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* sufficient answer. I allow that many inen, " eminent for their genius and their virtue, -“ have appeared in our world; and that they, “ without any instruction, and by the almost
divine impulse of their own nature, by theni“ felves alone, have attained to their wisdom and “ worth. I will add also, that nature without
learning oftener raises a character to glory and “ virtue, than learning without nature: but still “I maintain it, that when the right method 66 and habit of education have been superadded “ to a genius great and noble in itself, I know “ not what eminency, and almost miracle, has * blazed out upon mankind t."
§ 3. We shall now produce some examples of this Figure in the sacred Writings. Isaiah
ss But Zion faid, The Lord hath forss faken me, and my Lord hath forgotten me. ss Can a woman forget her fucking child, that ss she should not have compassion on the son of
+ Quæret quispiam quid ? Illi ipsi fummi viri, quorum virtutes literis proditæ sunt, iltarie doctrina, quam tu laudibus effers, eruditi fuerunt ? Difficile eft hoc de omnibus confirmare. Sed tamen certum eft quod respondeam. Ego multos homines excellenti animo, ac virtute fuisse, & fine doctrina, naturæ ipfius habitu prope divino per seipsos & moderatos & gravés exstitisse fateor. Etiam iilud adjungo, sæpius ad laudem atque virtutem, naturam fine doctrina, quàm' fine naturâ valuiffe doctrinam. Atque idem ego contendo, cum ad naturam eximiam atque illustrem accesserit ratio quædam conformatioque doctrinæ ; tum illud nescio quid præclarum, ac fingulare folere exfiftere. CICER. Orat. pro ARCHIA Poet,
s her womb ? yea, they may forget, yet will ss not I forget thee." So Rom. vi. 1. ss What ss shall we say then? Shall we continue in sin, * that grace may abound? God forbid ;'s or far be the thought from us. ss How shall we that $s are dead to sin, live any longer therein ? ss In like manner, Rom. ix. 19. ss Thou wilt say then » unto me, Why doth he yet find fault? for who ss hath resisted his will ? Nay but, О man, who · art thou that repliest against God? Shall the
thing formed say to him that formed it, why hast ss thou made me thus? Hath not the potter power ss over the clay, of the same lump to make one ss vessel unto honour, and another unto dishoss nour?' So 1 Cor. xv. 35---39. 's But some
men will say, How are the dead raised up? ss and with what body do they come? Thou
fool, that which thou sowest, is not quickened, s except it die ; and that which thou fowest, iss thou fowest not that body that shall be, but s bare grain; it may chance of wheat, or some ss other grain : but God gives it a body as it șs hath pleased hị, and to every feed his own s body.ss
$ 4. The use of this Figure is very considerable.
(1) By it attention is relieved, since the speaker, by the help of the Prolepfis, prevents a tedious uniformity in his address; and the hearer may be much entertained by finding, that the orator departs for a while from the usual order and form
of discourse, to indulge a kind of familiar dialogue.
(2) By this Figure the speaker gains the reputation of foresight and care. The Prolepsis shews that the orator is master of his subject, and that he has a full view of its connexions and confequences, in that he fees what may be objected against, as well as what may be alledged for his cause.
(3) This Figure manifests the assurance of the speaker, that truth and justice are on his side: he fears not an objection; he starts it himself, he dares to meet and encounter it, and will shew his audience how effectually he can disarm and difsolve it. But by the way, let the speaker take heed how he raises an objection that he cannot entirely refute: if he does this, he will be like a man who vain-gloriously challenges an enemy to fight with him, and urges him to the combat, and then is shamefully overcome by him. And besides, if an objection is not well answered, the whole cause may be brought into suspicion, and truth may
suffer through the folly. (4) When the speaker appears desirous to represent matters fairly, and not to conceal any objection that
may be made against his discourse, such a conduct may tend to secure the favour of his auditory, as it carries with it the face of a commendable impartiality. And,
(5.) and Lastly, By this Figure some advantage is gained over an adversary. He is prevented in his exceptions, and either confounded and si
lenced, or obliged to a repetition, which is not likely to be so striking and forcible as the mention of a thing fresh and untouched before +.
+ Mirè vero in caufis valet presumptio, quæ proantos dicitur, cùm id quod objici poteft, occupamus. Quintil. lib. ix. cap. 2. !.
The SYNCHORESIS considered.
$ 1. The definition of the Synchoresis. § 2. Ex
amples of it from Cicero, CATO, and VIRGIL. $.3. Instances from Scripture, with remarks.
$1. Synckerefis * is a Figure whereby we grant
or yield up something, in order to gain a point, which we could not so well secure without it +.
§ 2. When Cicero pleaded for Flaccus, his business was to invalidate the testimony of the
Greeks, * From ov xwgew, I grant.
+ Permissio est cum oftendimus in dicendo nos aliquam rem totam tradere & concedere alicujus voluntati. Cicer. ad He: RENNIUM, lib. iv. n. 29.
Greeks, who were witnesses against his client. Effectually to do this, he depretiates the Greeks in general, as men far from being conscientious in matters of truth and integrity; but observe how his oration glides, as it were, through a stream of profuse praises to this harsh point, a point fo injurious to the characters of the Greeks, but yet
so very important to the interests of his friend. “ But this I say concerning all the “ Greeks; I grant them learning, the know
ledge of many sciences; I don't deny but " they have wit, fine genius, and eloquence :
nay, if there are any other excellencies to ” which they lay claim, I shall not contest their ☆ title. But that nation never studied religion • and sincerity in giving evidence, and are total
strangers to the obligation, authority, and ims portance of truth *"
Such an appearance of candor and veracity evidently tends to remove the suspicion of partiality, and to give the speaker weight and credit in what he says.
There is an amazing force in a passage in CATO's speech, concerning the punishment of the traitors in Catiline's conspiracy, which manifestly arises from the Figure upon which we
* Vero tamen hoc dico de toto genere Græcorum : tribuo illis litteras, & multarum artium disciplinam ; non adimo sermonis leporem, ingeniorum acumen, dicendi copiam. Denique etiam, fiqua fibi alia fumunt, non repugno: testimoni. orum religionem & fidem nunquam ista natio coluit; totiusque hujusce rei quæ fit vis, quæ auctoritas, quod pondus, ig. norant. Cicer. pro Flacco, $ 4.