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ftoning or killing a person with stones, though the death was occasioned by clods or tiles *. Thus we often speak of a silver or iron inkborn. In the faine manner a person inay be called a parricide, who murders his mother, or brother, or sister, though the word parricide properly signifies a person who murders his father, for, as there is no appropriate word to denominate the murderer of other near relations, and as the guilt in all the cases is most enormous, and somewhat similar, the impropriety vanishes, and readily yields to the force of necessity.
(2) A Catachrefis borrows the name of one thing to express another ; which thing, though it has a name of its own, yet under a borrowed name surprises us with novelty, or infuses into our discourses a bold and daring energy. Thus VIRGIL says,
The goat himfelf, man of the flock, had stray'd t. by man, evidently intending the father and leader of the flock. So again,
The Grecian Chiefs, thro’ten revolving years,
Nam & qui jaculum emittit, jaculari dicitur ; quia pilam aut fudem appellatione privatim fibi affignata caret. Er ut lapidare quid fit manifeftum eft, ita lapidare glebarumque teftarumque jactus non habet nomen.
Unde abufio quz Catachrelis dicitur necefragia. Quintit. lib. viii. cap. 2.
+ Vir gregis ipse caper deerraverat
VIRCIL. Eclog. vii. ver. 7.
(PALLAS inspir'd her wisdom) build an horse, That feem'd a mountain for enormous fize *.
The same word is used by JUVENAL concerning the high head-dress of the ladies at Rome in
With curls and ribbands high her head she builds f.
Thus Milton, describing the Angel RA-
Here the novelty of the word fails infuses that spirit and pleasure into the description which would have been loft, if the Poet had said flies between worlds and worlds.
Horace makes use of the same Trope ;
The east-wind rides the mad Sicilian waves il.
Where the riding of horsemen is applied to the swift course of the east wind over the stormy deep.
* Dactores Danaûm, tot jam labentibus annis, Inftar montis
divina Palladis arte, Ædificant.
VIRGIL. Æneid. ii. ver. 14. * Tot premit ordinibus, tot adhuc compagibus altum
JUVENAL. Sat.vi. ver. 501. I Paradise Los, book v. ver. 266.
Horat. Od. lib. iv. od. 4.
The fame Poet says,
which is a bold Catachress, as blood and anointed lie very remote from one another in signification.
The facred Scriptures will furnish us with many instances of this Trope. Lev. xxvi.
30. ss And I will cast your carcafes upon the car* cases of your idols ;" that is, upon the ruins of your idols, which shall be as much destroyed as the body is when it is slain, and become a dead carcafe. So Deut. xxxii. 14. we read of ss the fat of kidneys of wheat, and drinking the
pure blood of the grape." Fat may be ascribed to wheat, because it makes fat; or hereby the finest part of the wheat may be intended : and kidneys of wheat, may intend kernels of wheat, in bigness like a kidney. The juice that is pressed from the grape
is said to be the blood of the grape, either because its colour is like blood, or because it is to the grape what blood is to the body, its life and excellency.
In like manner, Pfalan lxxx. 5. we read of being " fed with the bread ss of tears; that is, with bread washed with
So the thanksgivings of the lips, Hofea
Horat. Od. lib. ii, od. d.
Thould be holy, should be large, should be the best that could be offered, like those of calyes or heifers killed in facrifice. But the boldest Catacbrefis perhaps in all the holy Scriptures is in i Cor. i. 25. 5 Because the foolishness * of God, says the Apostle, is wiser than 'men, ss and the weakness of God is stronger than si men ;s that is, what men are apt to account foolifhness in God furpasses their wisdom, and what they may be ready to misconstrue as weakness in God excels all their power.
be observed from what has been faid, when it is that a Catachresis is allowable, namely, when it borrows the name of one thing to express another, which either has no proper name of its own, or if it has, the borrowed name strikes us with an agreeable novelty or energy. Whenever there is a Catachresis without this necessity or advantage to vindicate and warrant it it degenerates into a blemish and difgrace to composition ; and therefore Mr Pope has not without reason branded such Catachreses as follow with infamy, Mow the beard, Jhave the grass, pin the plank, nail the sleeve. You know there are other natural words by which these actions may be expressed, and therefore there is no need of such Catachreses from any deficiency in language. And as to the pleasure of such Tropes, as that ingenious Satirist observes, " there results much the same to the mind as " there is to the eye, when we behold Harlequin trimming himself with an hatchet, hew
ing down a tree with a razor, making his tea - in a cauldron, and brewing his ale in a tea65 * »
$ 4. Upon á review of our account of the Tropes of Rhetoric, we may see the justice of Mr BLACKWALL's observation, that “it is plain “ there is a general analogy and relation be“ tween all Tropes; and that in all of them a “ man uses a foreign or strange word instead of “ a proper one, and therefore says one thing, “ and means fomething different. When he
says one thing, and means another almost the “ fame, it is a Synccdoche or Comprehenfion ; when “ he says one thing, and means another mutu
ally depending, it is a Metonymy; when he
says one thing, and means another opposite or “ contrary, it is an Irony; when he says one “ thing, and means another like to it, it is a
Metaphor; a Metaphor continued, and often s6 repeated, is an Allegory; a Metaphor, carried “ to a great degree of boldness, is an Hyper« bole; and wlien at first found it seems a litcle “ harsh and shocking, and may be imagined to
carry some impropriety in it, it is a Catas6 chresis t."
$ 5. The celebrated Vida has given us fuch a very just and beautiful account of the nature
• Pope's Art of Sinking, vol. vi. page 191.