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died last winter.-A fine male American Elk has also recently arrived.
Such of the animals as require a greater degree of attention during the winter have been removed to a house in Wellington Street, Somers Town, which has been taken as a temporary repository; but notwithstanding the care bestowed upon them, we are sorry to hear of some losses by death since the commencement of the winter.
The animals that are accustomed to cold climates seem invigorated by the change in the weather. The bears now show themselves to great advantage, and our fair readers we have no doubt will notice the improved appearance of the fur of these and the other animals of this species at the present
Additional land has been obtained adjoining the gardens. If the accounts which have been circulated as to the terms on which Government made the grant be correct, every friend to science must regret that there should be so little disposition on the part of those connected with this department of the revenue (the Crown lands) to assist in forwarding the objects of the institution.
We are glad to find that the spirited proprietor of the Surrey Gardens is continuing to make great improvements, and is daily adding to the attractions of the place.
ATTACK BY A TIGER.
Bishop Heber relates the following affecting account of an attack by a tiger, which was told him by Major Hamilton : “One of his acquaintance who was marching with a body of troops between Gulliakote and Luneewarra, called on a Bheel villager to be his guide through the wood very early one morning. The Bheel remonstrated, observing that it was not the custom of the country to march before day-light, and that it was dangerous to do so. The officer, supposing this to be the mere pretext for laziness, was positive, and threatened him if he did not go on.
The man said nothing more, but took his shield and sword, and walked on along the narrow path overhung with long grass and bamboos. The officer followed at the head of his men, and had moved slowly fast asleep on his saddle for about five miles, when he heard a hideous roar, and saw a very large tiger spring past him so close that he almost brushed his horse. The poor Bheel lifted up his sword and shield, but was down in an instant under the
IMPORTATION OF FURS.-SAGACITY OF THE DOG.
animal's paws, who turned round with him in his mouth, growling like a cat over a mouse, and looked the officer in the face. He did what could be done, and with his men attacked the tiger, whom they wounded so severely that he dropped his prey. But the first blow had done its work effectually, and the poor man's skull was mashed in such a manner as literally to be all in pieces.--The officer told Major Hamilton that from that day forwards this scene was seldom absent from his dreams, and with the least illness or fever he had always a return of the vision of the tiger, with the unfortunate man in his jaws, whom his imprudence had sacrificed.”
IMPORTATION OF FURS.
Our fair readers are perhaps not aware of the extent to which they furnish employment to the hunters in North America by their demand for furs. It has been stated that the Hudson Bay Company alone in one year imported 3000 skins of the black bear, 60,000 of the pine marten, 1800 of the fisher (a species of sable), 4600 of the mink, 7300 of the otter, 8000 of the fox, 9000 of the Canadian lynx, 60,000 of the beaver, 150,000 of the musk rat; besides a great many skins of wolves, badgers, and racoons.
SAGACITY OF THE DOG.
years ago, a waterman near Hainmersmith was sleeping in his boat, when the vessel broke from her moorings and was carried by the tide under a barge. A dog which was on board awoke the waterman by pawing his face and pulling the collar of his coat at the instant the boat was filling with water, -and thus saved his life.
Le Vaillant, in the course of his travels in Africa, having missed a favourite little dog, directed one of his servants to mount a horse and return in search of the lost pet. After an absence of some hours, the man returned with the dog, bringing with him a basket and a chair that had been dropped from one of the waggons without being noticed. The dog was found at the distance of several miles, lying on the road watching the lost basket and chair ; and if he had not been found by the servant, must inevitably either have perished with hunger or been devoured by wild beasts.
If the moderns are able to boast of a more extended knowledge of animated nature than was possessed by the ancients, it must be acknowledged that it is rather the result of their geographical discoveries, than of the zeal of their Governments or commercial Companies for its promotion. And it is humiliating to think that the nations, among which a pure love of science is most widely diffused, still should be debarred the contemplation of those rarer species of quadrupeds inhabiting the Old World, which in ancient Rome were repeatedly exhibited to gratify a tyrant's love of ostentation,
Zool. Mag. No. l.
and a people's lust for the cruel combats and wholesale slaughter of the Amphitheatre.
The history of the remarkable quadruped with which the present work commences in some measure exemplifies this anomalous fact, and the rhinoceros is a still stronger proof of it. This quadruped, which is second in bulk to the elephant alone, is peculiar to the Old World ; yet of the five or six distinct species which inhabit Africa and Asia, only one has been exhibited in modern Europe, and that at rare and distant intervals ; while the knowledge of the rest has been chiefly acquired in our own times.
The first rhinoceros of which any mention is made in ancient history, was that which appeared at the celebrated festival of Ptolemæus Philadelphus, and which was made to march the last of all the strange animals exhibited at that epoch, as being apparently the most curious and rare. It was brought from Ethiopia.
The first which appeared in Europe graced the triumph and games of Pompey. Pliny states that this animal had but one horn, and that that number was the niost common.
Augustus caused two to be slain, together with a hippopotamus, when he triumphed after the death of Cleopatra : and these, also, are described as having each but one horn.
Strabo very exactly describes a one-horned rhinoceros which he saw at Alexandria, and mentions the folds in its skin. But Pausanias gives a detailed account of the position of the two horns, on a species having that number, which he terms the Ethiopian Bull.
Of this latter kind two appeared at Rome under Domitian, and were engraved on some of the medals of that emperor; these occasioned some of the epigrams of Martial, which modern commentators, from ignorance of the species with two horns, found so much difficulty in comprehending.
The emperors Antoninus, Heliogabalus, and Gordian, severally exhibited the rhinoceros : and Cosmus expressly speaks of the Ethiopian species as having two horns : there is abundant evidence, therefore, that the ancients possessed a degree of knowledge respecting these animals, of which the moderns were for a long period destitute.
The first rhinoceros which was exhibited in Europe after the revival of literature, was a specimen of the one-horned species. It was sent from India to Emmanuel king of Portugal, in the year 1513. This sovereign made a present of it to the Pope; but the animal being seized during its passage with a fit of fury, occasioned the loss of the vessel in which it was transported. A second rhinoceros was brought to
England in 1685 : a third was exhibited over almost the whole of Europe in 1739; and a fourth, which was a female, in 1741. That exhibited in 1739 was described and figured by Parsons, in the Philosophical Transactions (vol. xlii. p. 583), who mentioned also that of 1685 and of 1741. A fifth specimen arrived at Versailles in 1771, and it died in 1793 at the age of twenty-five or twenty-six years. The sixth was a very young rhinoceros, which died in this country in the year 1800 : some account of its anatomy was published by Mr. Thomas, in the Philosophical Transactions for that year. Lastly, a seventh specimen was living a few years ago in the Garden of Plants at Paris. All these specimens were one-horned, and all from India. So that the two-horned rhinoceros has never been brought alive to modern Europe, and it was long before even an accurate description of it was given by travellers ; its existence was known only by specimens of the horns adhering to the skin of the head, which were preserved in different museums. As these specimens were from Africa, and as the first authentic accounts of the living animal of the two-horned species were derived from the histories of African travellers, a general notion prevailed that Asia afforded the one-horned species only, and that the two-horned kind was peculiar to Africa. However, in the year 1793, Mr. William Bell, a surgeon in the service of the East India Company, discovered a species of rhinoceros in the Island of Sumatra, which had also two horns, whose skin, like the African twohorned species, did not exhibit those folds which are so peculiar to the hide of the Indian rhinoceros. This species, however, differed from the African rhinoceros in possessing incisive or front teeth, which in the latter are wholly deficient. The Abyssinian traveller Bruce has given a vague indication of a two-horned rhinoceros, which exhibits the plaiting of the hide peculiar to the Indian species; and some naturalists have supposed it probable, from the forın of the horns, that this may ultimately be found to be a true and distinct species. More recently, again, the accurate and scientific traveller Burchell has announced the existence in the interior of the southern promontory of Africa, of a rhinoceros double the size of the ordinary Cape species, which, like it, has also two horns, and a skin without hairs or folds, but which differs in having the lips and nose thickened, enlarged, and as if flattened.
Thus we find that two, if not three, distinct species of twohorned rhinoceros exist in Africa, and that another distinct species, similarly armed, is found in Sumatra. Lastly, we have to add a second species with one horn, discovered by