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Here Dido is represented in the greatest perplexity, and gloomy vicissitude of mind. Her first thought is to make her addresses to her former lovers, that, with their assistance, as we may suppose, she might be able to revenge herself upon Æneas. Her next suggestion is to fly to the Trojan ships, but she is deterred by the fear of affront and abuse. Her third proposal is to go after the Trojans, but this by no means suits her dignity. Presently she changes her project to that of arming her people, and pursuing the Trojans with the whole force of her kingdom, but this she judges to be impracticable: therefore dropping all these schemes, she at last proposes to kill herself, and so put an end to her distresses.
Livy has given us a very fine example of this Figure in a speech of Scipio AFRICANUS to his soldiers, when, calling them together after a fedition, he thus bespeaks them : “I never thought " I should have been at a loss how to address
my army. Not that I have applied myself “ more to words than things; but because I « have been accustomed to the genius of sol“ diers, having been trained up
Quid tum? Sola fuga nautas comitabor ovantes?: sui
VIRGIL. Æneid. lib. iv, ver. 533.
“ most from my childhood. But I have now - neither wisdom nor words in which to speak " to you, nor do I know what name to give you.
Shall I call you citizens, who have revolted “ from your country? or shall I call you sol“ diers, you who have renounced the authority " and auspices of your General, and violated “ your military oath ? or shall I stile you ene66 mies? I own-you have the form, the look, u the habit of citizens; but I observe in you the " actions, the words, the designs, and the spirit < of enemies t.
§ 3. This Figure frequently occurs in Scrip
The following instances taken from it shall fuffice: 1 Cor. xi. 22. " What shall I fay » unto you? Shall I praise you in this? I praise
you not." So Lam. ii. 13.5 What thing shall ss I take to witness for thee? What thing thall I * liken to thee, O daughter of Jerusalem ? What * fhall I equal to chee, that I may comfort thee,
+ Nunquam mihi defuturam orationem qua exercitum meum alloquerer credidi, non quod verba unquam potius quam res exercuerit, fed quia prope à pueritia in caftris habitus affueveram militaribus ingeniis, apud quos quemadmo. dum loquar, nec confilium, nec oratio fuppeditat, quos nec quo nomine quidem appellare habeam, fcio. Cives! qui à patria veftra defcivistis. An milites i qui imperatoris imperium aufpiciumque abnuiftis, sacramenti religionem rupistis. Hoftes? corpora, ora, veftitum, habitum civium agnosco ; facta, dicta, confilia, animos hoftium video. Luv, lib. xxviii. cap. 27.....
3. O virgin daughter of Zion for thy breach is
great, like the fea, who can heal thee?ss So Psalm cxxxix. 7..Whither shall I go from thy
spirit? or whither shall I fee from thy press fence? If I ascend up into heaven, thou art ss there : if I make my bed in hell, behold thou ss. art there. If I take the wings of the morn
ing, and dwell in the uttermoft parts of the ss sea; even there shall thine hand lead me, and
thy right hand shall hold me." The devout Pfalmift, overwhelmed with the sense of the divine Omnipresence, looks round the universe, and asks, whither he can fly to escape his GOD? but neither heaven, earth, nor hell, -throughout their yast unknown spaces, can provide him with a retreat from the all-pervading presence of Deity,
$ 4. As to the use of this Figure, when it respects the Orator's perplexity where to begin his discourse, it may be à mean of making his audience more readily believe that what he says is true *, and filling them with an apprehension of the weight of his subject. Or this Figure, at the entrance of an address, may shew a diffidence of mind; and this is so far from being unbecoming, that it may sometimes be
sometimes be graceful;
• Affert aliquam fidem veritatis & dubitatio, cùm fimulamus quærere nos incipiendum, ubi definendum ; quid po. tiffimum dicendum, an omnino dicendum fit. QUINTIL lib. ix. cap. 2.
and, as it carries in it an air of modesty, may very much tend to engage the affections of the audience. When this Figure expresses our doubtfulness upon a pressing difficulty, it is a true picture of nature; for what is more common, than for a man in a distressing strait to take up a purpose, and then lay it aside, and afterwards to think of another expedient, as for a inoment he supposes, and then as suddenly to change it ; and thus to undergo conflict and struggle, till he comes to a final determination? I will only add, that this Figure keeps the soul in eager attention, and raises the tenderest compassion and sympathy for affliction. And it is no wonder, that, as CICERO informs us, the above-mentioned speech of GRACCHUS, being uttered with the advantages of a proper look, voice, and gesture, made even his enemies burst into tears t.
+ Quæ fic ab illo acta effe conftabat oculis, voce, gefta, inimici ut lacrimas tenere non possent. Cicer. de Orat. lib. iji. $ 56.
The EPANORTHOSIS considered.
$ 1. The definition of the Epanorthosis. § 2. Ex
amples from Milton, Tillotson, TERENCE, and Cicero. $ 3. Instances from Scripture. $ 4. The use of the Epanorthosis.
1. HE Epanorthosis * is a Figure where
by.we retract or recal what we have spoken or resolved +.
$ 2. Milton furnishes us with an example of this kind, in a speech of Adam after his fall:
First and last
Archbishop * From maroplow, I correat.
+ Correctio eft quæ tollit id quod dictum est, & pro eo id quod magis idoneum videtur reponit. Cicer, ad HERREN. lib. iv. ; 26.
I Paradise Lost, book x. lire 831,