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Here Dido is represented in the greatest perplexity, and gloomy vicissitude of mind. Her first thought is to make her addresses to her former lovers, that, with their assistance, as we may suppose, she might be able to revenge herself upon Æneas. Her next suggestion is to fly to the Trojan ships, but she is deterred by the fear of affront and abuse. Her third proposal is to go after the Trojans, but this by no means suits her dignity. Presently she changes her project to that of arming her people, and pursuing the Trojans with the whole force of her kingdom, but this she judges to be impractica- ble: therefore dropping all these schemes, the at last proposes to kill herself, and so put an end to her distresses. ?, · Livy has given us a very fine example of this Figure in a speech of Scipio AFRICANUS to his soldiers, when, calling them together after a fedition, he thus befpeaks them: “ I never thought

I should have been at a loss how to address << my, army. Not that I have applied myself « more to words than things; but because I 66 have been accustomed to the genius of fol6 diers, having been trained up in the camp al

mis

most

Quid tum ? Sola fuga nautas comitabor ovantes : cui
An Tyriis, omnique manü ftipata meorum , op i
Insequar ? Et quos Sidonia vix urbe revelli, in
Rursus agam pelago, & ventis vela dare jubebo, : : :
Quin morere, ut merita es, ferroque averte dolorem..

VIRGIL. Æneid. lib. iv, ver. 533.

VIRGIL. Æneid 1:1

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« most from my childhood. But I have now “ neither wisdom nor words in which to speak “ to you, nor do I know what name to give you. “ Shall I call you citizens, who have revolted « from your country? or shall I call you sol66 diers, you who have renounced the authority " and auspices of your General, and violated “ your military oath? or shall I stile you ene6 mnies ? I own you have the form, the look, " the habit of citizens; but I observe in you the " actions, the words, the designs, and the spirit « of enemies tai

§ 3. This Figure frequently occurs in Scripture. The following instances taken from it shall suffice: 1 Cor. xi. 22. s What shall I fay ss unto you? Shall I praise you in this? I praise so you not.ss So Lam. ii. 13." What thing shall s I take to witness for thee? What thing shall I • s liken to thee, o daughter of Jerusalem? What w shall I equal to chee, that I may comfort thee,

# Nunquam mihi defuturam orationem qua exercitum *meum alloquerer credidi, non quod verba unquam potius

quam res exercuerim, fed quia prope à pueritia in caftris habitus affueveram militaribus ingeniis, apud quos quemadmodum loquar, nec confilium, nec oratio fuppeditat, quos nec quo nomine quidem appellare habeam, scio. Cives! qui à patria veftra defciviltis. An milites ? qui imperatoris imperium aufpiciumque abnuiftis, sacramenti religionem rupiłtis. Hoftes? corpora, ora, veftitum, habitum civium agnosco ; facta, dicta, conflia, animos hostium video. Luv, lib. xxviii. cap. 27.,.,, ..

35. O virgin daughter of Zion? for thy breach is s great, like the fea, who can heal thee Ass So Psalm cxxxix. 70.5 Whither shall I go from thy ss spirit ? or whither shall I flee from thy press fence? If I ascend up into heaven, thou art ss there : if I make my bed in hell, behold thou 35. art there. If I take the wings of the morn- . ssing, and dwell in the uttermoft parts of the ss sea; even there shall thine hand lead me, and $$' thy right hand shall hold mę.ss The devout Pfalmift, overwhelmed with the sense of the divine Omnipresence, looks round the universe, and asks, whither he can hy to escape his God? but neither heaven, earth, nor hell,--throughout their vast unknown spaces, can provide him with a retreat from the all-pervading presence of Deity, isoli . ... .

$ 4. As to the use of this Figure, when it respects the Orator's perplexity where to begin his discourse, it may be à mean of making his audience more readily believe that what he says is true *, and filling them with an apprehension of the weight of his subject. Or this Figure, at the entrance of an address, may shew a diffidence of mind; and this is so far from being unbecoming, that it may sometimes be graceful;

and

• Affert aliquam fidem veritatis & dubitatio, cùm fimuJamus quærere nos incipiendum, ubi desinendum ; quid po. tiffimum dicendum, an omnino dicendum fit. QUINTIL, lib. ix. cap. 2.

and, as it carries in it an air of modesty, may very much tend to engage the affections of the audience. When this Figure expresses our doubtfulness upon a pressing difficulty, it is a true picture of nature; for what is more common, than for a man in a distressing strait to take up a purpose, and then lay it aside, and afterwards to , think of another expedient, as for a inoment he supposes, and then as suddenly to change it'; and thus to undergo conflict and struggle, till he comes to a final determination? I will only add, that this Figure keeps the soul in eager attention, and raises the tenderest compassion and sympathy for amiction. And it is no wonder, that, as Cicero informs us, the above-mentioned speech of GRÀCCHUS, being uttered with the advantages of a proper look, voice, and gesture, made even his enemies burst into tears t. . . . . . . .

+ Quæ fic ab illo acta esse' conftabat oculis, voce, gestu, inimici ut lacrimas tenere non poffent. Cicer. de Orat. lib, iji. $ 56. .!!

CHAPTER

CHAPTER IV.
The EPANORTHOSIS considered.

$ 1. The definition of the Epanorthosis. $2. Ex

amples from Milton, TILLOTSON, TERENCE, , and Cicero. § 3. Instances from Scripture.

$ 4. The use of the Epanorthosis.

$1. T HE Epanorthosis * is a Figure where

1 by.we retract or recal what we have spoken or resolved t.

TON

52. Milton furnishes us with an example of this kind, in a speech of Adam after his fall :

First and last On me, me only, as the source and spring Of all corruption, all the bane light 's due, So might the wrath !--Fond with ! could'st thou sup

- port That burden, heavier than the earth to bear, Than all the world much heavier ?

Archbishop * From spavogbow, I correct. ... ,

+ Correctio eft quæ tollit id quod di&tum est, & pro eo id quod magis idoneum videtur reponit. Cicer, ad Herren. lib. iv. ģ 26.

I Paradise Loft, book x. line 831.

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