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“ sovereign power bears along with him the 5 minds of his hearers 7."
ή Αποδειξιν ο Δημοσθενης υπερ των σεπολιτευμενων εισφερει τις ην η καλα φυσιν χρησις αυλης και εχ ημαρτελε, ω τον
υπερ της των Ελληνων ελευθεριας αγωνα αραμενοι εχετε δε
οιχεια τελο παραδειγματα εδε γαρ ου εν Μαραθωνι ημαρτον, « βυδ' οι εν Σαλαμινι, εδ' οι εν Πλαταταις.” Αλλ' επειδη (καθαπερ ιμιευθεις εξαιφνης υπο θεε, και οιονει φοιβοληπτG» γενομενο-) τον των αρισεων της Ελλαδος ορκον εξεφωνησεν,
οπως ήμαρτελε, και μα τες εν Μαραθωνι προκινδυνευσανίας, φαινεται δι' εν©· τα ομοτικα χημα», οπερ ευθαδε Απορροφης εγω καλω, τες μεν προγονες αποθεωσας, (οι δει τες εως αποβανοντας ως Θεας ομνύναι σαριανων) τοις δε κρινεσι το των εκει προκινδυνευσ αυλων ενδιθεις φρονημα, την δε της αποδειξεως φυσιο μεθεσακως εις υπερβαλλον υψών και παθώ, και ξενων και υπερφυων ορκων αξιοπιςιαν, και, αμα σαιωνειον τινα και αλεξιφαρμακον εις τας ψυχας των ακαονίων καθιεις λογον ως κεφιζομενες υπο των εγκωμιων μηδεν ελασίον τη μαχη τη στρG- Φιλιππον, η επι τοις καλα Μαραθωνα και Σαλαμινα νικηθηροις, παρισαθαι φρονειν. Oις σασι της ακροαίας δια τα χρηματικο συναρπασας wxt10. LONGINUS de Sublimitate, $ 16.
The PERIPHRASIS considered.
$ 1. The definition of a Periphrafis. § 2. Exam
ples of it in the first view from Livy, Cicero, and Tillotson. 3. Instances of it in the fecond view from STATIUS, VIRGIL, PINDAR, &c. § 4. Examples of this Figure from Scripture. Ø 5. A pasage from LONGINUS upon the Periphrafis. $ 6. Its' use, with remarks upon
$1. P Eriphrafis * is a Figure
in which we use more words than what are absolutely necessary, and sometimes less plain words, either to avoid some inconvenience and ill effect which might proceed from expressing ourselves in fewer or clearer words, or in order to give a variety and elegance to our discourses, and multiply the graces of our composition.
§ 2. We have a fine example of this Figure, in the first view of it, in the speech of VIBIUS Virius; who, in his exhortation to the senators of Capua to poison themselves in order to prevent
From wigoppasw, I speak in a circumlocution.
their falling alive into the hands of the Romans, particularly describes the miseries from which the draught of poison would deliver them, and disguises the horrors of death, or at least suffers it not to come into sight by an express mention of it. “ Having feasted yourselves, says he, “ with wine and food, the cup in which I will « drink to you shall be handed round. That
draught shall free your bodies from pain,
your minds from reproaches, and your eyes “ and ears from the sight and hearing of all that “ bitter and ignominious usage, which you must “ endure by being made captive to your eñe.' « mies."
CICERO, by making use of a circumlocution, mentions nothing of the killing Clodius, though that event seems to be in his view : “ The ser“ vants of Milo, says he, for I do not speak “ with a design to throw off the crime from them “ to others, but according as the event really
happened, did that without the order, know“ ledge, or presence of their master, which every “ one would be willing his own servants should “ do in the like circumstances t."
• Satiatis vino ciboque poculum idem quod mihi datum fuerit, circumferetur. Ea potio corpus ab cruciatu, animum à contumeliis, oculos, aures à videndis audiendisque omni. bus acerbis indignisque quæ manent vi&os vindicabit. Liv. lib. xxvi. $ 13
+ Fecerunt id fervi Milonis, dicam enim non derivandi criminis caufa, fed ut factum eft, neque imperante, neque
May we not consider the following passage in. Archbishop TILLOTSON as a Periphrafisy in which, as one obferves *, “Death is the principal thought us to which all the circumitances of the circumlo"cutions chiefly refer," and yet death is not so much as mentioned? “When we consider that " we have but a little while to be here, that we
are upon our journey to our heavenly country, “ where we fhall meet with all the delights we “ can desire, it ought not to trouble us much « to endure storms and foul ways, and to want “ many of thofe accommodations we might ex
pect at home. This is the common fate of « travellers; and we must take things as we find “ them, and not look to have every thing just ૮
to our mind. Thefe difficulties and inconve“niencies will shortly be over, and after a few « days will be quite forgotten, and be to us as « if they had never been. And when we are ” safely, landed in our own country, with what “ pleasure shall we look back on those rough « and boisterous seas we have escaped + ?”
$ 3. Nor are there wanting examples of the Periphrafis in the other view of it, I mean, as giving a variety and elegance to our discourses, and multiplying the graces of our compositions.
faciente, neque præfente domino, quod fuos quifque fervos in tali re facere voluisset. Cicer. pro Mio: $ 10.
• SMITH's Translation of LONGINUS, P. 121. + TILLOTSON on Phil, ili: 26." vol. i. p. 298. Ocavo edit. The rising of the sun, or the morning, is thus magnificently described by STATIUS:
Aurora, rising from her eastern bed,
VIRGIL, instead of saying it is near sun-set, thus deferibes that season of the day,
See from the villas tops the smoke ascend,
PINDAR thus represents the moon at full :
The full-grown moon upon her throne of gold
* Et jam Mygdoniis elata cubilibus alto
Impulerat cælo gelidas Aurora tenebras,
Statii Thebaid. lib. ii. ver. 134. + Et jam summa procul villarum culmina fumant, Majoresque cadunt altis de montibus umbra.
VIRGIL. Eclog, i, ver, 83, 84,