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“ lies in its variety of colours ; and hence it is, « in my opinion, that the ear is no less delighted “ with the opposition of contraries, than the eye

is entertained when it sees two wrestlers con“ tending with one another * "

I will only take the liberty of observing, that it appears to me not improbable that the powerful effect which we find some passages make upon our minds may arise from the Enantiofis ; though every one that feels the effect, may not be sensible of the source from whence it springs.

Does not every one who reads the following lines of Mr Pope admire them?

Who sees with equal eye, as God of all,
An hero perish, or a sparrow fall;
Atoms or systems into ruin hurlid,
And now a bubble burst, and now a world f.

Is not a strong contrast remarkable in these verses? Heroes and sparrows, atoms and systems, bubbles and worlds being matched together produce a wonderful effect upon the mind; and, being represented as appearing upon a level be

fore

* Præclarum Rhetorum xeopend toy et Antithesis, Figura ad fuave & illuftre dicendi genus accommodatiffima : eft enim contrariorum, vel certè diversorum, oppofitio ; quo quidem delectationis aucupio mirificè capiuntur animi, & præclara quæque fiunt ex contrariis Ex diverfis coloribus decor in pictura efforescit ; unde fit, credo, ut hac contrariorum oppofitione auris delectetur, non fecus ac pafcitur oculus, cum certantes videt athletas. CAUSSINÙS de Eloquentia, p. 418.

+ Pope's Esay on Man, epist. i. line 87.

fore the infinite Supreme fill us with exalted ideas of his immense greatness.

After Dr Young has wrought up our ideas of the creation to a kind of an unbounded magnificence, how striking is the picture he draws of man as a mite, an infect, formed to behold and admire the immeasurably great and glorious theatre around him?

Why has the mighty Builder thrown aside
All measure in his work, stretch'd out his line
So far, and spread amazement thro’the whole?
Then, as he took delight in wide extremes,
Deep in the borom of the universe,
Dropt down that reas'ning mite, that infe&t, man,
To crawl, and gaze, and wonder at the scene *?

How much by the way are the lines of our English Poet in the spirit of the Hebrew Pfalmist? Psalm viii. 3. " When I consider the heavens, the ss work of thy fingers, the moon and the stars ss which thou hast ordained? What is man, that ss thou art mindful of him ? and the son of

man, ss that thou visitest him ? :s

“ There can be no means," says the Author of the Elements of Criticism, “ more successfully “ employed to sink and depress the mind, than “ grandeur and sublimity. By the artful intro- duction of an humbling object, the fall is great “ in proportion to the former elevation : of this « doctrine, SHAKESPEAR affords us a beauciful « illustration in the following passage ; S4

The • Young's Night Thoughts, Night is.

The cloud-capt tow'rs, the gorgeous palaces,
The solemn temples, the great globe itself,
Yea all which it inherit shall diffolve;
And, like the baseless fabric of a vision,
Leave not a wreck behind *.

« The elevation of the mind in the former part of this beautiful passage makes the fall

great in proportion, when the most humbling s of all images is introduced, that of an ut66 ter dissolution of the earth and its inhabi$6 tants.

“ A sentiment makes not the same impression " in a cool state, that it does when the mind is “ warmed; and a depressing or melancholy fen"timent makes the strongest impression, when “ it brings down the mind from its highest state is of elevation or chearfulness t."

* Tempeft, act 4, scene 4.
+ Elements of Criticism, vol. i. page 300.

CHAPTER XVIII.

The CLIMAX considered.

$.1. The Climax defined. § 2. Instances of it from

DEMOSTHENES, CICERO, and TILLOTSON. $ 3. Examples from the sacred Writings. $ 4.

A free A free kind of Climax observed and defined, with various instances. $ 5. Observations upon this Figure.

. CL YLIMAX *, according to Mr BLACK

Wall's definition, is, “ when the word “ or expression, which ends the first member of « a period, begins the second, and so on; so that “ every member will inake a distinct sentence,

taking its rise from the next foregoing, till “ the argument and period be beautifully finish" ed : or, in the terms of the schools, it is when " the word or expression, which was predicate " in the first member of a period, is subject in o the second, and so on, till the argument and “ period be brought to a noble conclusion t.”

$ 2. “Gradation, says Cicero, is that Figure

in which the Orator proceeds not to the next « word in order, before he has first returned “ back to the word foregoing. For what hope " is there remaining of liberty, if whatever is “ their pleasure it is lawful for them to do; if “ what is lawful for them to do they are able « to do; if what they are able to do they dare “ to do; if what they dare to do they actually « do; and if what they actually do is no way « offensive to you? So again ; industry was the « fource of AFRICANUS's virtue, his virtue was

o the

• From xAsfat, a scale, or gradation.
+ BLACKWALL: Introduction to the Classics, page 223.

e the source of his glory, and his glory was the “ fource of his envy. And again; the empire “ of Greece was first in the hands of the Athenians, the Athenians were conquered by the Spartans, the Spartans were subdued by the « Thebans, the Thebans were vanquished by the • Macedonians, who in a short time annexed to & the Grecian empire that of Asia, which they re• duced to their dominion by the power of the c sword *.”

“ There is also a Figure, says HERMOGENES, “ remarkable and well adapted for illustration, " which is stiled a Climax. This Climax is no“ thing else than a copious repetition; as when “ DEMOSTHENES says, Not only did I not speak “ these things, but I did not write them; not

only did I not write them, but I did not make “ them a part of my embassy; and not only did 46 I not make them a part of my embassy, but I “ did not so much as advise them t."

CICERO

Gradatio eft, in qua non ante ad confequens verbum descenditur, quàm ad superius conscensum et, hoc modo: pam quæ reliqua fpes manet libertatis, fi illis, & quod libet, licet ; & quod licet, poffunt; & quod possunt, audent; & quod audent, faciant; & quod faciunt, vobis moleftum non eft ? Item, Africano indoftria virtutem, virtus gloriam, gloria æmulos comparavit. Item, imperium Græciæ fuit apud Athenienses, Atheniensium potiti sunt Spartiatæ, Spartiatas fuperavere Thebani, Thebani Macedones vicerunt, qui ad imperium Græciæ brevi tempore adjunxerunt Afiam bello fubactam. Cicer. ad HERENNIUM, lib. iv. § 25.

+ Εν των επιφανως καλλωπιζοντων ετι μετα εναργειας, και

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