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wise is so apt to be excoriated; and he not only waters it, but throws over it dust, grass, straw, &c.
Although this integument is so thick, it appears nevertheless to be extremely sensible, especially about the face, the legs, and the under part of the neck and body. We have sometimes seen the young elephant above mentioned, in the Society's menagerie, take a small branch in his trunk, and switch away the flies the moment they alighted on any
of those parts.
The häirs are few and scattered, but are most abundant on the upper part of the head and neck. It is probable that their growth may be excited by the change of climate ; and the young elephants seem more abundantly supplied in this respect than the adult.
We shall return to this subject in a future Number, when we come to speak of the extinct species of elephant which was found frozen in the river Lena in Siberia; as the skin of this singular animal was found defended with both wool and hair.
Although the proboscis of the elephant is a continuation of the nose, it is not properly a continuation of the organ of smell, the membrane with which it is lined not being adapted to receive the impressions of odorous particles. In fact, had it been so, it would not have been adapted for its real and more important uses, viz. of conveying the aliment to the mouth, more especially liquids. When he drinks, he draws up the water into his trunk by a kind of inspiration, and having filled the two canals which traverse it, he carries the extremity of it to the back of the mouth, and (the upper part of the windpipe being protected from the current) empties the canals by a violent expiration, and literally blows the water down his throat. Of his mode of taking up solid substances little need be said. If they are very small, they are seized between the finger-like process of the trunk and the opposite flattened part, as between a finger and thumb; if of larger size, the end of the proboscis is turned round them; if scattered upon the surface of the ground, he sweeps a larger proportion of his inimitable prehensile organ around them, and assists it by opposing his fore foot to the substances he is collecting
in a mass, and thus prevents them receding from the trunk. By means of his fore foot also he strikes up the earth or gravel into a heap, around which he twines his trunk, then changing the curve from the horizontal to the vertical direction, lifts up all that lies on the concavity of the curve, and dextrously flings it over his head.
The utility of the domestic elephant is chiefly experienced
THE AFRICAN ELEPHANT.
in transporting heavy burdens : in modern warfare he is used only to carry baggage or drag along artillery ; his dread of fire rendering him in actual battle more dangerous to his employers than their enemies.
His consumption of food, however, is immense, and renders him an expensive auxiliary. In India he requires daily one hundred pounds of rice, to which must be added fresh vegetables and fruits : the finer animals of the rich are also treated with butter and sugar.—The full-grown elephant Chunee, when in Mr. Cross's collection at Exeter 'Change, consumed daily three trusses of hay, and about two hundred weight of carrots and other fresh vegetables, together with from sixty to eighty gallons of water.
In the preceding description the elephant is seen under all the favourable circumstances that an association with man is calculated to produce. His wants being supplied, his passions
* When this figure was taken, the tusks had not appeared. Zool. Mag. No. 2.
THE AFRICAN ELEPHANT.
moderated, and his intellectual powers developed by tuition, we find him elevated to the highest degree of perfection his nature can sustain ; and in return he renders all his endowments subservient to the wants and luxuries of his master.
But in the history of the elephant of Africa the scene is sadly reversed. In the wild regions which he traverses we find that in his relations to mankind, mutual fear and deadly enmity usurp the place of services and benefactions.
How often in the records of African travellers is the following picture presented! A tribe of Africans of a mild and unwarlike disposition cultivate a fertile spot on the banks of some large stream, and subsist on the produce of their rice grounds, fields of maize, and plantations of sugar-cane. The time of harvest having arrived, they rejoice at the ample store of nutriment provided for their subsistence during the unproductive months. In a single night the hopes of a season are blighted. With rushing noise and the earth trembling beneath their tread, a herd of wild and hungry elephants come suddenly upon the devoted settlement, attracted by the ripened vegetables. The poor negroes, surprised in sleep, and destitute of fire-arms, in vain attempt to oppose the progress of these formidable invaders. Their simple huts are overturned; and such as are unable to escape are beaten down with an irresistible blow of the proboscis, trodden under foot, or gored to death. The morning displays to the survivors the spot which had been occupied by their plantations converted into a wilderness and swamp; for the elephants tread down and destroy more than they consume. A famine succeeds, and pestilence its usual concomitant; and the wretched remnant of the tribe are driven to the alternative of perishing through hunger, or of selling themselves as slaves to a more fortunate tribe.
But for occasional ravages of this description man takes ample vengeance, by the unceasing warfare waged against the offenders for the sake of their tusks. All the methods of capture practised against the elephant of Africa have his destruction for their end, his utility being confined to the ivory he furnishes for commerce; for the tusks of this species are very large, and of equal size both in the male and female. We are informed by Lander that the negroes inhabiting the banks of the Niger employ a very simple stratagem to insure the destruction of their ponderous and dreaded neighbour. In one of the beaten tracks by which the elephants pass down from the forests to bathe in the stream, a lance is fixed in the ground, pointing towards the part from which they issue: this being concealed by brushwood, pene
THE AFRICAN ELEPHANT.
trates the abdomen of the foremost elephant, who feeling the smart, instead of retreating backwards blindly rushes on with augmented speed, and thus is mortally wounded.
In the neighbourhood of the Cape, and in other parts of the coast of Africa, where commercial settlements are situated, and fire-arms have been introduced, those weapons are commonly employed. This method of destruction requires great courage, patience, and capability of bearing fatigue, and is attended with considerable personal risk to the hunters.
A third method, which requires still more address, consists in enticing the elephant to pursue a mounted hunter on the open plain, while the huge pursuer is ham-stringed by a sabre cut inflicted by another hunter behind him.
One might infer from the previous summary of the present condition of the African elephant, as relates to man, that his disposition was naturally vicious, and rendered him incapable of domestication. But there is no real ground for such a conclusion. Were the Africans raised to the same degree of civilization as the Asiatics, there seems little doubt but that their species of elephant might be made equally useful in a state of servitude ; for the specimen now living in the French national menagerie has not shown less intelligence than the Asiatic elephant. It has learnt the same tricks, and has performed the same motions and exercises, under the same circumstances, and in the same period of time. It is as affectionate to those who feed him, and as obedient to their commands.
The Carthaginians, moreover, employed elephants for all the purposes that they have served in other parts of the civilized world ; and they must have derived their supply from the species under consideration.
Cuvier gives the following concise account of the ancient history of the elephant.“ Homer speaks frequently of ivory, but knew not the animal whence it was derived. The first of the Greeks who saw the elephant were Alexander and his soldiers, when they fought with Porus ; and they must have observed them well, for Aristotle gives a complete history of this animal, and much truer in its details than those of our moderns. After the death of Alexander, Antigonus possessed the greatest number of elephants. Pyrrhus first brought them into Italy 472 years after the foundation of Rome: they
were disembarked at Tarentum. The Romans to whom these animals were entirely strange, gave them the name of Leucanian Bulls. Curius Dentatus, who captured four of these animals from Pyrrhus, brought them to Rome for the ceremony of his triumph. These were the first which were there exhibited, but after
SALMON-FISHING BY A DOG.
wards they became iu some measure common. Metellus having vanquished the Carthaginians in Sicily, conducted their elephants to Rome on rafts, to the number of a hundred and twenty according to Seneca, of a hundred and forty-two according to Pliny. Claudius Pulcher had combats of the elephant in the circus in 655; and similar combats, either of elephant against elephant, of the elephant against the rhinoceros, the bull, or the gladiator, were exhibited by Lucullus, Pompey, Cæsar, Claudius, and Nero.
Pompey harnessed them to his car during his triumph for Africa. Germanicus exhibited some which danced in a rude fashion. In the reign of Nero they were seen to dance on a rope, carrying at the same time a Roman knight. One may read in Ælian the extraordinary feats they were brought to execute. It is true they were trained to them from their earliest age, and Ælian says even, expressly, that these dancing elephants were brought forth at Rome. This assertion, with the confirmation it has received in our own day from the experiments of Mr. Corse, leads us to hope it will be possible to multiply this useful animal in a state of domestication.”
SALMON-FISHING BY A DOG.
“ Now that I am got upon the subject of fishing, let me tell you of an amusing instance of sagacity which I had an opportunity of seeing a short time ago, in a water-dog of this country, who had become a most excellent fisher. În riding from Portrush to the Giant's Causeway with some company, we had occasion to ford the river Bush, near the sea; and as the fishermen were going to haul their net, we stopped to see their success. As soon as the dog perceived the men to move, he instantly ran down the river, of his own accord, and took post in the middle of it, on some shallows, where he could occasionally run or swim, and in this position he placed himself with all the eagerness and attention so strongly observable in a pointer dog who sets his game.
We were for some time at a loss to apprehend his echeme, but the event soon satisfied us, and amply justified the prudence of the animal; for the fish, when they feel the net, always endeavour to make directly out to sea. Accordingly, one of the salmon, escaping from the net, rushed down the stream with great velocity toward the ford, where the dog stood ready to receive him at an advantage. A very diverting chase now commenced, in which, from the shallowness of the water, we could discern the whole track of the fish, with all its rapid turnings and