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And pour'd her rays, that shone serenely bright,
In the poem, intitled, Bishop Ridley's Ghost, printed in the year 1745, we have the following Periphrafis :
Her court *, detested fight! exulting (warm’d
I shall conclude the instances of circumlocution, as used for the purposes of elegance and beauty, with some lines that I have somewhere met with, in which our country is thus described :
This royal throne of kings, this scepter'd isle,
* Διχομηνης ολον χρυσαρμαδοΕσπερας οφθαλμον ανεφλεξε μηνα. .
Olymp. od. iii. ver. 35, 36. Mr BLACKWALL, by some pas optar pov, understands the even. ing-Aar, as is evident from his translation of the passage,
The night's bright empreis, in her golden car,
Kindles fresh beauties in the eye of Hepper. * Queen Mary's.
$ 4. Many are the examples of this Figure, that might be produced from Scripture, but the following shall suffice : Job iv. 19. sOur bodies
are stiled houses of clay ;' and 2 Cor. v. i. * The earthly house of this tabernacle. The grave is described, Job xi. 21. as ss the land of * darkness, and the shadow of death; a land of
darkness, as darkness itself, and of the shadow 35 of death, without any order, and where the
light is as darkness. David's resolution not to go to his house, and go to rest, is expressed in a Periphrasis: Psalm cxxxii. 3, 4. " Surely, I ss will not come into the tabernacle of my house, ss
nor go up into my bed : I will not give sleep
to mine eyes, or slumber to mine eye-lids, ss until I find out a place for the Lord, an hass bitation for the mighty God of Jacob:' and Foll. xxiii. 14. " Behold, this day, says Joshua, I
am going the way of all the earth ;" that is, I am about to die. * The Disciple whom Jesus
loved, and who leaned on his breast at supper," is a Periphrasis of the Apostle John, John xxi. 20. And Fob xviii. 13.
ss the plague," or some very deadly disease, is ftiled " the first-born of death ;" and verse 14. Death is stiled " the king of ter
$ 5. LONGINUS has a section upon the Periphrasis, which I shall give my Readers. “None, “ in my opinion, can doubt whether the Peri
phrasis is not a source of fublimity. For as in “ music, an important word is rendered more sweet Q3
“ by the divisions which are run barmoniously upon “.it; fo a Periphrasis sweetens a discourse, car. “ ried on in propriety of language, and contributes “ very much to the ornament of it, especially if “ there be no jarring or discord in it, but every
part be judiciously and musically tempered. PLATO " is fufficient to confirm this observacion, from « a passage in the beginning of his Funcral Orar “tion. They truly receive from us the honours f they deserve; and, after they have received " them, they go the way that fate ordains ; “ being led out publickly by the city, and pri“vately by their friends. He calls Death, the ♡ way that fate ordains; and funeral rites, he © ftiles a public fonducting from our country. Does “not PLATO greatly heighten the sense by these - means ? he takes a common low thought, and ” enriches, it with melody and sweetness.
In “ like manner XENOPHON says, you think labour “ the guide to a pleasant life : your souls are en “ dowed with the best qualification, and what be
comes warriors. You prefer fame to every other c confideration. In the room of, you love to la« bour, he uses a Periphrafis, and says, you think « labour the guide to a pleasant life; and, by a ¢ like circumlocution, he gives a sublimity to his “ praise *.”
* Και μεντοι, Περιφρασις ως εχ υψηλοποιον, εδεις αν, οιμαι, δισαειες. Ως γαρ εν Μασικη δια των Παραφωνων καλυμενον ο κυριο- φθογ© ηδιων αποτελειται, ε1ως η Περιφρασις πολλακις συμφθείγεται τη κυριολογια, και εις κράμσν επιπολυ συνοχει:
$ 6. The uses of this Figure may be learnt from its definition. I will add, that the Periphrafis not only guards our discourses from offence, and beautifully embellishes them, but that it also gives an agreeable variety to our compositions, and sometimes, as LONGinus has shewn, conduces much to elevate them. But let us beware of a cumbrous circumlocution of words, without any of the abovementioned uses answered by them, some instances of which we have in Mr Pope's Art of Sinking in Poetry. Who would think that the following lines,
Bring forth some remnant of Promothean theft
By Boreas' rude breath,
και μαλισα αν μη εχη φυσωδες τι και αμεσον, αλλ' ηδεως κεκραμενον. ΙκανG δε το1ο τεκμηριωσαι και Πλαίων κατα την Σισβολην τε Επιταφια, Εργω μεν ημιν ουδ' εχοσι τα προση« κοντα σφισιν αυτοις, ων, τυχοντες πορευονία, την ειμαρμενης
πορειαν προπεμφθενες κοινη μεν απο της πολεως. ιδια δε
εκατG- απο των προσηκούλων.” Ουκ αν τον θαναλον ειπεν, κς
ειμαρμενην πορειαν,” το δε τετυχηκεναι των νομιζομενων,
προπομπην τινα δημοσιαν υπο της πατριδο-.” Αρα δη τετοις μετριως ωγοσε την νοησιν και η ψιλην λαων την λεξιν εμελοποιησε, καθαπερ αρμονιαν τινα τη την εκ της Περιφρασεως περιχεαμένGευμελιαν. Και Ξενοφων,
« Πονον δε το ζην ηδεως ηγεμονα νομι. ζεθε καλλισον δε πανίων και πολεμικωταθλον κτημα εις τας ψυχας συσκεκομίσθε επαινέμενοι γαρ μαλλον, η τοις άλλοις απασι χαιρείε:” Αντ8, πονειν θελεήε,” το
ωανον ηγεμόνα το ζην ηδεως ποιειθε,” ειπών, και τ' αλλ' ομοίως επεκτεινας, μεγαλήν τινα εννοιαν τω επαινω προσπεριωρισαίο. LosG1Nυς de Sublimitate, $28.
And after having read over these stately verses,
Apply thine engine to the spungy door,
And strip white Ceres of her nut-brown coat, does it not amaze us to find that nothing more is meant than, uncork the bottle, and chip the bread?
Let us always be solicitous rather to rise in sense than in sound, and by no means let the last be suffered to exceed the first.
06 There is more danger, says LONGINUs, in a Periphrafis than « in any other Figure, unless it be used with
" moderation. An injudicious Peripbrasis is *“ spiritless, and is at no great remove from
empţiness and stupidity. Hence the Critics “ have bantered Plato (who frequently ems ploys this Figure, but in some places unsea“ fonably) for saying that we ought tQ take
not to suffer either filver. or golden o'riches to settle themselves in a city. In like “ manner, says a Critic upon him, if he had
prohibited the possession of sheep and oxen, “ he had called them beef and mutton riches *."
Επικηρον μενοι το πραγμα η Περιφρασης των αλλων πλεον, , ει μη συμμετρως τινι λαμβανουλοευθυς γας αβλεμες προσπιπίει, κυφολογιας τε οζον και παχυταίον. Οθεν και τον Πλάτωνα (δειγG- γαρ αει σερι χημα, και τισιν ακαιρως) εν τοις νομους λεν γονία, ως agyugov
δει πλείον, εθε χρυσεν εν πολει ιδρυμενον εαν οικειν," δια χλευαζεσιν ως, " ει προβαλα, φησιν, και βες, εκωλυε κεκτησθαι, δηλον, οι προβατειον αν και βοπλείον ελεγεν. . LONGINUS de Sublimitate, $29.