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(3) The Apophasis may be à grateful surprise to our audience, and powerfully operate upon their minds. While they hear us saying, We omit such and such things, or we shall not touch upon them, or we shall not mention them, we appear to them as if we thought the things which we pretend to wave were light and inconsiderable; when, to their astonishment (and astonishment will always be attended with a strong impression) they are evidently very weighty and momentous. Arguments delivered in this unexpected manner, fall like accidental fire from heaven, which strikes much more powerfully than the regular expanded lustres of the day.

I shall only add, that I have somewhere found it observed concerning the Apophasis, that it is principally used on the following occasions; either when things are small, but yet necessary to be mentioned ; or well known, and need no enlargement; or ungrateful, and therefore should be introduced with caution, and not set in too strong a light: though I might add, that the very caution with which we employ the Apophasis, may give it the speedier passage into the soul, and ensure and augment its influence over the person to whom it is directed, as may be easily 'observed in the above-cited instance from the Apostle Paul, in his Epistle to PHILEMON..



The ANACOENOSIS considered,

§ 1. The definition of the Anacoenosis. § 2. In

stances of it from QUINTILIAN, Cicero, and Virgil. $ 3. Examples of this Figure from the sacred Writings. 4. The various use of the Anacoinofs.

$". A Nacoenolis " is a Figure by which

the speaker applies to his hearers or opponents for their opinion upon the point in debate ; or when a person excuses his conduct, gives reasons for it, and appeals to those about him whether they are not satisfactory.

$.2. QUINTILIAN both describes this Figure, and furnishes us with some very suitable examples. « That Figure, says he, is called commu< nication, when we either consult our adversa« ries, as Domitius Afer pleading for Cloan“ TILLA: But she being timorous, is ignorunt what « liberty a woman may take, or what may be be« coming in a wife ; perhaps in that folitude for

M 2

4 tune

* From aranowow, I communicata

tune has cast you in the way of that miserable

woman: but you, brother, and you, paternal friends, what advice do you give ? or when we,

as it were, deliberate with our judges, which is “ very frequent: What do you persuade ? and I ask you, what then ought to be done? As when “ CATO says, Tell me, if you were in my place, 6 what would you have done ? and elsewhere,

Suppose it was a common affair, and that the " management was intrusted to you

CICERO makes use of the same Figure in his Oration for CÆCINA: “ For suppose, Piso, that “ any person had driven you from your house by « violence, and with an armed force, how would

you have behaved †?” Another example may be produced from the fame Orator : “ But

what could you have done in such a case, and as at such a juncture ? when to have fat still, « or to have withdrawn, had been cowardice'; " when the wickedness and fury of SATURNINUS

" had

quo schemate non procul abeft illa

dicitur communicatio, cùm aut ipfos adversarios consulimus, ut Domitius Afer pro Cloantilla: At illa nescit trepida quod liceat feemina,' quod conjugem deceat; fortè vos in illa solitudine obvios casus nxiseræ mulieri obtulit. Tu, frater, vos paterni amici, quod consilium datis ? aut cum judicibus quafi delibe. ramus, quod est frequentiflimum; Quid fuadetis ? & vos in terrogo; Quid tandem fieri oportuit ? Ut Cato; cedo, fi vos in eo loco effetis, quid aliud feciffetis ? & alibi; communem rem agi putatote ; ac vos huic rei propofitis effe. QUINTIL. lib.ix. cap. 2. § 1.



+ Etenim, Piso, fi quis te ex ædibus tuis vi, hominibus armatis dejecerit, quid ageres ? Cicer, pro CÆCINA, n. 31.

* had fent for you into the capitol, and the Conist suls had called you to protect the safety and “liberty of your country, whose authority, 66 whose voice, which party would you have “ followed, and whose orders would you have “ chosen to obey *?"

Nor has Oratory only adopted this Figure, but we shall find it also in Poetry; as where VIRGIL, in his Pastoral, introduces TITYRUS as saying,

What could I do? No other way appear'd
To lead to liberty : nor could I find
A God like him so present to my aid t.

$ 3. Examples of the Anacoenofis might be furnished in great variety from the sacred Writings. As in Isaiah v. 3, 4. 's And now, O inha* bitants of Jerusalem, and men of Judah, judge,

I pray you, betwixt me and my vineyard : ss What could have been done more to my vine" yard, that I have not done ? - So Fer. xxiii. 23. ss Am I a GoD at hand, faith the Lord, and # am I not a GoD afar off? Can any hide him

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s felf

* Tu denique quid faceres tali in re, ac tempore ? cùm ignaviæ ratio te in fugam, atque in latebras impelleret : improbitas & furor L. Saturnini în capitolium arcefferet ; Consules ad patriæ falutem & libertatem vocarent ; quam tandem auc.. toritatem, quam vocem, cujus feciam fequi, cujus imperio parere potiffimùm velles? CICER. pro C. RABIRIO, n. 8. + Quid facerem? Neque fervitio me exire licebat; Nec tam præsentes alibi cognoscere Deos.

VIRGIL, Eclegii, yer, 41.

s self in secret places, that I shall not fee him, $faith the LORD? Do not I fill heaven and

earth, faith the LORD ?" And it is told us, Aets iv. 19. that ss Peter and John answered and # said to them," to the Jewish council, " whether ss it be right in the sight of God to hearken unto s you more than unto God, judge ye.s So Çor, iv. 21. s What will ye? Shall I come unto you is with a rod, or in love, and in the spirit of

meekness ? ss and Gal. iv. 21. ss Tell me, ye that s desire to be under the law, do ye not hear ss the law ?


§ 4. The use of this Figure seems to lie,

(1) In its familiarity. It has something of the air of conversation; and though discourses ought not to be turned into mere conversation, yet a proper and decent mixture of such a sort of freedom entertains our hearers, both on account of its variety, and its apparent condescension and good-nature.

(2) This Figure pays a compliment to our audience, in that there is an appeal made to their judgment, their equity, and good disposition, Deference and honour are shewn to the persons we address, and our hearers are pleased with our modesty and submission,

(3) In the Anacoenofis there appear a great regard to truth, and an assurance of the goodness of our cause. We are fo fully satisfied that justice is on our side, that we venture the matter for a de, cision to the common principles and dictates of reason and equity:

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