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Leave it to wifer Heav'n to weigh your fate,
To order your beft good, and fix your ftare *.

« The method of anticipating objections,” says QUINTILIAN, " is not without its advan“ tage; as'when Cicero says, that some per“ fons may wonder that he who had for so

many years employed himfelf in the defence «. of many, and had accused none, should now 66 undertake the accusation against VERRES. “ Presently after the Oratot fhews, that this “ very conduct of his was virtually a defence, a “ defence of the Roman allies. This Figure, " adds QUINTILIAN, is stiled a Prolepsis

I will give more largely what Cicero fay's upon this occasion, as I am very certain that the pafsage is an illustrious proof of the genius and address of the Orator ; after I have only obferved, that Cicero's design in his oration was to set aside CÆCILIUS, who had been Quaestor in Sicily in the time of VerŘES, from being the agent in the cause against him, and to obtain from the judges the appointment of himself (CICERO) to this office.

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Nil ergo optabunt homines ? Si confilium vis,
Permittes ipsis expendere numinibus, quid
Conveniat nobis, rebusque sit utile noftris.

JUVENAL, Sat. x, ver. 346. # Non inutilis etiam est ratio-occupandi quæ videntur obftare ; ut Cicero dicit fcire se mirari quofdam, quod is qui per tot annos defenderit multos, læferit neminem ad accufandum versem descendere ; deinde oftendit hanc ipfam fociorum defenfionem effe. Quod schema w gornelos dicitur. QUINT. lib. iv, cap. 1. $6.

“ If any of you, O my judges, or of the “ other persons present, should be surprised that “I, who have for so many years fo conducted “ myself in causes, and public trials, -as that « I have defended many, and injured - none, ~ should now suddenly alter' my course, and “ turn accuser, such a person, upon being made " acquainted with the reason and motive of my “ proceeding, will at once both approve what “ I am now doing, and will infallibly determine " that there is no manager in this cause 'to s be preferred before me. After I had been « Questor, O my judges, in Sicily, and had left " that province with a fragrant and lasting re“ membrance of my office and of my name “ among the inhabitants, the consequence was, " that as they considered their principal fecu“ șity as lying in their many ancient patrons, so

they apprehended that some protection of “ their fortunes might be expected from my“ self. Accordingly these people being plun-' “ dered and distressed often applied publickly “ and in a body to me, to undertake their de« fence in a cause in which their whole fortunes “ were embarked. They alledged, that I had “ often promised them, often declared to them,

that, if ever an opportunity offered in which

they should require my help, I should not be “ wanting in my fervices to them : they repre“ fented, that the time was now come in which “ I might not only do them a kindness, but protect their lives, and the welfare of the

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" whole province; that they had no Gods left « them even in their cities, whom they might “ implore in their distress; that Caies VERRES « had robbed their moft holy shrines of their “most holy images ; that they had suffered,

during the three years of his Pretorship, " whatever miseries the excess in wickedness, “ the cruelty in punishments, the avariçe in: “ rapine, and the pride of insolence could heap upon

them; and that they now befought and “implored that I would not reject their fuit, 6. since, if I would but be their friend, there « would be no necessity for making any further “ applicationI own, O my judges, that it " was a very heavy and bitter affliction to me, " when I found myself reduced to this dilemma, " that I must either disappoint the hopes of « those persons who had entreated my aid and « support, or that I, who had devoted myself « from my earliest youth to the defence of " mankind, should be constrained by the neces"sity of the occasion, and a regard to my duty, " to step forth asian accuser. I pleaded that " they had an agent in Quintus CÆCILIUS, " who might be the more proper person, as he ", came after me in the. Questorship in Sicily. “? But what I suggested, in hope it might be an « expedient for extricating me from my diffi« culty, only the more embarassed me; for the

Sicilians would have much more readily have 6 excused me if they had never known him, or “ if he had never been Queftor among them.'

« Influenced

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« Influenced therefore, O my judges, not “ merely by the opportunity of serving my

friends, but from a sense of duty, honour, humanity, the examples of many worthy men,

ancient precedent, and the institutes of our « ancestors, I now undertake this very weighty cs and laborious service : in which however I « have this comfort, that what may wear the « face of an accusation, may more properly be " esteemed a defence. I defend many men,

many cities, the whole province of Sicily : “ and therefore though it fo falls out that I « must accuse a single man, yet

I

consider my“ self in a manner as pursuing my first track of « life, and not at all departing from the protec6c tion and assistance of mankind *."

I will

*și quis veftrùm, judices, aut eorum qui adfunt, forte miratur, me, qui tot annos in caufis judiciisque publicis ita fim versatus, ut defenderim multos, læferim neminem, fübito nunc mutata voluntate ad accufandum defcendére; is, fi mei confilii causam rationemque cognoverit, una & id quod facio probabit, & in hac caufa profectò neminem præponendom ellë mihi actorem putabit. Cum quæftor in Sicilia fuiffem, judices, itaque ex ea provincia deceßiffem, ut Siculis omnibus jacundam, diuturnámque memoriam quæfturæ, nominisque mei relinquerem. Factum est, uti cum suinmum in veteribus patro. nis multis, tum nonnullum etiam in me præfidium fuis fortunis conftitutum elle arbitrarentur : qui nunc populatis ata que vexati, cuncti ad me publicè sæpe venerunt, ut fuarum fortunarum omnium causam defenfionemque fufciperem. Me fæpe effe pollicitum, fæpe oftendiffe dicebant, fi quod tempes accidiffet, quo tempore aliquid à me requirerent, commodis eorum me non defuturem. Venisse tempus aiebant, non jam

I will add one more instance of the Prolepsis from this great Author : “ Some one, says he, « will ask, What? were those excellent men, “ whose virtues are upon record, were they in“ deed possessed of that learning you so highly “ extol? I grant it would be difficult to prove “ this of every one of them : but yet I have a

6 sufficient

at commoda sua, sed ut vitam falutemque totius provinciæ defenderem ;, fese jam ne Deos quidem in fuis urbibus, ad quos confugeret habere ; quod eorum fimulacra fan£tiffima C. Verres ex delubris religiofimis fuftulinet ; quas res luxurias ita Alagitíis, crudelita's in fuppliciis, avaritia in rapinis, fuperbia în contumeliis efficere potuisset, eas omneis sese hoc uno prætore per triennium pertulisie ; rogare & orare, ne illos fupplices, aspernarer, quos me incolumi, nemini supplices esse oporteret. Tuli graviter & acerbe, judices, in eum me locum adductum, ut aut eos homines fpes falleret, qui opem à me & auxilium petissent, aut ego qui me ad defendendos homines ab ineunte adolescentia dediilem tempore atque officio coa&us ad accufandum traducerer. Dicebam, habere eos actorem Q. Cæcilium, qui præfertim quæstor in eadem provincia poft me quæftorem fuiffet. Quo ego adjumento sperabam hanc à me moleftiam poffe dimoveri, id mihi erat adversarium maxime ; nam illi multo mihi hoc facilius remififfent, fiftum non nosfent, aut fi ifte apud eos quæstor non fuisset,

Addu&tus fum, judices, officio, fide, misericordia, multorum bonorøm exemplo, veteri consuetudine, institutoque majorum, ut onus hoc laboris atque officii, non ex meorum neceffariorum tempore mihi fufcipiendum putarem. Quo in negotio tamen illa me res, judices ! consolatur, quod hæc. quæ videtur accusatio mea; non potius accusatio, quam defenfio eft existimanda. Defendo enim multos mortales, multas civitates, provinciam Siciliam totamie Quamobrem fi mihi unus eft accusandus, propemodum manere in instituto: meo videor, & non empino à defendendis hominibus, sublevandisque dif, cedere. CICER. Oras, in QCæcilium, $ 1.

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