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are to contemplate with so much diligence, attention and devotion, as to be ourselves transformed according to that, ! Pet. i. 15, 16. “ But as 'he which hath called you is holy, so be ye holy in all manner of conversation: because it is written, Be ye holy, for I am holy." Virtue or holinefs may be considered in different respects. As it agrees with the prescription of the law, it is called righteousness; but as it is a conformity to God, and an expression of his purity, it is termed holiness. And it is chiefly in this sense, that we shall now speak concerning holiness.
XI. Having thus previously explained these things, it will not be hard to infer, what we mean by SANCTIFICATION; namely that real work of God, by which they, who are chosen, regenerated and justified, are continually more and more transformed from the turpitude of fin, to the purity of the divine image.
XII. We distinguish this work of God from the first regeneration, and first effectual calling to Christ. For, the immediate term, or effect of regeneration, is a principle of spiritual life, which, in a moment, is put into the soul, by the immediate energy of the Holy Spirit. The term, or effect of effectual calling is the mystical union, and communion with Christ. But the term or effect of SANCTIFICATION are the habits of fpiritual virtues or graces, and their lively exercise: and thus sanctification follows upon regeneration and effectual calling, at least in the order of nature, and supposes those actions of God as going before it.
XIII. There is still a further difference between fanctification and justification; for justification is a judicial act, terminating in a relative change of state ; namely, a freedom from punishment and a right to life: fanctification a real work, which is performed by a fupernatural influence, and which terminates in a change of state as to the quality both of habits and actions.
XIV. Yet we are to take notice, that the term sanctification is not always taken by divines in this strict sense; fometimes they comprehend under it regeneration and the first infusion of a new life, and take sanctification, renovation of the spirit, regeneration, the new creature, the first resurrection, for synonymous terms; as the Leyden professors, Synops. Disput. 33. 6. 2. Sometimes also they include justification under the fame term.
“ It is well known," says the abridger of Chamierus, p. 860, “ that the terms justification and fanctification are put one for the other." Ġomarus in like manner, on 1 Pet. 1. 2. « Sanctification, taken in a general sense, comprises regeneration and justification." Nay sometimes the word fanctification is taken so largely, as to include the
whole of man's salvation. Polanus in Syntagm. lib. 6. c. 37. Sometimes both appellations, viz. “ regeneration and fanctification, are taken in a larger sense, for the whole of our salvation, or beatification, if I may fo speak, as Heb. x. But yet the accuracy of those is more commendable, who distinguish those terms in the manner I have explained : especially as the Scripture often distinctly mentions those benefits, and describes sanctification, as a continued work of God, leading the elect gradually on to perfection, and as I do not remember to have observed it speak so of regeneration.
XV. Nor are we to omit, that fanctification is sometimes held forth as a blessing from God to man, 1 Theff
. v. 23. “ And the very God of peace sanctify you wholly;" sometimes as man's duty towards God, i Theff. iv. 3. " For this is the will of God, even your sanctification.” The former God powerfully works in us, according to the purpose of his gracious decree; the latter he justly requires of us, by the will of his holy command. When sanctification denotes the first implantation of spiritual habits, it is a mere blessing from God, in procuring what we do not co-operate with him, but receive it from him. As it signifies the activity, or lively exercise of infused habits, and their corroboration and progress, so far we are active; but then it is as we are acted upon under God, and dependently on him : for these things can never be separated.
XVI. The term from which, in fanctification, is the pollution of sin. Adam in departing from the prescribed rule, forfeited the ornament of the image of God, in which he was formed, for himself and and all his posterity. And whilst he wickedly affected a forbidden equality with God, came most to resemble the devil, and, like that evil spirit, deformed himself by his own crime; than which we can imagine nothing more hideous or base. The foul of the finner is a horrid monster, misshappen, huge and devoid of light; mere darkness, mere confusion, e very thing disjointed and out of order there ; nothing properly placed ; the things we should despise are esteemed, and what we should value most are neglected. Was any to take a clear view of his inward disposition in a faithful mirror, he would certainly, with the utmost horror fly from himself a6 from a most terrible spectacle. And indeed, if holiness is the most beautiful ornament of the divine perfections, that thing must needs. be the most deformed, which is not only the most unlike, but diametrically opposite to that ornamental beauty. This is that quragia Xolo Tigiooside xaxixs mentioned Jam. i. 21. Filthiness and superfluity of naughtiness, to this it is owing, that
man is become abominable in the fight of God, who cannot but turn away the radiant eyes of his unspotted holinefs, Hab.
XVII. Moreover, Adam propogated this vile resemblance of the devil to his posterity, not excepting those whom grace has sanctified. For he also begat Seth in his own likeness, after his image, Gen. v. 3. I do not chiefly apply this to the likeness of the human nature, much less to the likeness of that holiness which God graciously restored to Adam, as Chrysostom, Lyranus and Clarius contend for. For, ift. Holinefs and righteoufness are not the image of any man, but of God. 2dly, Adam is never proposed in Scripture as the pattern or author of holiness, but as the person by whom sin entered into the world, Rom. v. 12. 3dly, The image of holiness, restored in the parent by grace, is never propagated to the fon by natural generation. Things natural are propagated, but things fupernatural are alone of God that fheweth mercy, Rom. ix. 16. But by this likeness of Adam, I understand the vicious corruption of his nature.
ift. Because the image of Adam, after Seth was begotten, is fet in opposition to the image of God, after which Adam was created. 2dly, Because the Apostle, in like manner, opposes i Cor. xv. 49. the image of the earthy Adam, as consisting of sin and pollution, to the image of the heavenly A. dam, which consists in holinefs and glory. 3dly, Because the whole analogy of Scripture evinces, that a clean thing cannot be brought out of an unclean, and that what is born of the flesh is felis, Job xiv. 4.-John iii. 6.
XVIII. This turpitude of fin is by Paul called the old man, Eph. iv. 22.-Col. iii. 9. Man, because it overspreads the whole man, and defiles both foul and body; in the foul it has possession of the understanding, will and affections.
XIX. It has involved the understanding in horrid darkness, whereby it is grossly ignorant of divine things, Eph. iv. 18. So that the évoquitos 4021305 the natural or animal man, or he that has no other spirit but his foul, and deftitute of the Spirit of God, Jud. v. 29. receiveth not the things of God, neither can be • know them, 1 Cor. ii. 14. And as he discerns no wisdom in divine things' worthy of God, so, with intolerable presumption, he represents them under those disagreeable notions, which his own foolish, and self-conceited wisdom hath devised; and while he attempts to correct the wisdom of God which he cannot understand, he transfigures it as much as he can to downright folly, and this is that which is said, Rom. i. 22, 23. Profelling themfelves to be wise, they became fools: and changed the glory of the incorruptible God, &c.
XX. But the finner is not only under blindness, but is in love with his blindness. He glories that he really sees, even when he is most blind, John ix. 40, 41. And when, to the utmost of his power, he resists the true light, though discovering itself in a most pleasing manner, by the works of divine providence, by the word of God, and by some sparkling rays of the Spirit; he loves darkness rather than light; hateth the light, neither cometh to the light, John iii. 19, 20. Of such Job witnesseth, that they are of those that rebel against the light, Job xxiv. 13. They have an averfion to all light, both that which is natural, which hinders them from perpetrating their crimes in the fight of the world, and that which is moral, which convinces them of the duty they ought certainly to perform, but which they wickedly neglect. They endeavour to stifle it by disputing both against the word of God and their own conscience. Hence those impious expressions of some, who wish that this or the other truth that opposes their lufts, was not to be found in the word of God.
XXI. And yet those very persons that are so foolish in that which is good, are most subtle and crafty in that which is evil, Jer. iv. 22. They commit evil by that art which is exactly conformable to the pattern of the infernal spirits. Emphatical is that of Micah on this head, Chap. vii. 3. 3°20'7'b o'p? #17 by, both hands are upon evil, that they may do it well. They are not flothful in evil, but apply both hands, exert all their strength. And they take care to do it well, according to the rules of that satanical art, carefully observing all the contrivances of wickedness : nay, they have learned to frame and contrive it with so much art as to impose it on the incautious under the appearance of good.
XXII. Nor is the will less corrupt; for, ift, It is averse to all that is truly good, Job xxi. 14.
« Therefore they say unto God, depart from us, for we desire not the knowledge of thy ways. And when the great things of the law are written to them, they are counted as a strange thing;" as of no very great moment, and what they have no concern with, Hof. viii. 12.
And how can it be otherwise? For since by reason of their blindness, they do not discern the excellency of true vira tue, but on the contrary find many things in the practice of it which are opposite to their unruly lusts, their mind is averse to it: “they hate the good,” Micah. iii. 2.
XXIII. Secondly, It is driven on to evil with great impetuofity: “ They love the evil," Micah iii. 2. to a degree indeed that not some, but every imagination of the heart of man; not at
some, * Our version renders that text, that they may de evil with both hands earneftly;
fome, but at all times; not in some, but in every measure, “ is only evil,” Gen. vi. 5. Now this is to be understood, not only of the giants in the first ages, as appears by comparing this place with chap. viji. 21. where almost the fame words are used concerning men in future periods of time. I will not again, says God, curse the ground any ingre, because', or though the imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth. Whereby it is intimated, that evil imagination is the common blemish of all mankind. To this also may be referred, what Paul writes, Rom. viii
. 7. To pgornuce tns ouqxos, the carnal mind the wisdom of the flesh, that which it willingly imagines, lusts after as wisdom, or that action, which the carnal mind contrives, is enmity against God; for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed
XXIV. Nay, 3dly, The desire of evil is so great, that it is irritated by that very
law of God which forbids it, and is more impetuously hurried on to things forbidden only because they are prohibited. Without the driving or impelling force of the law fin lies dormant and lifeless; but when the commandment comes it revives and is put in motion, and taking occasion by the commandment, works all manner of concupiscence to a pitch, that every check being hurtful,“ by the commandment sin might become exceeding sinful,” Rom. vii. 8, 9, 11, 13. Chryfoftom beautifully says, cv Jovos irodoplāzer
, solce xwaráusic, αιρετα μάλλον της επιθυμίας και φλόξ. When we ult after any thing and are afterwards restrained, this only blows up the flame of luft to a higher degree.
XXV. Surprising and lamentable is the depravity in the affections. For, first, when the understanding does not lead them on to things holy, spiritual, heavenly and eternal, they are basely and madly bent upon things corporal, carnal, fading and finful, and mispend all their vigour on things beneath and unworthy a man. 2dly, In all their emotions they are furiously tossed, and not waiting for the direction of the understanding, but throwing off the reins of reason, and having no restraint, they rush headlong with a blind and wicked violence, and basely rack and wound the soul, never allowing them any rest, nor that calmness, which would otherwise be her peculiar happiness, but continually crying, “ like the daughters of the horse-leach, give give, Prov. xxx. 15. Hence God elegantly compares “ the wicked to the troubled sea which cannot rest, whose waters caft up mire and dirt,” Ifa. lvii. 20. 3dly, They are obstinately bold and lustful, both against the will of God's decree and of his command, ever lusting after