we earn the reputation, a sorry one, of being the best intentioned men in the world, and nothing elsewe shall take refuge in the proud boast of the Titan,—ÉKÒV εκών ήμαρτον, ουκ αρνήσομαι.-We have sinned intentionally, and do not mean to deny it.

We appeal from Philip drunk to Philip sober; from our countrymen, too busy with matters of fleeting and very secondary interest, to our countrymen when they shall have learnt to look for no greatness but what is founded in the moral developement of all classes of our fellow men; from partisans squabbling for sectarian interests, to citizens intent

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