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in which he fays, “ I fee that cloud of a cruel « and bloody war rising in Italy. I perceive « a storm, big with thunder and lightning, “ gathering in the west; which, wherever the « hurricane of victory shall carry it, will fill « all places with a shower of blood *.” The proper words war, blood, and viftory, connected with the Tropes cloud, shower, and tempest, render the several parts of the Allegory clear and evident. “ I always thought,” says Tully, in his defence of Milo, “ that as to other storms “ and tempests, they were only to be sustained « by Milo in the commotions of our public af« semblies t." If the Orator had not used the words public assemblies, the passage had been a complete Allegory, but by its insertion there is an evident mixture of literal and allegorical language. In this kind of Allegories, as QUINTILIAN well observes, “beauty arises from the Tro« pical, and an easy apprehension of the mean“ ing from the proper expressions (l.”
But there cannot methinks be a more pleasing 'example of literal and allegorical meaning, than in
the * Videre se itaque, ait, consurgentem in Italiâ nebem illam trucis & cruenti belli: videre tonantem ac fulminantem ab occafu procellam quam in quascunque terrarum partes victoriæ tempeftas detulerit magno cruoris imbre omnia fædaturum. Justin. lib. xxix, cap. 3
+ Equidem ceteras tempeftates, & procellas' in illis duntaxat fiuctibus concionum semper putavi Miloni effe fubeundas, &c. Orat. pro Milo. 2.
i Quo in genere & species ex arceffitis verbis venit, & in. tellectus ex propriis. Quintil, lib. viii. cap. 16.
the four first verses of the twenty third Pfalm: 5: The Lord is my Shepherd, I shall not want, ss He makes me to lie down in green pastures : s: He leads me beside the still waters. He res stores my soul. He leads me in the paths of ss righteousness for his name's sake. Yes, though
I'walk through the valley of the shadow of $ death, yet will I fear, no evil; for thou art ss with me, thy rod and staff they comfort me." Lord --- my soul --- righteousness --- name's sake, are words used in their proper sense; while there is evidently an Allegory in the other expressions, taken from a shepherd, and his kind and faithful protection and care over his flock.
Scripture will afford us also another instance of mixed Allegory in Ephes. vi. from the roth to the 19th verse: ss Finally, my brethren, be strong in ss the LORD, and in the power of his might. Put ss on the whole armour of God, that ye may be ss able to stand against the wiles of the Devil. * For we wrestle not against Aesh and blood, but ss against principalities, against powers, againft ss. the rulers of the darknels of this world, against ss fpiritual wickedness in high places. Where * fore take unto you the whole armour of God so that ye may be able to withstand in the evil ss day, and having done all, to stand. Stand ss therefore, having your loins girt about with ss truth, and having on the breast-plate s teousness, and your feet shod with the preparass tion of the gospel of peace; above all, taking is the t'' of faith, wherewith ye hall be able
si to quench all the fiery darts of the wicked : , s and take the helmer of salvation, and the sword * of the Spirit, which is the Word of God. Prays ing always, with all prayer and supplication in sd the Spirit, and watching thereunto with all pers# feverance and fupplication for all saints. Upon à careful review of this passage it will evidently appear, that there is a mixture of allegorical and literal sense, and that they alternately appear and disappear throughout the whole description.
- $5. If it should be suggested, that if our fentences Thould be thus made up of literal and allegorical language we shall hereby violate a rule that has been given, naintly, to continue and carry on à Metaphor in the same manner it began, there is an easy answer to such an objection by observing that there is a very great and effential difference between the mixture of literal and allegorical exprefsion, and the confusion arising from heterogeneous Metaphors. The mixture of literal and allegorical language is not the clustering of difcordant Metaphors together, but the infertion of one and the fame Metaphor in fome parts of a sentence or paragraph, while plain expression makes up the remainder: whereas a confusion of Metaphors is the heaping fuch * Metaphors together as are abfolutely dissimilar, and contrary to one another; or an attempt to make a coalescence where an impossibility in nature abhors the union. A conjunction of common and metaphorical expressions, or a sentence
consisting partly of the one, and partly of the other, is like the fun in a summer's day, fome times shining in a clear opening of the heavens, and fometimes darting its rays through clouds, gilded and variegated with his glories. But inconsistent Metaphors are not unlike the ancient chaos, where all the powerful principles and ele: ments of nature were blended together, and waged irreconcilable war in one perpetual confusion anđ uproar. simoen waren
:56. As we are certain that the human mind is extremely fond of variety, QUINTILIAN'S obfervation may be very juft, “That the most beautiful 66 form of speech is that which consifts of the « Comparison, Allegory, and single Trope, at “ instance of which he gives us in the following « passage from CICERO: For what ftreights, « what arm of the fea can you think of, fo much « troubled with the tossings and agitations of "waves? How violent the perturbations and “ fury of our popular assemblies for the election " of magiftrates? The space of only one day or “ night: often throws all things into confusion, « and fometimes only a fmall breath of ruinour “ fhall quite change the whole opinion of the “ people *".. vis. ,
* Illud verò longè fpecioffimum genus orationis, in quo erium permifta eft gracia, Similitudinis, Allegoriæ, & Trantlationis. Quod enim fretum, quém euripum, tot motus, tantas tam varias habere putatis agitationes fluctuum ; quantas per. torbationes, & quantos æftus habet ratio comitiorum. Dies intermiffus unus, aut nox interpofita, fæpe perturbat omnia ,
A like vein of Allegory and Comparison we may observe in the following passage of a late excellent Divine: “. As the bodies of believers « are like common tabernacles for their frailty, « so they may be likened to the facred tabernaucle which was framed by the special appoint-.. «ment of God, in respect of the use and service « they are devoted to, and of the honour they « receive by grace. They are tabernacles, as « they are the tenements of their own spirits ; « and sacred ones, as they are the habitations of
the Spirit of God: for their bodies are conse« crated to his service as well as their souls. The « members of their bodies are instruments and « fervants of righteousness, vessels which their « souls possess in fanctification and honour. “Some of them are peculiarly dignified in the « service of God, like those utensils which were « both of special use and ornament in the Sanc«tuary. The head of the saint, like the candle« sticks of the Tabernacle, holds forth a constant «. light of divine truth and wisdom; while his « heart, like the sacred altar, retains an inextin« guishable fire of divine love and zeal: his or“ gans of speech are like the silver trumpets and “ other musical instruments of the Sanctuary, “ devoted to the glory of God, and employed to 66 praise him in the beauty of holiness; while the « foul that resides in this tabernacle, like the
. .." anointed
& totam opinionem parva nonnunquam commutat aura ru. moris. QuintiL. lib. viii. cap. 6. $ 2.. ex. CICERO. pro MURÆn. $17.