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Archbishop Tillotson employs this Figure, when he fays, “ What is it then can give men " the heart and courage ; but I recal that word, “ because it is not true courage, but fool-hardi
ness, to outbrave the judgments of God?”
Terence gives us an instance in the following speech of a distressed father :
I have one only fon, a lovely youth:
Cicero makes use of this Figure, when he fays, “ Can you be ignorant, among the public 46 conversation of the city, what laws, if they $6 are to be called laws, and not rather the fire66 brands of Rome, and the plagues of the com« monwealth, this Clodius designed to fasten s and fix upon us + ?”
Again, in the defence of PLANCIUS, he says, “ For what greater blow could those judges, if
they are to be called judges, and not rather « parricides of their country, have given to the
Filium unicum adolescentulum
Terent. Heautontimoroum. + Veftræ peregrinantur aures, neque in hoc pervagato civitatis fermone verfantur, quas ille leges, fi leges nominandæ funt, ac non faces urbis, & peftes reipublicæ, fuerit impositurus nobis omnibus, atque inusturus. CICER: pra Mil. $ 12.
•« state, than when they banished that very man
(meaning OPIMIUS) whọ when Praetor deli
livered the republic from a neighbouring, " and who when Consul saved it from a civil
We may furnish another instance of this Figure from Cicero: “ C. CÆSAR," says he, (meaning Avgustus) though but a youth, nay “ almost below that age, inspired with an in“ credible and divine spirit and courage, at that very
time when the fury of Antony was at its height, and when his cruel and pernicious return “ from Brundufum was so much dreaded, when “ we neither solicited, nor imagined, nor de6 “ sired it, because it seemed utterly impractica« ble, raised a most powerful army of invinci« ble veterans, for which service he threw away “ his own estate ; but I have used an improper " word, he did not throw it away, but he « bestowed it for the salvation of the common6 wealth t."
• Quam enim illi judices, fi judices, & non parricidæ patriæ nominandi funt, graviorem potuerunt reipublicæ infligere fecurim, quam, cum illum à civitate ejecerunt, qui Prætor finitimo, Consul domestico bello rempublicam liberaret. CiCER. pro Planc. 29.
+ C. Cæsar adolescens, pænè potiùs puer, incredibili, ac divina quadam mente, atque virtute, tum cum maximè fu. ror arderet Antonii, cùmque ejus à Brundufio crudelis & pefcifer redditus timeretur, nec poftulantibus, nec cogitantibus, ne optantibus quidem nobis, quia fieri poffe non videbatur, firmiffimum exercitum invicto genere veteranorum militum xvi. 32.
3. This Figure we meet with in Scriptirre, and that in the following different forms.
(1) When what was spoken is simply corrected and retracted, and what is more proper and significant is inserted in its room. Jobn
ss Behold the hour comes, ss says. our LORD, s yea is now come, that ye shall be scatss tered away, every man to his own house, and * fhall leave me alone; and yet I am not alone, & because the Father is with me ;s that is, Christ would be left' intirely alone as to men, though in that solitude he should still enjoy the company of his divine Father. So Gal. i. 6. * I si marvel,“ says the Apostle Paul, - that ye are us fo foon removed from him who called
into is the grace of Christ unto another gofpel : s but that the Apostle might not seem to intimate that there were more gospels than one, he adds, s which is not another ; ss and that he might explain the revocation of what he had faid, he subjoins, ss but there be some that trou* ble you, and would pervert the gospel of is CHRIST." As if he should say, “there is but “ one gospel, and if any one preaches different “ from it, he does not preach another, but cor
rupts the truth of that one gospel.”
(2) Another form of this Figure, is, when the preceding word is corrected by express comparifon, and hereby our language acquires a nobler
comparavit, patrimoniumque fuum effudit. Quanquam non sumus uti verbo quo decuit. Non enim effudit, sed in salute reipublicæ collocavit. Pbilip. iii. n. 2.
and fuller sense. Rom. viii. 34. ss Who is he ss that condemns? It is Christ that died; yea, s rather that is risen again, who is even at the
right hand of God, who also makes intercessssion for us.ss So Gal. iv. 9.
ss But now after s that ye have known God, or rather are known ss of him.ss
(3) Another scriptural form of this Figure is, when something laid down or affirmed, is retracted by the conjunctive particle if. Gal. iii.4. ss Have
ye suffered so many things in vain? if it si be yet in vain.ss " Let me recal that word, as if the Apostle had said; “ you have even fustained real detriment and damage."
« That ( is said to be done in vain,” says Beza upon the place, “which rewards us with no fruit of « our labour : but the Galatians, by falling off « from the truth of the gospel, not only had re“ceived no fruit for the affictions they had suf« fered for the sake of the gospel, but had also « sustained a great loss. And to be hurt con“ 'veys 'more in its idea than not to be pro<fited *."
$ 4. The use of this Figure may lie in 'the pleasing unexpected interruption it gives to the
* Nam fruftra fieri dicitur ex quo nullus percipitur fructus. At Galatæ à sana doctrina desciscentes non modò nullum fructum percepissent ex ærumnis quas antea ejus doctrina causâ pertulerant, fed etiam magnam jacturam feciffent. Plus est autem lædi quam non juvari. Beza in loc.
current of our discourses, by turning the stream as it were for a moment back upon itfelf. This Figure also shews the attention and accuracy of the speaker, in that he appears immediately aware of objections that may be made against what he is offering, and shelters himself from their force. Let me observe further, that whoever duly examines the instances that have been given will find that the sense is enhanced by these corrections, or at least is more advanta geously received ; and it is certainly in some Gafes wiser to raise our sense by degrees, than crowd it all at once upon our audience. As the ideas gradually open, so the mind also gradually opens by this Figure, till we have agreeably and fully imbibed, and, as it were, abforbed a fpeaker's whole meaning, Water bursting in an hasty flood upon the mouth of a vial will certainly be wasted ; and we can only hope to fill it by a gentle and leisurely infusion. I fall add, with Mr BLACKWALL, that “ the unex
pected quickness of the recollection and turn “ in this Figure pleasingly surprises the Reader, « and all of a sudden fires him with the Au
thor's own passion. The height of this Figure is, when a person, having lately, declared
an inclination to a thing, presently rejects it is with horror, and vows against it with impre16 cations." Of this fort Mr BLACK WALL gives an instance from Dido's speech in VIR