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its hind-legs to perform the next movement, the near one being brought rather forward but wide, until the off hind-leg is advanced between the fore ones; this requires some time to accomplish, during which it is poised with the weight of its head and neck, until it feels that its legs are quite clear and well arranged; it then throws itself on its side and is at ease. When it sleeps, it bends its head back, and rests the head on the hind quarter.” Besides the loose folds of skin in the situation above described, there are others at the first joints of the fore-legs, which, like pockets or bags, receive the projecting part of the bone termed ulna, when the joint falls back during progressive motion, but are quite empty when the animal is at rest. In a preceding part of our description, we have alluded to the apparent disproportion in the length of the fore- and hiud-legs. This appearance is, however, in a great measure deceptive; for, when the extremities themselves are attentively examined, especially when seen in the skeleton, they are found to be of nearly the same length. The sinking of the hind quarter is then seen to depend partly on the greater angle at the bending of the thigh upon the body, but chiefly on the great depth of the chest, together with the great elevation of the spines of the vertebræ at that part, for the purpose of giving a firm and extensive attachment to the strong elastic ligament which supports the neck and head. The tail of the giraffe reaches below the hocks, and is terminated by a long tuft of coarse hairs.

With respect to the habits of the giraffe in a state of nature, our knowledge is confessedly vague and general. The Arabs who accompanied the two young females from which the preceding description has been drawn, asserted that they were taken at a distance of eight or ten days' journey of the caravans, to the south of Sennaar, not far from a district which was mountainous, and covered with deep and extensive forests. It may be presumed, that this country is near to where the Nile and its tributary streams begin to leave the mountains of Abyssinia to flow along the plains; and here the Arabs stated that ostriches, gazelles, antelopes, a small species of lion and panthers abounded, while deeper in the forests, elephants and rhinoceroses were met with. They observed that the giraffes were found in small number, that they inhabited the forests, and rarely appeared on the plain, when they were united in groups of three and four, two old ones, and one or two young ones, but seldom more. They do not fly at the first view of man; but if he approaches them, they suddenly start off in a gallop or succession of bounds with such speed, that they leave far behind them the swiftest


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horses. However, if they happen to be driven fairly into the plain, they are soon run down, being much shorter-winded than the horse : but, when thus fatigued, they make a sudden turn to the right-about, and defend themselves vigorously with their fore-feet, which they fling out with great force : in fact, the Arabs are unable to take the full-grown giraffes alive, and are obliged to kill them on the spot. They eat the flesh; and out of the skin, which is hard and thick, they make long straps, cut from the top of the head to the end of the fore-feet. The old giraffes are asserted by the Arabs to be able to defend themselves successfully by kicks of their fore-feet, against the most redoubtable animal of the desert. The lion, which learns by experience the resources opposed to him by the giraffe, and the futility of pursuit along the plain, prefers waiting near a stream where that animal drinks, or crouches in view of the grove of Mimose, whose summits afford him a rich pasturage, and by a single bound falls unawares upon his prey, which is thus taken by surprise and unable to put into use its natural means of defence. If, however, the lion in springing from his ambuscade miscalculates his leap, and is unable to fix on the hinder. parts of the giraffe, the latter makes head against him, and often renders mortal the first blow, from the violent and rapid flinging out of the fore-legs : should be miss his stroke, however, and the lion succeed in fixing upon him, he becomes defenceless and falls a victim.

The giraffe in a state of captivity, when teased or offended, manifests his natural mode of defence, by striking out with his fore-legs, and sometimes by kicking with the hinder ones like a horse; but he has never been observed to butt, or to make any demonstration with his horns, but on the contrary always keeps his head raised as high as possible when he is disquieted or afraid.

The Arabs assert that the only chance of taking the giraffe alive while he still suckles, and even then it most frequently happens, that in their struggles to free themselves they break some of their limbs, or dislocate their neck; at other times they refuse all sustenance, pine away, and die. If, however, they chance to be preserved for a few days, they then become tranquil and soon familiar, readily following those who have the care of them, and even horses or camels.

This propensity was manifested in a singular manner by the giraffe at present living in Paris. After its disembarcation at Marseilles, it passed without any sign of fear through the gates of the Lazaretto, and walked tranquilly as far as an ancient gate of the city, where it suddenly stopped, neither attempting to go forward nor tą retrace its steps; it mani

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fested also some alarm and inquietude. Its conductors were considerably embarrassed, not knowing how to induce it to continue its course. Just at that time an inhabitant of the town, who had until then preceded it on horseback, returned to them, and proposed to try if it would follow him; and in fact the giraffe, as soon as it saw the horse of which it had suddenly lost sight as the latter passed through the gate, became again tranquil, and marched behind it, following it closely with the Arabs, who held it with four reins : the horse, however, became uneasy, and its rider could scarce hold it in, as the giraffe from time to time stretched forward its neck and applied its nose to the horse's crupper. In this course the giraffe had to pass through many of the public promenades, and always strove to reach the branches of the trees near which it passed; without, however, losing sight of the horse it had chosen for its guide, which it followed faithfully to the stable destined for its temporary abode. M. Salze, * who relates the above anecdote, makes the following observations on the same giraffe. “She has great pleasure in being let out of her stable, and when she is permitted to walk in the gardens of the Prefecture in fine weather, which often occurs, she bounds like a young horse, but in a manner quite peculiar and indescribable, raising herself pretty high from the ground, and falling stiff and immoveable upon her legs. Sometimes she will start forward in a gallop, and then she drags along the four Arabs who keep hold of her; and we have seen her, in a moment of gaiety, drag even five strong

It is with difficulty she brings her mouth on a level with the ground; in doing so she separates widely her forelegs, draws in her crupper, sticks her shoulders as it were out of their place, and elongates her neck in a stiff and truly ludicrous manner: in this position one may readily perceive she could take up a branch from the ground, but one cannot conceive that she could drink. When in this position, she seems dislocated or crippled. It appears that she cannot bend her neck easily downwards towards her fore-feet; but we have seen her often carry her mouth to the crupper and all along the thighs; the neck then bends easily into a complete circle. If the giraffe cannot reach the ground without difficulty, she possesses on the other hand an extreme facility in reaching the leaves that are far above her; stretching out her neck, raising her head, and elongating her tongue to seize the branches that are two or three feet beyond her stature. Thus she can browse, without changing her situation, on the branches of trees for a considerable extent. This animal is


* Annales du Muséum.

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of a sweet disposition, never manifesting the least sentiment of anger or of malice. She distinguishes the Arab who is in the habit of giving her milk and grain, but has not any particular affection for him. She lets every one approach her who comes to see her, but does not like to be touched; and it is only when afraid of something, or when teased too much, that she defends herself by striking out her fore- or hind-legs.

“She often licks the hands and clothes of the Arab who has the care of her. Sometimes she will use the same familiarity . with strangers, and frequently she smells at the persons who approach her. She seems fearful, attentive to every noise, but at the same time is not disquieted by any number of persons who may come to see her. When horses have been brought to her, she appears to view them with pleasure, to regard them attentively, to follow them with her eyes as they recede from her, and to seem to have a wish to go after them: but the horses are uneasy at the sight of her; they stamp with their feet, and bound off the moment the rein is slackened. Cows which have seen her for the first time, show no sign of fear.

“Our young giraffe likes the broad daylight, and its stable is lighted with two windows and a large glass door. It is under the same roof with the two cows that supply it with milk, and two antelopes of large size, and is separated from two strong horses only by a boarded partition. It is fat and in good condition. Since its departure from the Lazaretto it has acquired more gaiety and vigour. It has never been heard to utter any sound.

“ One may say that the giraffe has nothing elegant or graceful in the detail of its forms; its short body, its high and closely approximated legs, the excessive length of its neck, the declivity of its back, its ill-rounded crupper, and its long and naked tail, -all these things contrast together in a manner which offends the sight: it seems ill put together, ill balanced on its feet; and yet we are seized with astonishment at its aspect, and acknowledge it beautiful without being able to say why,-only, perhaps, because it is extraordinary, and in opposition with all the animals we are acquainted with. It is very remarkable that, after having considered it attentively, we nevertheless can preserve but an uncertain recollection of its carriage and proportions, which is the reason, I think, that one loves, in general, to see it often; and every time we see it, it gives rise to some new remarks.”

The cloven-footed quadrupeds which chew the cud, form a distinct and well-marked group. The sacred historian and lawgiver of the Jews indicates them by their most natural



characters. They were also defined in almost similar terms by Aristotle, who may be called the father of Natural History. In the system of Linnæus they are termed 'Pecora,' and form the fifth of his great divisions of the Mammalia, or animals that give suck. In the arrangement of Cuvier they are termed Ruminantia,' and constitute his seventh order.

The zoologist divides the ruminating order into three subordinate groups: two of these subdivisions or tribes, founded on the nature of their horns, have been already pointed out; the third embraces the camels and Hamas, which are altogether destitute of horns, and defend themselves with their teeth. In zoological strictness we might consider the giraffe as the pattern of a distinct tribe; but from the before-mentioned analogy of his horns to those of the deer, &c. he is ranked in the solid - horned tribe, and with Linnæus formed a species of the Stag (Cervus Camelopardalis). In the modern arrangements the giraffe forms a distinct genus. It has been supposed, that the giraffe which is found in Abyssinia is specifically distinct from the one inhabiting the southern extremity of Africa: a third species or variety without spots, is also supposed to have been seen by Mungo Park in Central Africa.


So many descriptions of the Zoological Gardens have already been given to the public, that we shall not at present attempt to enter upon this subject; more particularly as we take for granted that most of our readers have had an opportunity of visiting the interesting and valuable collections preserved there. We intend however, occasionally, to notice the proceedings of both institutions, and to report such matter as we think will be interesting.

Amongst the latest additions at the gardens in the Regent's Park, are three rare species of Antelope; two from the Deserts of Northern Africa, called the M'horr Antelope (Antilope Dama), and the Cervine Antelope (Ant. Bubalis), and a female specimen of a fine species from India, called the Sing-sing Antelope. There is also a rare species of Bear from South America, the Ursus ornatus, or Spectacled Bear, so called from the peculiar broad light-coloured band round each eye. Of this species we think we have seen a fine specimen in Wombwell's collection.—Two living Beavers presented by the Hudson's Bay Company supply the place of those which

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