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96

ZOOLOGIST'S CALENDAR.

plans which the experienced proprietor of the Surrey Gardens finds so successful in preserving the health of the more delicate animals. His monkeys, for example, instead of being confined by twos and threes in close cages, are preserved in a large space, well ventilated and heated, and defended by a glass frame; and here they can disport and exercise themselves throughout the whole winter.

At the Scientific Meeting, held on the 12th of February, some interesting communications were read, including a letter from M. Geoffroy St. Hilaire, referring to some observations lately published by Mr. Owen on the Ornithorhynchus paradoxus of New South Wales; from Capt. Hallam, with an account of the Mango Fish; and Mr. Martin's notes on the dissection of a Lemur.

Notice of a Motion on the subject of closing the Gardens on Sunday during the hours of Divine Service has been given; and it was stated that sales of many of the animals now at the Farm at Kingston, and duplicates of those in the Gardens, are about to take place during the spring.

Zoologist's CALENDAR FOR MARCH.

The animals which we mentioned in our Calendar for January, as being in a state of torpidity, are now beginning to show some symptoms of existence, and to re-appear after their winter's repose. To these we may add the Tortoise (Testudo græca), and the Toad (Bufo vulgaris), which also make their appearance in the course of the present month. To such of our readers as are anglers it will almost be superfluous to remark that now trout begin to rise.

The Crow (Corvus corone) begins to build : several kinds of Birds lay their eggs and sit in the course of this month. Amongst others, we may enumerate the Blackbird (Turdus Merula), the Turkey (Meleagris Gallopavo), and the Raven (Corvus Corax). It is only occasionally, however, that this occurs, as it is more frequently during the next month that these birds lay their eggs.

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THE

ZOOLOGICAL MAGAZINE.

TAE RHINOCEROS OF JAVA. (Rhin. Sondaicus, Cuv.) IN the time of Linnæus only a single species of the more bulky quadrupeds, as the elephant, rhinoceros, and hippopotainus, was known ; and Buffon, who too frequently generalized on slight grounds, considered it as a law of Nature, that in these her larger productions the genus was limited in its representation to a solitary species. But every day brings fresh instances of the boundless extent of the Creative Power; and both species that now move on the surface of the earth, as well as those which are concealed beneath its crust, demonstrate that the principle of variety is by no means limited to the minuter forms of animal life.

We have in a former Number enumerated the different species of Rhinoceros which are at present known to exist, and have given a detailed account of the One-horned Rhinoceros of the Asiatic Continent, (Rhinoceros Indicus, Cuv.)

The present description relates to the one-horned species which inhabits the Island of Java, which is the smallest rhinoceros now known to exist. Its specific distinction from the Rhin. Indicus was first suspected by Camper, from the difference he observed in the form of their crania. Subsequently the Baron Cuvier established with great exactness the peculiar characters of this species, founded on a comparison of its entire skeleton with that of the Indian rhinoceros, and on a drawing and description of the living animal which he had received from India.

It has not been known to exceed nine feet in length, is less massive in its proportions, and stands higher on its legs, than the Indian species. It has only a single horn, which is situated nearer the

eyes

than the front horn of the two-horned species, and which in the female is reduced to a mere semioval tuberosity; the front teeth or incisors of the upper jaw are four in number in the young animal, two in each intermaxillary hone, small and almost cylindrical : they are soon shed, and are replaced in the adult by two small external incisors, and two large internal ones; the latter, however, scarcely project from the gums, and are smooth and rounded at the extremity, which is opposed to the front part of the long inferior incisors.

The learned and indefatigable naturalist, Dr. Horsfield, to whom we are chiefly indebted for a knowledge of the ani

Zool. Mag. No. 4.

H

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mal creation in the Island of Java, observes, “ The folds of the hide, on the whole, appear less rough or prominent than in the Indian rhinoceros : those of the neck are comparatively smaller; and the posterior fold, which has an oblique direction towards the spine, is less extended. The thick covering or coat of our animal is divided on the surface into small tubercles, or polygonous scutula; and a few short bristly hairs, rising from a slight depression in the centre, constitute a peculiar character. The ears are bordered with a series of long stiff bristles, closely arranged; and a similar series of bristles also extends along the tail, underneath, through its whole length."

When the French descriptions in the Histoire Naturelle des Mammifères and the Encyclopédie Méthodique were written, nothing was known of the habits of this species. This hiatus has been in a great measure supplied by the accurate observer above quoted. “ The individual which is represented in our plate, and which has afforded the preceding details, was taken, while very young, in the forests of the Province of Kedda, and was conveyed to the Residency at Magellan in the year 1815 or 1816. By kind treatment it soon became domesticated to such a degree, that it permitted itself to be carried in a large vehicle resembling a cart, to the capital of Surakarta. I saw it during its conveyance, and found it perfectly mild and tractable. At Surakarta it was confined in the large area or square which bounds the entrance to the royal residence. A deep ditch about three feet wide limited its range, and for several years it never attempted to pass it. It was perfectly reconciled to its confinement, and never exhibited any symptoms of uneasiness or rage, although, on its first arrival, harassed in various wars, by a large proportion of the inhabitants of a populous capital

, whose curiosity induced them to inspect the stranger of the forest. Branches of trees, shrubs, and various twining plants were abundantly provided for its food; of these the species of Cissus, and the small twigs of a native fig-tree were pre- ! ferred. But plantains were the most favourite food, and the abundant manner in which it was supplied with these by the numerous visitors, tended greatly to make the animal mild and sociable. It allowed itself to be handled and examined freely, and the more daring of the visitors sometimes mounted on its back. It required copious supplies of water, and when not taking food, or intentionally roused by the natives

, it generally placed itself in the large excavations which its movements soon caused in the soft earth that covered the

allotted space.

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